Culture and Diversity

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1

All of the ways in which people are different.

This includes individual, group, and cultural differences

Diversity

2

Our way of life, including everything learned, shared, and transmitted from one generation to the next.

Culture

3

The different lifestyles, traditions, and perspectives that can be found in the US and throughout the world.

Cultural Landscape

4

Young people, who are "native speakers" of the language of computers, video games, and Internet

Digital Natives

5

All of the ways in which people are different

Diversity

6

Language, beliefs, rules

Culture

7

An estimated ____ languages are spoken throughout the world.

7000

8

Maria is a member of the “baby-boom generation.” Unlike the children of today, she was not born into the digital world but learned the language as well as the new technology later in life. Thus, we can refer to Maria as a ____

Digital Immigrant

9

According to U.S. Census data cited in the text, which of the following are included among the top ten names in the U.S.?

Rodriguez, Smith, Williams

10

The U.S. Census data indicates that most of the population now lives in ____ areas

Urban

11

Racial and ethnic minorities now make up approximately ___ of the U.S. population.

One-third

12

Approximately ___ of respondents identified themselves as members of more than one race in the 2000 U. S. Census.

3 percent

13

The U.S. demographic date indicates that women will make up almost ____ % of the labor force by the year ____

50;
2050

14

_______ is the author of The World is Flat.

Friedman

15

According to Marshall McLuhan, technological advances have transformed our social world into a ____ ____

Global Village

16

As a global business, IBM finds that it must adapt to local cultures and practices. This blending of global and local ideas and practices is referred to as ____

Glocalization

17

Chapter One addresses a number of different reactions to our changing cultural landscape. Which reaction is most likely to lead to cultural misunderstandings and conflict?

Cultural Cruise Control

18

The term “melting pot” is most closely associated with ____

Assimilation

19

The image of a quilt made up of many different colors reflects which of the following views of diversity:

Pluralism

20

Dimension of diversity may be hidden or ____

Visible

21

Dimensions of diversity are found within ____ and ____

Individuals;
Groups

22

Dimensions of diversity include ____, ____, and ____

Race;
Social Class;
Learning Style

23

Diversity consciousness refers to ____, ____, and ____

Awareness;
Understanding;
Skills

24

Diversity consciousness is _______________

Important for all of us

25

True or False

According to the text, diversity refers to all of the ways in which people are different.

True

26

True or False

According to the text, diversity is a new phenomenon.

False

27

True or False

At the present, a majority of the U.S. population lives in rural areas.

False

28

True or False

Census 2000 data show that Asians and Pacific Islanders as well as Hispanics are the two fastest-growing minority populations in the U.S.

True

29

True or False

In the most recent Census, respondents could identify themselves as belonging to more than one racial category.

True

30

True or False

The glass ceiling refers to attitudes, policies, and procedures that have created more upper-level management opportunities for minorities and women.

False

31

True or False

Demographic data indicate that women, minorities, and people with disabilities will continue to account for the vast majority of new entries in the U.S. workforce.

True

32

True or False

Employment projections show that workers with disabilities will make up a much smaller percentage of the U.S. labor force in the years ahead.

False

33

True or False

According to Friedman, people and cultures are becoming more and more independent in the twenty-first century.

False

34

True or False

When cultural lag occurs, one part of a culture is not keeping pace with another part.

True

35

True or False

Shifting into “cultural cruise control” allows us to interact effectively in diverse settings.

False

36

True or False

Pluralism refers to the process by which people lose their cultural differences and blend into the wider society.

False

37

True or False

Assimilation refers to the process through which cultural differences are acknowledged and preserved.

False

38

True or False

Diversity consciousness means ignoring differences and treating everybody the same.

False

39

True or False

Race and gender are examples of master statuses.

True

40

True or False

According to the text, diversity is a new phenomenon.

False

41

True or False

One form of diversity education is study circles.

True

42

_____ _____ refer to people who are “native speakers” of the language of computers, video games, and the Internet, while the term _____ _____ refers to those people who were not born into the digital world but learned about the new technology later in life.

Digital natives;
Digital immigrants

43

In Chapter One, the author emphasizes the importance of developing a _____ perspective, meaning a view of the world and our place in it.

Global

44

Generally, high school dropouts and college graduates vary in their ability to access and use information and communication technologies. This gap is known as the _____ _____ .

Digital Divide

45

Malcolm assumes that his values, norms, and beliefs are universal. When he interacts with others, he is oblivious to any number of cultural differences. Malcolm’s inability to react and adjust effectively to different cultural situations is described in Chapter One as _________.

