Bio 2 - Lecture Exam 3

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1

What process do photoautotrophic plants use to make energy molecuses like ATP and NADPH?

photophosphorylation

2

In what process do photoautotrophic plants make glucose?

Calvin Cycle

3

What process is used to break down sugars to release ATP (in presence of oxygen)?

aerobic cellular respiration

4

Where do plants get their carbon that they use in new cells to grow larger?

From CO2 in the air

5

Where in a cell does water splitting and photophosphorylation occur?

the chloroplast

6

Where in a cell does the Calvin Cycle occur?

the chloroplast

7

Where in a cell does aerobic cellular respiration occur?

the mitochondrion

8

In what part of the plant does the vast amount of both the water splitting reactions (photophosphorylation) and carbon fixation (both together are photosynthesis)occur?

the leaves (blades)

9

What are two common dissacharides transported in plants?

sucrose and maltose

10

What is the form of water movement in a plant that involves evaporation at the stoma and new water moving up through the xylem?

transpiration
(This is the underlying force of water movement in a plant foremost above all others)

11

What physical property of water allows it to move and "follow" evaporating water in the plant?

cohesion

12

When is transpiration the greatest?

When conditions are hot, dry, and windy.

13

What is one way a plant can limit transpiration?

reducing the diameter of the stoma by SHRINKING the guard cells.

14

What accounts for most of the lateral movement of water in plants?

osmosis

15

What is the condition in which water in all vascular tissue is being raised and held in check against gravity due to charged molecules in the tissue?

adhesion

16

Movement of material outside the cytoplasm of a cell

apoplastic

17

Movement of material inside the cytoplasm of a cell

symplastic

18

A section in the cell walls of endodermal cells that is lipid based and is hydrophobic. Water can't pass over this strip and must gain entry to the xylem via a symplastic route

Casparian Strip

19

The flow of water into a plan via osmosis when transpiration isn't occuring

Guttation

20

cells that take sugar OUT of the sieve cells are called

transfer cells (sink cells)

21

cells that put sugar into the sieve cells are called

companion cells (source cells)

22

What processes are responsible for the transport of water within the bodies of plants?

osmosis, transpiration and adhesion

23

Photophosphorylation, ATP, NADPH, and the Calvin Cycle are all part of a biochemical process called:

photosynthesis

24

the name for the kind of bond that results from the attraction between water molecules is:

hydrogen bond

25

In plants, water & ions are transported without sugars in special cells called:

tracheids & vessel elements

26

he two routes (not processes) through the plant roots that water uses to enter the xylem from the environment are:

symplastic and the apoplastic

27

Cellular respiration in plants:

occurs in the mitochondrion

28

Transpiration is greatest in plants under which of the following conditions?

hot and dry

29

waxy layer on the leaves that prevent h20 loss and very frequently reduce fungal attack

cuticle

30

protein material found in spore and pollen walls that provide desication (drying out) resistance.

sporopollenin

31

living, non-preproductive cells thta surround gametes and keep them from drying out

gametangia
(male: antheridia)
(female: archegonia)

32

Name the four synapomorphies between land based plants and charophhytes

1. rings of cellulose-synthesizing proteins
2. specific enzymes in peroxizomes that help minimize loss of organic products in photorespiration
3. structure of flagellated sperm
4. formation of phragmoplast (microtubules between daughter cells)

33

The changing from haploid to diploid structures we see in ALL plants is referred to as

alternation of generations (in plants both stages are multicellular)

34

Term for the structure that provides additional protection and nutrition for developing embryo and help with increased dispersal.

seeds

35

structures that bear the ovules and/or pollen of a plant. can encourage pollinators with rewards

flowers

36

What are the 3 characteristics unique to Animals?

1. have unique embryological patterns

2. most have nervous and muscular tissue

3. extracellular matrix of collagen, proteoglycans, adhesive glycoproteins, and integrin

37

Term for animals that means they all started with one common ancestral population

monophyletic

38

What is the group of organisms that most resemble the earliest animal ancestors?

choanoflagellates

39

Choanoflagellates resemble what type of cell in some animals?

collar cells of sponges etc.

40

Is a group of cells that take on many different functions a true tissue or a 'not' true tissue

not true tissue

41

name the group with non-true tissue

parazoa
(includes porifera)

42

name the group with true tissue

eumetazoa
(includes all animals except porifera)

43

What 3 taxa have radial symmetry?

