Path Lecture: Physical Injury, Environmental, and Nutrition

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created 7 years ago by jgaversa5
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1

why would we call this climate change

trapping of infrared rays changes everything, from rain to evaporation, to wind pattern

2

what is the evidence of climate change

accelerated rise 1.08 degrees in 50 years

allergic effects due to climate change wind pattners

3

where is climate change most notable

temperate zones

4

what is the thought behind correlation with CO2 rise and temperature rise

CO2 gas trapping IR radiation

5

what is projected to happen due to climate change

global temperature rise 2 to 5 degrees by 2100

6

what are the effects of climate change

metahne gas released from frozen tundra

heat waves

pepole with chronic respoiratory and heart disease have problems

infectious disease

7

what are some examples of how climate change has affected infectious disaeee

insect borne diseaseses: hantavrius proliferation due to loss of normal preddators and icnreased nuts of white footed mouse

deer tick: ECN erythema chronica nigrans

mosquito: west nile virus mroe common in droughts due to standing water

8

what is ozone

O3

9

what does O3 act as

filter of UV light

10

what depletes ozone in our atmorphere

CFCs; Cl displaces oxygen

11

what has happened as a result of ozone eradication

incrased incidence of melanoma: 2% increase per 1% loss of ozone

12

what are the consequences of ozone depletion

...

13

can ozone act as an air pollutant

causes irritation to respriatory diseas affected patients, especially in the summer

14

what categorizes mechanical injuryand the effect it can have

shape of colliding object, how the object is moving, and whether the person is moving when the object hits him or her and where it is striking the body

15

what are some categories of blunt force trauma

abrasion
contusion
laceration

16

what is liver mortis

when patient dies, blood will pool in body

17

what is an abrasion

basically a scrape; superficial epidermis is torn off by friction or force

18

is there scarring in regeneration from an abrasion

not usually

19

what is a contusion

an injury caused by blunt force that damages small blood vessels and causes interstitial bleeding, usually wihtout continuity of the tissue

blood is extravasated, not like liver mortis

20

what is a laceration

caused by something tearing the tissue or skin (stretching it really) and you often see blood vessels and other things bridging the wound

21

can you get lacerations in internal organs

oh yes: liver, spleen etc

22

what is usually true of the wound margins of lacerations

frequently hemorrhagic and traumatized

23

what are some potential wound types from sharp instruments

penetrating and perforating (stab) wound
incised wound

24

are stab woundes "deeper" or "longer"

deeper

25

are incised wounds "deeper" or "longer"

longer

26

how will an incision look if it is cut perpendicular to elastic fibers/langers lines

rounded

27

how will an incision look if it is cut parallel to elastic fibers/langers tissues

very thin

28

what are the two types of wounds to look for in a gunshot wound

entrance wound
exit wound

29

what will the hole of an entrance wound typically look like

smooth and round because the bullet is still moving gyroscopically well

30

if a bullet wound is from close range, what will you problably get

searing of the skin and smoke (thaoling)

31

what is thaoling

grayish or blackish discoloration most notably considered with entrance GSWs

32

what does stippling look like

shading in small dots

33

what is a werid conformation of how exit woudns can end up

"stellate" appearance, looks like a burst

34

what type of entrance wound could look like an exit wound

if skin is right on the bone

35

are exit or entrance wounds sloppier

exit wounds generally

36

what is usually around close range gunshot wounds

powder burns

37

what is another name for localized hyperthermia

thermal burn

38

what are the degrees of burns

1-4

39

what is characteristic of a first degree burn

erythema (redness)

40

what is damaged in a first degree burn

epidermis only; preserve small blood vessels

41

what is characteristic of a second degree burn

supraepidermal bulla, necrotic epidermis

42

what is characteristic of a third degree burn

burn goes down into the dermis; "full thickness"

43

what layer of the skin is involved in a third degree burn

hypodermis

44

what layers are involved in a fourth degree burn

tendons etc

45

what are the systemic effects of extensive burns

...

46

who is at risk for generalized hyperthermia

...

47

what is heat stress

...

48

what is heat exhaustion

...

49

what is heat stroke

...

50

what is multi organ dysfunction sysdrome

...

51

what are some examples of localized hypothermia

frostbite
trenchfoot

52

who is at risk for generalized hypothermia

...

53

what is the pathophysiology of generalized hypothermia

...

54

what are the sources of radiation

...

55

what are the important parameters in measuring radiation with regard to humans

exposure
absorption
dose

56

what is a curie

...

57

what is a gray

...

58

what is a sievert

...

59

what are the categories of factors that influence physical effects of radiation

source factors
target factors

60

what are the source factors influencing physical effects of radiation

...

61

what are the target factors influencing physical effects of radiation

...

62

what is the direct vs indirect radation effect

...

63

how do acute and chronic radiation exposures differ

...

64

what is the nulcear and DNA damage associated with radiation exposure

...

65

what is the cytoplasmic daamge associated with radiation exposure

...

66

what is the tissue/organ injury associated iwth radiation exposure

...

67

what are the cancers with strong associations with radiation exposure

...

68

what is the current estimate of incidence of obesity in the uS

...