Cultural Cruise Control

46

People who were not born into the digital world but learned the language and the new technology later on life

Digital Immigrants

47

The growing interdependence of people and cultures

Globalization

48

A view of the world and our place in it

Global Perspective

49

A cultures openness to diverse influences and ability to blend foreign ideas and best practices with our own traditions

Glocalization

50

Condition in which one part of a culture is not keeping pace with another part

Cultural Lag

51

Attitudes and actions that block the promotion of women and minorities into top management positions

Glass Ceiling

52

The gap between people with regard to their ability to access and use information and communication technologies (ICT’s)

Digital Divide

53

Acting as if our own values, beliefs, and experiences are universal

Cultural Cruise Control

54

The process in which people lose their cultural differences and blend into the wider society

Assimilation

55

The process through which cultural differences are acknowledged and preserved

Pluralism

56

Specific traits viewed as distinguishing one person or group from another

Dimensions of diversity

57

Category of people who are perceived as physically distinctive on the basis of certain traits, such as skin color, hair texture, and facial features

Race

58

The consciousness of cultural heritage shared with other people

Ethnicity

59

Cultural differences that distinguish males from females

Gender

60

Things that people view as important or their general way of thinking

Values

61

Positions that stand out in the eyes of society and hide one’s individuality

Master Statuses

62

Understanding, awareness, and skills in the area of diversity

Diversity Consciousness

63

All of the strategies that enable us to develop diversity consciousness

Diversity Education

64

Flexible thinking, communication, teamwork, and leadership skills, as well as the ability to overcome personal and social barriers

Diversity Skills

65

One-fourth black, or having one black grandparent

Quadroon

66

One-eighth black, or having one black great-grandparent

Octoroon

67

Dimensions of diversity are in a constant state of ____

Flux

68

Interference among the duties associated with the multiple positions held by an individual

Role conflict

69

The process of achieving our goals

Success

70

A perspective that focuses on the social and cultural context of one's thoughts and actions

Sociocultural Theory

71

Omnipresent social influences that surround us, goes a long way toward explaining our attitudes, character, knowledge, feelings, and other individual attributes

Social Forces

72

Competencies that allow people to interact with others in a way that respects and values differences

Diversity Skills

73

The way we learn

Learning styles

74

Students who like to work with others to achieve a common goal and are more sensitive to the needs of others

Field dependent

75

Students who prefer to work independently and compete for individual recognition

Field Independent

76

Different intellectual strengths or intelligences

Multiple intelligences

77

What are three ways to increase success at school?

Ability to network and learn from others;
Ability to deal with barriers;
Ability to balance fitting in and being yourself

78

The process in which a person adjusts to another cultural environment without sacrificing his or her own cultural identity

Transculturation

79

What are three ways to increase success at work?

Interpersonal skills;
Flexible thinking skills and adaptability;
Teamwork skills

80

Groupings of people organized to achieve one or a number of goals

Organizations

81

Going along uncritically with the expectations of a group

Groupthink

82

Creating an environment that enables everyone to contribute to their full potential

Managing diversity

83

Activities aimed at promoting awareness and knowledge and building the skills necessary for operating in a multicultural and global environment

Diversity Training

84

The integration of online and traditional face-to-face approaches to learning

Blended learning

85

The use of dramatization and role playing to identify and remedy problems in relationships among individuals and groups

Sociodramas

86

People's morals or standards regarding the rightness and wrongness of certain human actions in light of specific circumstances.

Ethics

87

Set of attitudes and skills that make it possible for organizations and staff not only to acknowledge cultural differences but also incorporate these differences in working with people from various cultures

Cultural competence

88

Sociocultural theory focuses on the social context of one's ____ and ____

Thoughts;
Actions

89

Who theorizes that each of us possesses at least eight intelligences?

Howard Gardner

90

According to Daniel Goleman’s research involving more than 150 business firms, _______________ distinguishes average performers from “superstars.”

Emotional Intelligence

91

Rodney, who is working on a group project with a number of other coworkers in his department, has begun to feel that the rest of the group is not interested in his creative and sometimes outlandish ideas. Therefore, he finds it easier to keep quiet and go along with the group even if he disagrees. What is this an example of?

Groupthink

92

Communication and teamwork are competencies that allow people to interact in a way that values differences. Thus, these are examples of

Diversity Skills

93

According to Howard Gardner, there exist at least ____ intelligences.

8

94

_______ is the process by which a person adjusts to another cultural environment without sacrificing his or her cultural identity.

Transculturation

95

According to the text, diversity training has a positive impact when training is viewed as a ________ process

Long-term

96

In an experimental study by Robert Schulman of Georgetown Medical Center, doctors proscribed treatment for different actors posing as patients. Findings from the study revealed that the doctors in the study were less likely to recommend appropriate treatment for ____ and ____ patients.

Black;
Female

97

In Chapter Two, the companies Lockheed Martin, Morgan Stanley, and Coca Cola are discussed to illustrate what?

The costliness of lawsuits stemming from inadequate diversity consciousness

98

True or False

Sociocultural theory is a perspective that focuses on the social and cultural context of one’s thoughts and actions.

True

99

True or False

Transculturation is the process by which people sacrifice their own cultural identity in order to adjust to another cultural environment.

False

100

True or False

Diversity skills are those competencies that allow people to interact with others in a way that values differences.

True

101

True or False

Research shows that individuals can alter or expand their learning styles.

True

102

True or False

According to the text, research studies indicate that cultural upbringing plays a significant role in determining people’s learning styles.

