Name the hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary (6).
TRH (thyrotropin-releasing hormone)
CRH (corticotropin-releasing hormone)
GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone)
GHRH (growth hormone-releasing hormone)
PIH (prolactin-inhibiting hormone)
Name the principal effects of the 6 hypothalamic releasing and inhibiting hormones that regulate the anterior pituitary.
TRH --> promotes secretion of THS (thyroid-stimulating hormone) & PRL (prolactin)
CRH --> promotes secretion of ACTH (adrenocorticotropic hormone)
GnRH --> promotes secretion of the gonadotropins: FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) & LH (luteinizing hormone)
GHRH --> promotes secretion of GH (growth hormone)
PIH --> inhibits secretion of PRL (prolactin)
Somatostatin --> inhibits secretion of GH (growth hormone) and TSH (thyroid-stimulating hormone)
Name the hormones that the posterior pituitary (neurohypophysis) is responsible for releasing (but not storing).
ADH (antidiuretic hormone)
Name the hormones that the anterior pituitary (adenohypophysis) is responsible for releasing.
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FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone)
LH (lutenizing hormone)
ACTH (Adrenocorticotropic hormone)
TSH (thryoid-stimulating hormone)
GH (growth hormone)
Name the target organ(s)/tissue(s) and principal effects of hormones released from the posterior pituitary.
ADH --> kidneys
OT --> mammary glands & uterus
Labor contractions, milk release
(possibly involved in ejaculation, sperm transport, sexual-affection, and mother-infant bonding
Name the target organ(s)/tissue(s) and principal effects of hormones released from the anterior pituitary.
FSH --> testes & ovaries
Females: stimulates growth of ovarian follicles and secretion of estrogen
Males: stimulates sperm production
LH --> testes & ovaries
Females: stimulates ovulation and maintenance of the corpus luteum
Males: Stimulates testosterone secretion
ACTH --> adrenal cortex
Growth of adrenal cortex & secretion of glucocorticoids
TSH --> thyroid gland
Growth of thyroid & secretion of TH (thryoid hormone)
GH --> bone, liver, cartilage, muscle, fat
Widespread tissue growth, especially in the stated tissues
PRL --> mammillary glands & testes
Females: Milk synthesis
Males: increases LH sensitivity
Name the hormone(s) the pineal body and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Sleep, mood, sexual maturation (uncertain)
Name the hormone(s) the thymus secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Thymosin, thymulin, & thymopoietin
Affects immune cells (T lympocytes)
Stimulate T-cell development and activity
Name the hormone(s) the thyroid gland secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Affect most tissues
Elevates metabolic rate and heat production; increases respiratory rate, heart rate, and strength of heartbeat; stimulate appetite and accelerate breakdown of nutrients; promotes alertness and quickens reflexes; stimulate GH (growth hormone) secretion and growth of skin, hair, nails, teeth, and fetal nervous system
Stimulates bone deposition, mainly in children
Name the hormone(s) the parathyroid glands secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
PTH (parathyroid hormone)
Affects bone, kidneys, small intestines
Raises blood Ca2+ level by stimulating bone resorption and inhibiting deposition, reducing urinary Ca2+ excretion, and enhancing calcitriol synthesis
Name the hormone(s) the adrenal medulla secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Affects most tissues
Promotes alertness; mobilize organic fuels; raise metabolic rate; stimulate circulation and respiration; increase blood glucose level; inhibit insulin secretion and glucose uptake by insulin-dependent organs (sparing glucose for brain)
Name the hormone(s) each zone of the adrenal cortex secretes and what effect these hormones have on what target organs and tissues.
