Neuro, breasts, and female GU

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created 9 years ago by sammiellama
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For health assessment 2 (nursing), the neurologic, breast, and female genitourinary system is covered.
updated 9 years ago by sammiellama
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1

We have ___ cranial nerves and ____ spinal nerves.

12, 31

2

What do afferent neurons do?

They transmit impulses from the senses and deliver them to the central nervous system (CNS)

3

What do efferent neurons do?

They conduct impulses from the central nervous system (CNS) to muscles & glands, using motor pathways

4

What function does the thalamus serve in the brain?

Sensory processing; all information goes through here and is filtered to other parts of the brain

5

What function does the brain stem serve?

Primal functions, like breathing & eating

6

What is the cerebral cortex of the brain?

It is the outer covering of the brain. It has patterns of sulci & fissures... every person is different, like a brain fingerprint!

NOTE: Damage to the L side affects the R side, and vice versa!

7

Name the four main lobes of the brain.

Frontal, occipital, temporal, parietal

8

What is the frontal lobe of the brain responsible for?

intellect, behavior, personality, voluntary motor information, judgment, and has BROCA'S AREA!

9

What is Broca's area of the brain responsible for?

Speech production

10

What is the occipital lobe of the brain responsible for?

Vision, visual perceptions

11

What is the parietal lobe of the brain responsible for?

Sensory function; hot & cold

12

What is the temporal lobe of the brain responsible for?

Filters & senses auditory information, interprets speech, memory, and has WERNICKE'S AREA!

13

What is Wernicke's area of the brain responsible for?

Comprehension of speech

14

What is the autonomic nervous system (ANS) responsible for?

Regulates activities of visceral organs, different chemical transmissions regulate response, we have no control over it... autonomic = automatic!

15

What is the sympathetic nervous system (SNS) responsible for?

Fight or flight

16

What is the parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) responsible for?

Brings everything back to normal, for example: calming your body down after an episode of "fight or flight"

17

When gathering a patient's neurological health history, what type of things would we look for subjectively?

Their presenting problem "reason for seeking care", past history (i.e. Alzheimer's, MS, Huntington's), family history, lifestyle, and medications they're on. Again, we are ASSESSING for CHANGES.

18

When obtaining objective data during a neurological assessment, what will we look for?

We work from mental status and work DOWN towards more primitive things. For example: mental status & speech, cranial nerve function, motor function, sensory function, and reflexes.

19

When checking to see if a patient is alert and oriented (A&O), what will we check for?

If they know their name, the date, the time, their location, and situation (who's the current president?)

20

When assessing a person's mental status & speech, what is the MOST important thing?

Changes in level of consciousness

21

Define: agnosia

Inability to remember certain objects or certain people

22

Define: apraxia

Inability to perform simple motor tasks; for example, being unable to stack 5 blocks on top of one another

23

When using the Glasgow Coma Scale to assess baseline mental status, what are the three areas we assess?

1) Eye opening 2) Verbal response 3) Motor response

24

If a patient exhibits abnormal posturing, what can we assume?

Brain damage

25

Define: decorticate posturing

Feet flexed, hands "praying", has a better prognosis than decerebrate posturing... think "to the cord"!

26

Define: decerebrate posturing

Arms stiff to the side, feet move inward

27

Cranial nerve 1 is called ____ and we assess it by _____

Olfactory, ask the patient to close their eyes and smell something (like ground coffee or mint), each nostril is tested

28

Cranial nerve 2 is called ____ and we assess it by _____

Optic, we use the Snellen chart for visual acuity

29

Cranial nerve 3 is called ____ and we assess it by _____

Oculomotor, PERRLA (pupils are equal, react to light, and accommodate)

30

Cranial nerve 4 is called _____ and we assess it by

Trochlear, EOM's (CN's 3,4, and 6) -- have a patient follow a pen with their eyes in the six locations

31

Cranial nerve 5 is called ____ and we assess it by

Trigeminal (think tri = three), we assess chewing, corneal reflex [cotton ball to blinking eye], and facial sensation [reaction to soft items on the face]