True

103

True or False

Managing diversity means creating an environment that enables everyone to realize their full potential.

True

104

True or False

Employment discrimination lawsuits in the U.S. have resulted in awards in excess of $500 million.

True

105

True or False

According to Daniel Goleman, emotional intelligence is the ability to think things through by suppressing one’s own feelings.

False

106

True or False

Groupthink is one of a number of advantages afforded by a diversity conscious workforce.

False

107

True or False

Diversity training has a positive impact when training is viewed as an event rather than a process.

False

108

Communicating and teaming with coworkers and clients from different cultural backgrounds require competencies that allow us to respect and value differences. These competencies, as discussed in the text, are referred to as _____ _____.

Diversity Skills

109

According to the text, diversity consciousness consists of understanding of diversity, diversity skills, and diversity _____.

Awareness

110

Students who prefer to work by themselves and compete for individual recognition are described as being field _____.

Independent

111

As discussed in the text, _____ are groupings of people organized to achieve one or more goals.

Organizations

112

Today, companies are increasingly offering diversity training by integrating online and traditional approaches to learning. This is referred to as _____ learning.

Blended

113

Diversity training often focuses on how workers, customers, and clients may not necessarily share the same standards regarding the rightness or wrongness of certain behaviors, or what we refer to as _____.

Ethics

114

Individual factors that get in the way of our success

Personal Barriers

115

Factors that are external to the person and impede her or his success

Social Barriers

116

What are the 6 barriers to success?

Limited perceptions;
Prejudice;
Discrimination;
Ethnocentrism;
Prejudice plus power;
Stereotypes

117

The way in which we receive and interpret information from any of our senses

Perceptions

118

Focusing on things that support our thinking and ignore information that refutes it

Selective perception

119

The assumption that our way of thinking and acting is naturally superior to any other

Ethnocentrism

120

An unverified and oversimplified generalization about an entire group of people

Stereotype

121

The danger of not performing up to our ability because of our anxieties and fears about perpetuating a stereotype

Stereotype vulnerability

122

While English is used to conduct all federal government proceedings, this country does not have English as it's official language

United States

123

What term refers to the fear and hatred expressed towards people identifying as gay, lesbian, bisexual, or transgendered

Homophobia

124

As discussed in class, the business case for the effective management of diversity is supported by what two perspectives?

Ethics and Economics

125

Culture is ____

Embedded

126

Diversity equals ____

Difference

127

What are 3 ethical approaches to manage diversity?

The processes we follow;
The outcomes that we accomplish;
Demonstrating care for humanity

128

Unearned socially constructed advantage that gives group members economic, political and/or social power.

Privilege

129

An irrational and inflexible opinion formed on the basis of limited and insufficient knowledge

Prejudice

130

Unreasonable fear of foreigners

Xenophobia

131

The ability to influence and control others

Power

132

The thinking by those in power that certain types of people are inherently inferior

Isms

133

Discrimination based on the belief that once race is superior to another

Racism

134

Racism that is built into the systems of power and social institutions

Institutional racism

135

The unequal treatment of people on the basis of their group membership

Discrimination

136

The cumulative impact of encounters with barriers is much more than the sum of individual instances

Pyramiding effect

137

Unfairly blaming others for our own problems

Scapegoat

138

The social and cultural context of ones thoughts and feelings

Sociocultural Theory

139

Jordan is a student who has just begun taking courses at a nearby college. Because of Jordan’s limited interaction with people from diverse cultural backgrounds, he hesitates to venture too far out of his comfort zone. Specifically, he shies away from social gatherings and jobs where he anticipates meeting people that do not look or talk like him. Consequently, he has missed out on a number of opportunities to make new friends and expand his social network. Jordan’s experiences illustrate which of the following?

Personal Barriers

140

When we perceive what we want to perceive, this is called ____

Selective Perception

141

In his discussion of barriers to success, the author “places” the reader on campus at the University of North Carolina. Specifically, you are asked to evaluate a number of statues found on campus that were created to depict the diversity of the university’s diverse student population. The author cites this example to illustrate which of the following barriers?

Limited perceptions

142

What statement best illustrates ethnocentrism?

If you don't do it my way, it's not the right way

143

According to findings from The Pew Global Attitude Project, people in many of the countries surveyed agreed that “their culture is superior to others.” This attitude illustrates which of the following barriers?

Ethnocentrism

144

An unverified and oversimplified generalization about an entire group of people is called a ____

Stereotype

145

Joe is a college student majoring in business. Because he is extremely good-looking, people who do not even know him assume he is sociable, sensitive, and poised. What is this an example of?

Pyramiding Effect

146

Following the attacks on September 11, 2001, some Muslims living in the United States encountered a number of social barriers. In some cases, people prejudged and misjudged Muslims simply because of their appearance. What is this is an example of?

Prejudice

147

According to the text, prejudice can lead to what 3 things?