Zona glomerulosa --> aldosterone (mineralocorticoid)
Zona fasciculata --> cortisol and corticosteroids (glucocorticoid)
Zona reticularis --> dehydroepiandrosterone (gonadocorticoid)
Promotes Na+and water retention and K+ excretion; maintain blood pressure and volume
Cortisol & corticosteroids
Stimulates fat and protein catabolism, gluconeogenesis, stress resistance, and tissue repair
Bone, muscle, integument, brain, many other tissues
Precursor of testosterone; indirectly promotes growth of bones, pubic and axillary hair, apocrine glands, and fetal male reproductive tract; stimulates libido (sex drive)
Name the hormone(s) the pancreas secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Stimulates amino acid absorption, gluconeogenesis, glycogen and fat breakdown; raises blood glucose and fatty acid levels
Affects most tissues
Stimulates glucose and amino acid uptake; lowers blood glucose levels; promotes glycogen, fat and protein synthesis
Affects stomach and intestines
Modulates digestion, nutrient absorption, and glucagon and insulin secretion
Affects pancreas & gallbladder
Inhibits release of bile and digestive enzymes
Stimulates acid secretion and gastric motility
Name the hormone(s) the ovaries secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Affects many tissues
Stimulates female reproductive development and adolescent growth; regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation
Affects uterus and mammary glands
Regulates menstrual cycle and pregnancy; prepares mammary glands for lactation
Affects anterior pituitary
Inhibits FSH (follicle-stimulating hormone) secretion
Name the hormone(s) the testes secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Affects anterior pituitary
Inhibits FSH secretion
Name the hormone(s) the stomach and small intestine secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Affects gallbladder and brain
Bile release & appetite supressor
Stimulates acid secretion
Stimulates hunger, initiates feeding
Produces sense of satiety, terminates feeding
Name the hormone(s) the adipose tissue secretes and what effect this hormone has on what target organs and tissues.
Limits appetite over long term
What effects does smoking tobacco have on lungs?
Nicotine quiets cilia activity
Smoke causes overproduction of mucus (= smoker's cough)
Name the major respiratory organs from the nostrils to the alveoli.
Larynx --> epiglottic & glottis (vocal cords)
What kind of epithelium is respiratory epithelium (nostrils --> terminal bronchioles)
pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
Name the main cells (and their functions) of the alveoli.
Type I pneumocytes --> thinness allows for rapid gas exchange between air and blood
Type II pneumocytes --> secrete pulmonary surfactant & repaire alveolar epithelium
Macrophages --> migrate from the blood; phagocytize inhaled foreign bodies and macrophages are then washed out with mucus
Why is pulmonary surfactant necessary in the lungs?
Pulmonary surfactant lines the inner walls of the alveoli and prevents them from sticking to one another once they are deflated during exhalation
Name the three layers of the respiratory membrane
1. Simple squamous epithelium (of alveoli)
2. Basement membrane of capillary endothelium & alveolar membrane (fused)
3. Endothelium (of capillary)
What is the epithelium of the alveoli?
Simple squamous epithelium
What drives the chloride shift.
The release of bicarbonate (HCO3-) from a cell. The loss of the negatively charged molecule drives the shift of Cl- into the cell.
What is intrapulmonary pressure equal to?
Atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg)
How does quiet respiration differ from forced respiration?
Quiet respiration refers to relaxed, unconscious, and autonomic breathing.
Force respiration refers to unusually deep or rapid breathing (e.g. rapid breathing during hard exercise)
What is the percent composition of oxygen and carbon dioxide in inspired (atmospheric) and alveolar air?
Oxygen (O2) = 20.9% --> 159 mmHg
Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 0.04% --> 0.3 mmHg
Nitrogen (N2) = 78.6% --> 597 mmHg
Water = 0.5% --> 3.7 mmHg
Oxygen (O2) = 13.7% --> 104 mmHg
Carbon dioxide (CO2) = 5.3% --> 40 mmHg
Nitrogen (N2) = 74.9% --> 569 mmHg
Water = 6.2% --> 47 mmHg
What is the differentiation between external and internal respiration?
External respiration = air exchange at the alveoli
Internal respiration = air exchange at tissues
Tidal volume (TV)
Inspiratory reserve volume (IRV)
Expiratory reserve volume (ERV)
Reserve volume (RV)
VC (vital capacity) = TV + IRV +ERV
*deepest possible breath
IC (inspiratory capacity) = TC + IRV
*maximum inspiratory capacity after normal tidal expiration
FRC (functional residual capacity) = RV + ERV
*amount of air left in the lungs after normal tidal expiration
TLC (Total lung capacity) = RV + VC
*maximum amount of air lungs can contain
MRV (minimum respiratory volume) = TV * RR (respiratory rate)
What is the basic gas law behind negative pressure breathing and what mechanisms drive this phenomenon.