32

Cranial nerve 7 is called ____ and we assess it by

Facial, asking the patient to smile & frown

33

Cranial nerve 8 is called ____ and we assess it by _____

Acoustic; Weber & Renee tests, whisper test

34

Cranial nerve 9 is called _____ and we assess it by _____

Glossopharyngeal, swallowing & gag reflex

35

Cranial nerve 10 is called _____ and we assess it by ______

Vagus, rise & fall of the uvula, gag reflex

36

Cranial nerve 11 is called ____ and we assess it by ____

Spinal accessory, shrugging & face turning side to side against our hands

37

Cranial nerve 12 is called _____ and we assess it by ____

Hypoglossal, sticking their tongue out and moving it from side to side

38

On the 0-4 reflex rating scale, what does each number mean?

0 = no response, 1+ = diminished, 2+ = NORMAL, 3+ = brisk, above normal, 4+ = hyperactive

39

Positive and negative results for the Plantar reflex (Babinski reflex) in an adult

Toes curl down = negative, normal finding
Toes fan out = positive, neurological impairment

40

What are the triad of symptoms for meningitis?

Fever, nuchal rigidity, and changes in level of consciousness

41

What is a positive Brudzinski neck sign?

The legs will lift when you raise their neck (chin to sternum)

42

Define: ataxia

Swaying gait

43

Define: tandem walking

walking on a line, to test intoxication or cerebellar function

44

Define: Romberg test

person stands with their eyes closed... positive if they lose balance and fall to a side

45

Define: stereognosis

Pt. closes their eyes and identifies an object in their hand

46

Define: graphesthesia

Pt. closes their eyes and identifies a letter or number you draw in their palm

47

Tanner stage 1 of breast development

Preadolescent. Only the nipple is raised above level of the breast, as in the child

48

Tanner stage 2 of breast development

Budding stages. Areola increased in diameter, surrounding area slightly elevated

49

Tanner stage 3 of breast development

Breast and areola enlarged. No contour separation

50

Tanner stage 4 of breast development

Areola forms a secondary elevation above that of the breast in half of girls

51

Tanner stage 5 of breast development

Areola is usually part of the general breast and contour and is strongly pigmented. Nipple usually projects.

52

Define: gynecomastia

Benign development of breast tissue in males and results in a tender, mobile knot under the areola. 1/3 of adolescent males

53

Define: colostrum

Form of milk produced in late pregnancy, contains antibodies to protect the newborn from disease

54

Goodell's sign

softening of the cervix related to the onset of pregnancy

55

Chadwick's sign

due to increased vasculature, bluish discoloration of vagina and cervix related to the onset of pregnancy

56

Define: amenorrhea

no menstrual bleed, common in athletes

57

Define: gravida and pora

1) Gravida: # of pregnancies
2) Pora: # of births

58

Define: cystocele

bladder protrudes & leans on the vagina

59

Define: rectocele

rectum protrudes onto vagina

60

Define: uterine prolapse

uterus comes through vagina

61

Pediculosis Pubis (crab lice)

Nits are on and around roots of pubic hair and cause itching. The area is reddened and excoriated.

62

Herpes Simplex virus

Small vesicles appear on the genitalia and may spread to the inner thigh. Ulcers and PAINFUL and erupt upon rupture of the vesicles. The virus may be dormant for long periods.

63

Contact dermatitis

Red rash

64

Syphilitic lesion

Nontender solitary papule that gradually changes to a draining ulcer

65

Human Papillomavirus (HPV)

Wart-like, painless growths appear in clusters. These are seen on the vulva, inner vagina, cervix, or anal area.

66

Chlamydia

Often asymptomatic. Characterized by purulent discharge with tenderness to movement of the cervix. If untreated, can cause sterility

67

Gonorrhea

Generally asymptomatic. One may see vaginal discharge or bleeding and abscesses in Bartholin's or Skene's glands.

68

Trichomoniasis

(tri = think three symptoms) Painful urination, vulvular itching, and purulent vagina discharge. Vagina and vulva are reddened and the discharge is yellow and foul smelling.