Innacurate judgements about people;
Coping fatigue;
Resentment and fear

148

In a well-known experiment conducted in the 1960’s, Jane Elliott sought to teach her third- grade students in a rural town in Iowa about the dynamics of prejudice. She did this by dividing her students according to _____

Eye color

149

When the economy took a turn for the worse, unemployed workers in a small town outside of Atlanta were both angry and frustrated. Unable to strike out at the real cause of their predicament, they unfairly blamed local immigrants for the fact that they did not have a job. What is this is an example of?

Scapegoating

150

The ability to influence and control others is the definition of ____

Power

151

In her interviews with the residents of Jasper, Texas, Dina Temple-Raston found that ____ viewed hate crimes as the work of individual racists in Jasper

Whites

152

Unequal treatment of people on the basis of their group membership is the definition of ____

Discrimination

153

What is an example of discrimination against women?

Denying women a job based on their assumed sexual weakness

154

While prejudice is a matter of _____, discrimination is a matter of _____

Attitude;
Action

155

An employer feels negatively toward employing older people. Nevertheless, he hires older people because of equal opportunity laws. What is this is an example of?

Prejudiced nondiscriminator

156

Often, Rivka is hesitant to ask questions in her advanced math class. Since it seems as if everyone expects her to perform poorly in math because of her gender, she rarely says anything. By not asking questions, she avoids the risk of being perceived as a low achiever when it comes to math. What is this is an example of?

Stereotype vulnerability

157

Hate crimes reflect the conflict and imbalance of power that has existed among races throughout the history of the U.S. According to this point of view, hate crimes are a reflection of _____ _____

Institutional racism

158

A landlord has no negative personal opinions toward Native Americans. However, many tenants have a deep-seated resentment toward members of this group. To avoid offending these tenants, the landlord does not rent to anyone who appears to be Native American. The landlord is a(n) ____

Unprejudiced discriminator

159

Paul is open-minded about the subject of homosexuality. However, his friends at school openly ridicule and tease those students who are openly gay. To be accepted by his friends, Paul usually joins in and treats gays in a similar fashion. In this example, Paul is

Unprejudiced discriminator

160

Roberto, a manager of a small firm that sells sports equipment, assumes that people with disabilities are more likely to miss work. Therefore, he avoids hiring individuals who appear disabled. Roberto is an example of

Prejudiced discriminator

161

The cumulative impact of encounters with prejudice, discrimination, ethnocentrism, and other social barriers is referred to as the

Pyramiding Effect

162

True or False

When we show ethnocentrism, we use our own cultural standards to determine what is right or normal.

True

163

True or False

Ethnocentrism is universal

True

164

True or False

The assumption that all Whites cannot be trusted is an example of a stereotype.

True

165

True or False

Xenophobia refers to people’s unreasonable fear of foreigners

True

166

True or False

Discrimination refers to an opinion that is both irrational and inflexible.

False

167

True or False

According to the text, personal barriers refer to those factors that are external to a person and impede her or his success.

False

168

True or False

In comparison to Whites, Blacks in the U.S. are more apt to see racism as built into social institutions.

True

169

True or False

Intragroup discrimination occurs between groups, while intergroup discrimination occurs within groups.

False

170

True or False

When we scapegoat, we unfairly blame others for our own problems.

True

171

True or False

A “culture of victimization” encourages us to look for simple answers to complex problems.

True

172

True or False

Prejudice is learned.

True

173

True or False

According to interviews conducted by Dina Temple-Raston, Blacks living in Jaspar, Texas, generally viewed the death of James Byrd as the work of a few, racist troublemakers.

False

174

True or False

Prejudice always leads to discrimination.

False

175

Those factors that are external to an individual and stand in the way of an individual’s success are known as _____ _____.

Social Barriers

176

In discussing personal and social barriers to success, the author of our text discusses the role of _____, or the way we receive and interpret information from our senses.

Perception

177

____________ is derived from two Latin words – prae (“before”) and judicum (“a judgment “).

Prejudice

178

Racism, sexism, and classism illustrate the interconnection between prejudice and ______________.

Power

179

The cumulative impact of encounters with prejudice, discrimination, and other barriers is known as the _________________

Pyramiding Effect

180

A lack of contact with cultures outside of our own

Cultural Encapsulation

181

The lifelong process of social interaction that enables us to learn about ourselves and others

Socialization

182

Out biological makeup

Nature

183

Those aspects of the environment that mold and shape us

Nurture

184

Immersion in a culture to the point where that way of life appears only natural

Enculturation

185

The degree to which we are willing to interact and develop relationships with certain racial and ethnic groups

Social Distance

186

A person's awareness of his or her own perspective of others

Double consciousness

187

The unequal distribution of resources, such as wealth, power and prestige

Social Inequality

188

The category of people who share similar amounts of wealth, power, and prestige

Social Class

189

An ideology that asserts superiority on the basis of age

Ageism

190

Those benefits in life that we have through no effort of our own

Unearned privileges

191

The thinking that one sex is superior to another and that unequal treatment is therefore justifiable.

