Micro: Bacterial Cell Wall

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created 8 years ago by jgaversa5
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1

what is the main difference between the gram positive and gram negative bacterial cell wall

gram positive cell wall has a thicker layer of peptidoglycan as well as an outer memmbrane

2

what are some features of the gram positive and gram negative cell walls

cytoplasmic membrane
some peptidoglycan
capsule
pilus
flagellum

3

what is at a high concentration in the acid fast cell wall

mycolic acid

4

do acid fast bacteria gram stein well

no, poorly

5

what does "acid-fast" refer to

resistance to decolorization with acid alcohol after being stain with carbofuschin

6

what is another name for the acid fast stain

Ziehl Nielsen stain

7

what is a prominent example of acid fast bacteria

mycobacteria

8

what do gram positive bacteria stain like

blue

9

what do gram negative bacteria stain like

red

10

what is the procedure of gram stains

CV
iodine
organic: acetone
safranin

11

what is the function of CV in gram staining

stain all cells blue and keeps gram positive bacteria blue

12

what is the function of iodine in gram stains

creates CV-iodine complex

13

what is the role of acetone in gram stains

clears out blue dye from lipid-rich, thin walled gram positive bacteria

14

what is the role of safranin in gram stain

colors the now colorless gram negative bacteria red

15

what is the strucutre of peptidoglycan

basic repeating uint of alternating N-acetyl glucosamine and N-acetyle muramic acid

16

how are the gram positive bacteria's peptide chains cross linked

peptide bond between free amino of lysine and terminal carboxyl of D-ala

17

how are the gram negative bacteria's peptide chains cross linkked

between DAP (diaminopimelic acid) and D-ala

18

what is another name for peptidoglycan

murein

19

is murein unique to bacteria

yes

20

what does peptidoglycan determine in bacteria

shape

21

what type of molecule is peptidoglycan

highly polar: hydrophilic

22

what is lysozyme present in

many bodily secretions like tears

23

what is the function of lysozyme

breaks glycosyl bond between GlcNAc and MurNAc

24

how do penicillin and cephalosporin antibiotics workan

inhibiting transpeptidases, enzymes responsible for cross linking peptide chains

25

what does vancomycin do

binds directly to D-ala--D-ala dipeptides and sterically prevents them from forming cross linkages

26

what is LPS present in

gram negative cell walls

27

what is the function of LPS

mediator of septic shock

28

what is the role of lipid A

anchors LPS in outer leaflet of bacterial membrane

29

what is Lipid A composed of

disaccharides to which are attached to SCFAs

30

what is the core of LPS made of

short series of sugars (KDO: ketoexoyocyanoic acid)

31

what is the O antigen

long carbohydrate chain