Lab Practical 3

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created 7 years ago by rappt2
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Respiratory and digestive system structures
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1

Nasal cavity

air enters through the nostrils, as it travels through cavity it is warmed, moistened, and filtered by mucosa. Surrounded by sinuses that act as resonance chambers for speech and warm/moisten air

2

nasal conchae

inferior, superior, middle
posteriorly located in nasal cavity; paired; lobe-like; increase air turbulence

3

hard palate

anteriorly separates nasal cavity and oral cavity; forms rigid surface against which tongue forces food during chewing

4

solt palate

posteriorly separate nasal and oral cavities; mobile fold formed mostly of skeletal muscle that rises reflexively to close off nasopharynx when we shallow

5

pharynx

throat; funnel-shaped, connects nasal and oral cavities to larynx and esophagus inferiorly; 3 parts

6

nasopharynx

posterior to nasal cavity, is continuous w/it via the posterior nasal aperture, lies above soft palate making it only an air passageway

7

uvula

tissue tag hanging from soft palate; rises as food is swallowed to prevent it from entering airways

8

appendix

part of the cecum; contains masses of lymphoid tissue and as part of MALT play important role in immunity; b/c of its structure bacteria can accumulate there, cause inflammation = appendicitis

9

cecum

saclike; lies below ileocecal valve in right iliac fossa, first part of large intestine

10

ileocecal valve

a sphincter separating the small intestine from the entrance to the large intestine; relaxes to allow food residues into the cecum

11

small intestine

extends from pyloric sphincter in the epigastric region to ileocecal valve; longest part of alimentary canal, much thinner than large intestine; has three subdivisions

12

pyloric sphincter

the pyloric region of the stomach is continuous with the duodenum through this valve, which controls stomach emptying

13

duodenum

first region of the small intestine; shortest - 25 cm; most features of interest - bile duct, main pancreatic duct unit at wall

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bile duct

delivers bile from the liver to the duodenum

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pancreatic duct

carries pancreatic juices from the pancreas to the duodenum

16

hepatopancreatic sphincter

smooth muscle valve that controls entry of bile and pancreatic juice to the duodenum

17

jejunum

about 2.5m; extends from duodenum to ileum; hangs in sausagelike coils in central and lower part of abdominal cavity, suspended from posterior abdominal wall by fan-shaped mesentery; encircled and framed by large intestine

18

ileum

about 3.6m; joins large intestine at ileocecal valve; hangs in sausagelike coils in central and lower part of abdominal cavity, suspended from posterior abdominal wall by fan-shaped mesentery; encircled and framed by large intestine

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rugae

elevations or ridges in stomach mucosa, seen when stomach is empty

20

fundus

dome-shaped part of stomach, tucked beneath the diaphragm; bulges superolaterally to the cardia

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body

midportion of the stomach, continuous inferiorly w/the funnel shaped pyloric region

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greater curvature

convex lateral surface of the stomach

23

lesser curvature

concave medial surface of stomach

24

gallbladder

thin-walled green muscular sac about size of kiwi fruit; snuggles in shallow fossa on ventral surface of liver; stores bile that is not immediately needed for digestion and concentrates it by absorbing some of its water and ions

25

cystic duct

connecting duct from gall bladder to common bile duct; when gall bladder contracts bile is expelled into duct and then flows to bile duct

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partotid salivary gland

lies anterior to the ear between masseter muscle and skin

27

submandibular salivary gland

about size of walnut; lies along medial aspect of the mandibular body

28

sublingual salivary gland

small; lies anterior to the submandibular gland under the tongue and opens into floor of mouth

29

larynx

consists of 9 cartilages all composed of hyaline except epiglottis (elastic); when you swallow larynx rises

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cricoid cartilage

part of larynx; inferiorly located, ring-shaped

31

epiglottis

composed of flexible elastic cartilage; located superior to opening of larynx, forms lid over larynx when we shallow keeping food or drink out

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vocal folds

lower pair of folds of larynx mucus membrane; vibrate with expelled air for speech

33

glottis

slit-like passageway between vocal folds

34

thyroid cartilage

large shield shaped cartilage of larynx, anterior medial prominence is adam's apple