Sexism

192

The thinking that one class is superior to another and that unequal treatment is therefore justifiable

Classism

193

A system in which people get ahead solely on the basis of merit

Meritocracy

194

The group with power and privilege

Majority

195

The group at a disadvantage in terms of power and privilege

Minority

196

The ability to freely question and evaluate ideas and information

Critical Thinking

197

Taking a more active role in hearing and digesting what is being said as well as encouraging the speaker

Active listening

198

Exclusion that results from being seen as an "outsider"

Social Marginality

199

Diversity skills include flexible thinking, teamwork, and ____.

Leadership

200

__________ makes it difficult for us to realize how our environment shapes our assumptions

Cultural encapsulation

201

The lifelong process of social interaction that enables us to learn about ourselves and others is called ____.

Socialization

202

As a child, Tonya was immersed in an environment in which a college education was the norm. She was raised to believe that going to college, not getting a job, was the “natural thing to do” after graduating from high school. This situation reflects what?

Enculturation

203

_________ is the exclusion that results from being seen as an “outsider”

Social Marginality

204

The author of our text quotes a writer who describes the importance of being able to “borrow other people’s eyes, to see to learn, and learn to see.” While this ability promotes the overall development of diversity consciousness, what does it relate most closely to?

Stepping outside ourselves

205

For Tamra, college was the first time she wrestled with issues involving social inequality. Many of these issues continually surfaced in courses, student activity programs, and college- wide community service projects. Consequently, her diversity consciousness increased in all areas, but particularly in terms of her ability to what?

Gauge the level of the playing field

206

According to the text, developing diversity consciousness includes applying our knowledge and behavior to real-life situations. What is this called?

Follow Through

207

As we develop diversity consciousness over time, our thinking will become more flexible, more inclusive, and more ____

Global

208

When discussing social inequality, the author of our text distinguishes between a majority and a minority. The difference between a majority and a minority is ____

Power

209

According to the text, the emphasis on _____________ in the United States makes it difficult to see social influences.

Individualism

210

Sonja practices her active listening skills both at work and home. By constantly practicing this diversity skill, she has learned to assume a more active role in hearing and digesting what is being communicated. Sonja’s ability to actually put this skill into practice is identified in the text as ____ ____

Following through

211

True or False

Cultural encapsulation promotes sensitivity to cultural differences.

False

212

True or False

Nurture refers to biological influences that mold and shape us.

False

213

True or False

According to the text, the emphasis on individualism in the U.S. promotes our awareness of social influences.

False

214

True or False

Enculturation promotes our ability to examine ourselves and our worlds.

False

215

True or False

Double consciousness refers to a person’s awareness of his or her own perspective and the perspective of others.

True

216

True or False

The term “social class” describes a category of people who share similar amounts of wealth, power, and prestige.

True

217

True or False

Sexism refers to the thinking that one sex is superior to another and that unequal treatment is therefore justifiable.

True

218

True or False

The degree to which we are willing to interact and develop relationships with certain groups is called social distance.

True

219

True or False

According to the text, social class in the United States is defined solely in terms of wealth.

False

220

True or False

In a meritocracy, social and economic inequality is primarily due to the effects of discrimination and prejudice.

False

221

True or False

Unearned privileges refer to benefits in life that we have through no effort of our own.

True

222

True or False

As we develop our diversity consciousness, our thinking becomes more flexible.

True

223

The author compares _____ _____ to living in a “cultural bubble.”

Cultural Encapsulation

224

Emory Bogardus created a scale to measure our willingness to accept certain racial and ethnic groups as neighbors, classmates, and coworkers. The scale was designed to measure a concept he referred to as _____ _____.

Social Distance

225

In The Souls of Black Folk, W. E. B. Du Bois discussed the importance of being aware of one’s own perspective as well as the perspectives of others. He referred to this as _____ _____.

Double Consciousness

226

________ is an ideology that asserts superiority on the basis of age.

Ageism

227

The ability to freely question and evaluate ideas and information is the definition of _____ _____.

Critical Thinking

228

According to Lin Dawson, a trainer for professional athletes, participants in diversity training may be grouped into three categories – prisoners, vacationers, and _______________.

Explorers

229

The process by which people transfer information, ideas, attitudes, and feelings to each other.

Communication

230

Anything that represents something else

Symbol

231

The study of body movements as a means of communication

Kinesics

232

It may mean one thing to one culture but something quite different to another

Culturally specific

233

A process in which messages created in one culture must be processed and interpreted in another culture

Intercultural Communication

234

A visual form of communication using hand shapes and movements to talk or to express an idea

Sign Language

235

The many languages spoken in the United States and throughout the world

Linguistic Diversity

236

The ability to speak two languages fluently

Bilingual

237

The ability to speak more than two languages

Multilingual

238

Discrimination based on language

Linguicism

239

The ways in which people attempt to control the impressions they make on others and how others see them

Impression Management

240

The imparting or interchange of information through technology

Electronic Communication

241

The spread of objects and ideas from one culture to another

Cultural Diffusion

242

The culture that we create and can see, touch, or feel

Material Culture

243

A peson who spends time living with people in order to research their customs

Ethnographer

244

____ refers to one's position

Status

245

The ability to influence people

Power

246

Patterns in the way people use language

Dialect

247

The language that triggers negative reactions from people who view it as insulting and derogatory

Hot Buttons

248

____________ means that you can feel the pain of victimization even if people do not attack or victimize you directly

Co-victimization

249

The study of body movements as a means of communication is known as ____.