69

what is the current estimate of incidence of obesity in children

...

70

what is the bMI equation

...

71

what is considered a healthy BMI

...

72

what is considered an overweight BMI

...

73

what is considered an obese BMI

...

74

what is considered extreme obese GMI

...

75

what are the limitations of BMI

...

76

what are the fat distribution risk categories

android vs gynoid
peripheral vs central (visceral)

77

is android or gynoid fat worse

...

78

is peripheral or central fat worse

...

79

what is the pathogenesis of obesity at its core

energy balance

80

what are the afferent signsling problems of obesity

...

81

what are the central processing problems of obesity

...

82

what are the efferent signaling problems of obesity

...

83

what are some categories of reasons for energy imbalance in the obese

biochemical and genetic

societal and behavioral

84

what are the main complications of boesity

...

85

how are primary and secondary protein energy malnutrition divided

...

86

what are the causes of secondary malnutrition

...

87

what are the effects of generalized malnutrition on visceral protein compartments

...

88

what are the effects of generalized malnutrition on somatic protein compartments

...

89

what is marasmus

...

90

what is the pathogenesis of marasmus

...

91

what are the features of marasmus

...

92

what is the definition of kwashiorkor

...

93

what is the pathogenesis of kwashiokor

...

94

what are the features of kwashiorkor

...

95

what is cachexia

...

96

what is a vitamin

...

97

what are the gneral aspects of fat soluble vitamins

...

98

what are the sources of vitamin A

...

99

what is the difference between pre formed and provitamin A

...

100

what are the functions of vitamin A

...

101

what are the consequences of vitamin A deficiency

...

102

what are the signs and symptoms of vitamin A toxicity

...

103

how are pregnancy and vitamin A tied together

...

104

how do you assess vitamin A staus

...

105

what are some sources of vitamin D

...

106

what is the action of vitamin D

...

107

what is the vitamin D receptor

...

108

what are the vitamin D responsive elements and gene products

...

109

what will result from vitamin D deficienciy in children

rickets

110

what is rickets' symptoms

...

111

what will result from vitamin D deficiency in adults

osteomalacia

112

what are the symptoms of osteomalacia

...

113

what are some other potential roles of vitamin D and consequences of deficiency

...

114

what test should you order to assess vitamin D status

...

115

what are the controversies over vitamin D sufficiency and recommended daily intake

...

116

what happens in vitamin D toxicity

...

117

what are the types of vitamin E

tocopherol and tocotrienols

118

what are the food sources of vitamin E

...

119

what are the functions of vitamin E

...

120

how does vitamin E act as an antioxidant

...

121

what will happen in a vitamin E deficiency

...

122

are vitaimn e deficiencies rare

yes

123

what are some conditions associated with vitamin E deficiency

...

124

what are the effects of vitamin E deficiency

...

125

what are the effects of vitamin E toxicity

...

126

what are the major forms of vitamin K

...

127

what is the major form of vitamin K in plants

phylloquinone

128

what is the major form of vitamin K in bacteria

menaquinone

129

how can we get vitamin K

diet or gut bacteria

130

how do we get vitamin K in the diet

...

131

how do we get vitamin K in the gut bacteria

...

132

what are the functions of vitamin K

...

133

how are vitamin K carboxylase and coagulation related

...

134

what are some other potential effects of vitamin K

...

135

what happesn in a vitamin K deficieciy

...

136

is true vitamin K deficiency common in adults

no

137

how can iatrogenic vitamin K deficiency be instituted

warfarin therapy

138

how does warfarin therapy coincide with vitamin K deficiency

...

139

what is associated with newborns and vitamin K

...

140

is vitamin K toxic

not really

141

what are the general aspects of water soluble vitamins

...

142

what is vitamin C

ascorbic acid

143

what is vitamin C derived from

glucose

144

can humans make their own vitamin C

no, they lack the necessary enzyme

145

what is the chemical property of vitamin C

donates/accepts H

146

is vitamin C an anti-oxidant

yes

147

is vitamin C heat labile or stable

labile

148

what destroys vitamin C

sun exposure

149

what are some sources of vitamin C

...

150

what are the functions of vitamin C

...

151

what is from a vitamin C deficiency

scurby

152

what happens in scurvy

...

153

can you get vitamin C deficiency

...

154

what are the B vitamins

B1: thiamine

155

what are the forms of thiamine

TPP
thiamin

156

what are some sources of thiamine

...

157

how does alcohol affect thiamine absorption

...

158

how does thiamine play into other major metabolic pathways

...

159

what is a thiamine deficiency called

beriberi

160

what are the CNS effects of beriberi

...

161

what is wernicke's encephalopathy

...

162

what is korsakoff psychosis

...

163

what is vitamin B3

niacin

164

what are the forms of niacin

nicotinica acid, nicotinamide

165

what are the sources of niacin

...

166

what are the functions of niacin in the body

over 200 enzymatic reactions as NAD or NADP (redox potential)

167

what is the niacin deficiency state called

pellagra

168

what are the 4 D's of pellagra

...

169

what can high dose niacin act as

cholesterol lowering drug