Gases diffuse from higher pressure to lower pressure.
The diaphragm adjusts the volume of the thoracic cavity applying pressure on the lungs. At rest the diaphragm is arched upwards, during inspiration the diaphragm flattens increasing the volume of the thoracic cavity and in turn allowing the lungs to expand. At this point the pressure of the lungs exceeds atmospheric pressure (760 mmHg) and the air is expelled outwards.
Define the following terms:
Anatomic dead space
Physiological (total) dead space
Anatomic dead space: air within the conducting division that cannot exchange gases with the blood (TV - DS)
Physiologic (total) dead space = TV - (DS + PDS)
*PDS = pathological dead space
Name the four factors that can affect gas exchange efficiency.
1. Surface area of membrane
2. Thickness of membrane
3. Partial pressure of gases
4. Diffusion coefficient of gases
*Also affected by blood flow over alveoli
Define the following gas laws:
Boyle's law: Pressure of a given gas is inversely proportional to the volume at a constant temperature (P1V1 = P2V2)
Charle's law: Temperature of a given gas is directly proportional to the volume at a constant pressure (T1/V1 = T2/V2)
Dalton's law: The total pressure is equal to the sum of partial pressures of its individual gases
Henry's law: The amount of gas that dissolves in water is determined by its solubility and its partial pressure in the air (given a constant temp.)
The physiological responses that match air flow to blood flow.
(e.g. increased ventilation stimulates vasodilation, increasing blood flow to that region to take advantage of the oxygen availability.)
What will happen to the Oxyhemoglobin Dissociation Curve when:
Why is line curved rather than straight?
Shifts curve to left:
Shifts curve to right:
The line is curved because as oxygen begins binding to hemoglobin the hemoglobin changes its configuration to favor oxygen binding.
What are the three methods that carbon dioxide is loaded into/out of the blood and what percentage of carbon dioxide is loaded by each method.
1. Dissolved CO2 gas (7%)
2. CO2 bound to Hb (hemoglobin) (23%)
3. Chloride shift (70%)
What are the two methods that oxygen is loaded into/out of the blood and what percentage of oxygen is loaded by each method.
1. O2 bound to HHb (deoxyhemoglobin) --> HbO2 (oxyhemoglobin)
2. Dissolved O2 gas (1.5%)
DRG (dorsal respiratory group)
VRG (ventral respiratory group)
I (inspiratory neuron)
E (expiratory neuron)
PRC (pontine respiratory center)
VRG controls quiet, relaxed, unconscious breathing by way of I and E nuerons.
The VRG is innervated by the DRG that receives signals from the higher brain centers (PRC), central chemoreceptors (70%0, peripheral chemoreceptors (30%), and from other sensory receptors (stretch, irritant, joint/muscle, pain) via the vagus and glossopharyngeal nerves.
What is the order of digestion.
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Ingestion of food
Mastication = chewing
Salivation --> bolus
Deglutition = swallowing
Peristalsis --> propulsive movement
Digestion --> mechanical (hydrolysis) and chemical (mostly in oral cavity)
Ingestion of indigestible materials = defecation
What are the accessory digestive organs?
Salivary glands --> 2 pharyngeal, 1 parotid, 2 sublingual
What are the layers of the alimentary canal in the esophagus?
epithelium (stratified squamous epithelium)
Submucosal (Meissner's) nerve plexus
Circular muscle --> closes lumen (always partially contracted)
Longitudinal muscle --> shortens canal
myenteric nerve plexus
Digestive tract regulation consists of what two types of reflexes?
Short (myenteric) reflexes = local
Long reflexes --> CNS
What roles do the myenteric and submucosal (meissner's) nerve plexuses play in digestion.
Meissner's nerve plexus stimulates gut secretion
Myenteric nerve plexus stimulates motor activity of gut
What is the total ATP production from one glucose molecule?
36 - 38 ATP