Kinesics

250

__________ is the process in which messages created in one culture must be processed and interpreted in another culture.

Intercultural Communication

251

Deborah Tannen’s research focuses on the different communication styles of who?

Men and Women

252

By communicating electronically, individuals can attempt to control how others see them. Erving Goffman calls this ____ ____

Impression Management

253

When communicating at work, Stephen is particularly adept at understanding coworkers’ and clients’ points of view. This allows Stephen to be more sensitive to others without judging or comparing. This ability, which allows Stephen to be more diversity conscious when it comes to communication, is mostly closely related to what?

Stepping outside of ourselves

254

Certain terms such as “retard,” “redneck,” and “colored” trigger negative reactions from people who view them as insulting and derogatory. Consequently, these terms are referred to as __________

Hot Buttons

255

According to the text, the status and power of the speaker and the receiver influence the communication that takes place between them. This statement relates most closely to what?

Gauging the playing field

256

“To improve our communication skills, we need to be open to feedback. Otherwise, we will not know when we are relating well and when we are not.” This statement relates most closely to what?

Checking up on ourselves

257

Practicing our communication styles and skills is an example of what the author terms as ____ ____

Following Through

258

True or False

We communicate with both verbal and nonverbal symbols.

True

259

True or False

Body language throughout the world is culturally specific.

True

260

True or False

According to Deborah Tannen, women tend to be more direct than men when making requests.

False

261

True or False

We refer to people who are able to speak more than two languages fluently as bilingual.

False

262

True or False

According to the text, studies show that people who speak more than one language have lower levels of cognitive flexibility.

False

263

True or False

Since sign language is both universal and uniform, deaf people all over the world can communicate with each other.

False

264

True or False

Learning in online courses is asynchronous.

True

265

True or False

An ethnographer is someone who spends time living with people in order to research their customs.

True

266

True or False

Cultural diffusion refers to the spread of objects and ideas from one culture to another

True

267

True or False

Among many Asian and Latin American cultures, it is rude to establish direct eye contact

True

268

True or False

According to the text, mirroring is a barrier to effective listening.

False

269

_____ is the process by which people transfer information, ideas, attitudes, and feelings to each other.

Communication

270

The way we position our body, express ourselves verbally, or even move our eyes may represent something. In other words, they are _____.

Symbols

271

Nodding one’s head up and down carries different meanings in different parts of the world. Thus, it is a _____ _____ gesture.

Culturally Specific

272

Linguistic diversity refers to the many _____ spoken throughout the world.

Languages

273

According to Deborah Tannen, women have a greater information focus, while men have a greater _____ focus.

Image

274

Those parts of our culture that we can see and/or touch are known as _____ _____.

Material Culture

275

Status refers to one’s _____.

Position

276

Patterns in the way people use language, reflecting people’s cultural and regional backgrounds, are referred to as _____.

Dialect

277

A number of people who are involved in a cooperative effort

Team

278

The coordinated effort by a group of persons working toward a common goal

Teamwork

279

The concept that members of a team interacting cooperatively will accomplish much more than if they act alone

Synergy

280

A group of people that work "across space, time, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technologies

Virtual Team

281

People's shared belief that they are capable of effecting change and making a difference

Collective Efficacy

282

The confidence among team members that their peers intentions are good

Trust

283

The struggle that results when two or more parties perceive a difference or incompatibility in their interests, values, or goals.

Conflict

284

The process by which conflict is dealt with in an effective and constructive manner

Conflict Management

285

____ blots out intuition and much of the world around us

Mindlessness

286

Uri Treisman’s research focused on the relationship between teamwork and ____

Student Achievement

287

The jigsaw method, as used by Aronson, was a(n) educational plan aimed at reducing ____ ____ among public school students

Interracial tensions

288

The concept of synergy refers to the benefits of ____

Teamwork

289

According to Tuchman, it takes time for team members to develop a sense of trust, cohesiveness, and understanding of the norms that guide their behavior. Tuchman refers to this stage of team development as ____

Norming

290

When we check up on ourselves as a member of a team, we need to be aware of our own values as well as the values of other team members. In other words, we need to show ____

Mindfulness

291

In one exercise used in diversity training, a label is placed on each person in a small group. In the course of performing a task, these people are instructed to treat other individuals according to their labels. Labels might include expert, militant, smart, dumb, and secretary. The primary aim of this exercise is to illustrate which obstacles to teamwork?

Stereotyping

292

Fiona encounters conflict on her job almost daily. Consequently, she finds it helpful to “pick her battles” and avoid conflict whenever possible. Which of the 6 c's describes Fiona’s approach to conflict management?

Circumvent

293

Members of a virtual team cannot decide on a fair way to determine how they get paid for their work on a particular project, since team members live in a number of countries with different standards of living. Thus, they hire a neutral third person to help them reach a non- binding decision on their pay. This is an example of ____

Mediation

294

Rather than taking sides when it comes to conflict, Frieda and Dennis try to settle their differences through mutual concessions. In effect, each of them tries to give a little. Their approach to conflict management is ____

Compromise

295

True or False

Synergy is the concept that members of a team interacting cooperatively will accomplish much more than if they act alone.

True

296

True or False

A virtual team works across space, time, and organizational boundaries.

True

297

True or False

In comparison to face-to-face teams, virtual teams tend to experience fewer problems in terms of miscommunication and conflict.

False

298

True or False

Mindfulness lowers our consciousness and blots out intuition.

False

299

True or False

According to the text, every team is diverse.

True

300

True or False

According to Stephen Covey, empathy is the most important skill needed for teamwork.

False

301

True or False

According to Tuchman, storming refers to a period in a team’s development during which members reach agreement on their norms and mission.

False

302

True or False

When team members recenter, they shift perspectives and adopt multiple points of view.

False

303

True or False

When arbitration is used to deal with conflicts, the arbitrator has the power to render a binding decision.

True

304

True or False

When a team develops collective efficacy, its members believe they are capable of effecting change and making a difference.

True

305

True or False

Collective efficacy is found on high performance teams.

True

306

True or False

According to the text, high performance teams avoid groupthink.

True

307

True or False

Conflict is defined as the struggle that results when two or more parties perceive a difference or incompatibility in their goals.

True

308

True or False

Conflict management is the process by which conflict is dealt with in an effective and constructive manner.

True

309

True or False

Both arbitrators and mediators have the power to render a binding decision.

False

310

A _____ is a number of people who are involved in a cooperative effort.

Team

311

“A group of people that works across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technologies” is the definition of a _____ _____.

Virtual Team

312

_____ _____ refers to people’s shared belief that they are capable of bringing about change and making a difference.

Collective Efficacy

313

When team members lack _____ or confidence that their peer’s intentions are good, this can become a major obstacle to teamwork.

Trust

314

_____ is the struggle that occurs when two or more parties perceive their values or goals to be incompatible.

Conflict

315

The word ting, as used by Chinese, means that we should listen with our ears, _____, and heart.

Eyes

316

A give-and-take process in which a neutral third person helps disputing parties reach a mutually fair, non-binding resolution is known as _____.

Mediation

317

The process by which people inspire, influence, and empower others to achieve a common goal

Leadership

318

Relatively small groups of employees who function on their own and are given significant responsibility for planning, organizing, and decision making

Self-managed teams

319

The process in which the sharing of leadership allows everybody to work together and maximize their expertise and creativity

Orpheus Process

320

The process by which people influence others by recognizing, understanding, and adjusting to diversity in all its forms.

Diversity-conscious leadership

321

Judging others on the basis of one's own expectations

Mirror-imaging

322

The ability to use interpersonal cues to understand better one's own behavior and its effect on others.

Self-monitoring

323

Leaders that tend to focus more on the task at hand and less on how group members get along.

Instrumental Leaders

324

Leaders whose primary concern is the well-being of group members and their ability to work as a unit

Expressive Leaders

325

The numerous and various ways in which we influence others

Leadership Styles

326

Individuals who adapt their leadership style depending on the circumstances

Situational Leaders

327

____ reinforces people's reliance on self, and encourages a greater concern with one's own interests.

Individualism

328

____ reinforces a greater reliance on the group, and a greater concern for the welfare of all concerned.

Collectivism

329

Cultures where significant inequalities among people are both accepted and expected

Large power distance cultures

330

Cultures that play down the importance of inequalities in power and wealth as much as possible.

Small power distance cultures

331

Risk and uncertainty are avoided if at all possible and absolute truths are embraced

Strong uncertainty avoidance

332

People in _____________ societies tend to avoid absolute truths and do not feel nearly as threatened by behavior and opinions different from their own

Weak uncertainty avoidance

333

Cultures that sharply delineate gender roles and attach more importance to roles associated with males, such as assertiveness and independence

Masculine Cultures

334

Cultures that distinguish among gender roles to a lesser degree and attach more importance to roles associated with females

Feminine Cultures

335

A viewpoint that focuses on interaction among individuals in specific settings

Micro-level orientation

336

Focuses on large-scale patterns of behavior in organizations, societies, and the world as a whole

Macro-level orientation

337

Feelings of disorientation and stress due to experiencing an unfamiliar cultural environment

Culture shock

338

What are the four building blocks of diversity-consciousness leadership?

Understanding, awareness, skills, commitment

339

When leading across differences at work, Roberto views situations from a variety of perspectives, continually checks the assumptions he makes about others, and reflects on what he might do differently in the future. His ability to not just think about these things but actually do them relates most closely to his ____

Skills

340

Belinda occupies a leadership position at a large firm. Her main focus is making sure people complete their work on time. Given the demands of her job, she finds it difficult to get to know her employees on a personal level. Whenever possible, she makes it clear to them that they need to leave their personal issues at home. Belinda is an example of a(n) ____ ____

Instrumental Leader

341

Data from Hofstede’s research on workers in 40 countries point to the impact of cultural differences on attitudes and values. Specifically, his data shows that these cultures differed along what dimensions?

Individualism and Collectivism

342

Hofstede’s research showed the U.S. to be a ____ power distance country

Small

343

A leader from a highly collectivist, large power distance culture may have a difficult time adjusting to life in a highly individualist, small power distance culture. Specifically, she or he could experience feelings of disorientation and stress known as ____________

Culture Shock

344

Recent survey data collected by the Center for Creative Leadership examined how our thinking about leadership is evolving. Specifically, the Center found that people expect leadership in the future to be more ____

Flexible

345

True or False

Leaders can exert a positive or negative influence.

True

346

True or False

Diversity-conscious leaders are naturally “people persons.”

False

347

True or False

According to the text, everyone has the potential to be a diversity-conscious leader.

True

348

True or False

According to the text, diversity-conscious leaders are intellectually brilliant.

False

349

True or False

Diversity-conscious leaders find it useful to predict and evaluate the actions of others by employing a technigue known as mirror-imaging.

False

350

True or False

Behavioral theories of leadership are based on the assumption that certain individuals are “born leaders.”

False

351

True or False

In their research on leaders, Goldsmith and Morgan found that if leaders understand what they need to do, they will do it.

False

352

True or False

The main concern of instrumental leaders is the well-being of group members.

False

353

True or False

Laissez-faire leaders make all or most of the decisions and tend to keep power to themselves.

False

354

True or False

Situational leaders adapt their leadership style on the basis of the circumstances they encounter.

True

355

True or False

Situational leaders adopt a democratic leadership style in all situations.

False

356

True or False

Hofstede’s study shows that effective leadership strategies are universal.

False

357

True or False

According to Hofstede’s research findings, workers in the cultures he studied generally agreed on how a leader should behave.

False

358

True or False

As defined in Hofstede’s research, small power distance cultures are those societies in which significant inequalities among people are both expected and accepted.

False

359

True or False

Hofstede’s theory of leadership reflects a micro-level orientation.

False

360

True or False

In strong uncertainty avoidance societies, followers rely heavily on leaders, so much so that the word of leaders is accepted as a kind of law.

True

361

True or False

According to Hofstede, the U.S. is an example of an individualist country.

True

362

True or False

Of the countries he studied, Hofstede found Japan to be the most feminine country.

False

363

True or False

Findings from the GLOBE study support the need for situational leadership.

True

364

According to the text, leadership is described as having three key features. These three features are: leadership is a process, leadership is situational, and leadership is _____.

Interactive

365

Diversity-conscious leadership refers to the process by which people influence others by recognizing, _____, and adjusting to diversity in all its forms.

Understanding

366

As defined in the text, _____ is the ability to use interpersonal cues to understand better one’s own behavior and its effect on others.

Self-monitoring

367

_____ leaders keep power to themselves rather than share power.

Authoritarian

368

_____ _____ , an international management scholar, studied the cultural context of leadership by surveying IBM workers in 40 countries.

Geert Hofstede

369

In his research, Hofstede found that _____ cultures sharply differentiate between male and female roles.

Masculine

370

Traditionally, training by organizations in the U.S. has primarily focused on ____ skills

Technical

371

The average age of workers is ____

Increasing

372

At present, which religious faith constitutes a majority of the U.S. population?

Protestants

373

Census 2000 figures show that foreign-born residents account for approximately ___ percent of the U.S. population.

Eleven

374

W. E. B. Dubois stated that the problem of the twentieth century would be the problem of the ____ ____

Color Line

375

True or False

Diversity consciousness provides us with skills we need for any job.

True

376

True or False

Increasing one’s diversity consciousness is a process that is ongoing and lifelong.

True

377

True or False

Over the next few decades, the percentage of Whites in the U.S. workforce will decrease.

True

378

True or False

The average age of workers in the U.S. workforce is increasing.

True

379

True or False

According to Census data, Hispanic, Asian/Pacific Americans, and Native Americans will comprise roughly 20 percent of the U.S. population by the year 2050.

False

380

True or False

People over age 85 are presently the slowest-growing segment of the U.S. population.

False

381

True or False

The religious diversity of the U.S. population is increasing.

True

382

True or False

Research by Robert Putnam shows that in the presence of diversity we tend to gravitate toward people who share our own ethnicity.

True

383

True or False

According to the text, there is no optimal level at which we can stop developing our diversity consciousness.

True

384

True or False

According to surveys cited in the text, young people generally perceive more divisiveness, more barriers, and less tolerance in the U.S. today than older people do.

False

385

People over the age of ___ are the fastest growing segment of the U.S. population.

85

386

Gradually, the term _____ has become more inclusive and multidimensional.

Diversity

387

W. E. B. Dubois stated that the problem of the twentieth century would be the problem of the _____ line.

Color