Porifera (sponges)
Cnidaria (jellyfish, corals, anemones)
Ctenophora (comb jellies)

44

Term for symmetry of an organism along one plane only

bilateral symmetry

45

what protistan clad is the closets living relatives to the animals and likely shared a common ancestor

choanoflagellates

46

Which of the following is a coating on leaves that keeps water in and disease out?

A. cuticle
B. gametangia
C. sporopollenin
D. stomata
E. antheridium

cuticle

47

Sperm cells are formed inside of plant structures called:

antheridia

48

Which Phylum contains clams, oysters, snails, squid, and octopi?

Mollusca

49

Which Phylum includes all the vertebrate animals, e. g. the fish, amphibians, reptiles, birds, and mammals?

Chordata

50

Which one of the following is not a characteristic of the animal kingdom?

A. most have nerve and muscle tissue
B. they have extra cellular matrix that contains collagen
C. they have tight cellular junctions
D. the haploid stage dominates the life cycle
E. the diploid stage dominates the life cycle

D. the haploid stage dominates the life cycle

51

What is the common group name for taxa that have true tissues?

A. parazoa
B. bilateria
C. eumetazoa
D. Mollusca
E. Porifera

C. eumetazoa

52

A jellyfish has what type of body symmetry and to what commonly named group (i.e. not a phylum name) does it belong?

radial; the radiata

53

Of the following taxa, which one is the largest (i.e. contains the most species)?

Arthropoda

54

Which one of the following is not a synapomorphy between the Charophytes and land plants?

A. a phragmoplast
B. cuticle matrix material
C. peroxisomal enzyme characteristics
D. rosette cellulose synthesizing complexes
E. the morphology of their sperm flagella

B. cuticle matrix material

55

The large triangular shaped fin of a shark that cuts through the water when the shark is on on the surface would most likely be called?

dorsal fin

56

What taxa are the sponges a part of?

Porifera

57

What taxa are the jellyfish, corals, and anemones part of?

Cnidaria

58

What taxa are the comb jellyfish part of?

Ctenophora

59

What taxa are the flat worms such as tapeworms a part of?

Platyhelminthes

60

What taxa contains the rotifers?

Rotifera

61

What taxa contains the roundworms (nonsegmented)?

Nematoda

62

What taxa contains the segmented worms such as earthworms, marine worms, leeches?

Annelida

63

What taxa includes the snails, clams, oysters, squid, and octopi?

Mollusca

64

Which taxa includes the insects, crustaceans, and arachnids?

Arthopoda

65

Which taxa includes the starfish, sea urchins, sand dollars, and sea cucumbers?

Echinodermata

66

What taxa includes the tunicates, hagfish, and vertebrates?

Chordata

67

What is the largest taxa of animals?

Arthopoda

68

Ball shaped tiny structure that early animals are hypothesized to start out as

blastula

69

Term for space inside the blastula

blastocoel

70

Outside layer of blastula

ectoderm

71

Blastula turns into an object with a cavity. The object is now called a

gastrula

72

Process that generates a gastrula in a blastula is called

gastrulation

73

Pocket inside the blastula/gastrula is called the

archenteron
(will become the gut tube)

74

The opening to the archenteron is called the

blastopore

75

Term for the lining inside the archenteron of the blastula/gastrula

endoderm

76

Term for organisms that have two embryonic tissue (germ) layers

diploblastic

77

Name the two taxa of dipoblastic animals

Cnidarians and Ctenophores

78

Term for organisms that have three embryonic germ layers

tripoblastic

79

What are the 3 layers in a tripoblastic animal

ectoderm, endoderm, mesoderm

80

What does the ectoderm become?

epidermis and nervous system

81

What does the endoderm become?

digestive system lining, liver, lungs

82

What does the mesoderm become?

muscle, connective tissue, and other organs

83

Tripoblastic animals with no internal body cavity lined by mesoderm are called

acoelomate
(Platyhelminthes are classified as these)

84

Tripoblastic animals with have a body cavity that is lined by mesoderm on one side are called

psuedocoelomates

85

The body cavity in a psuedocoelom that is lined with meoderm on only one side is called a

hemocoel (blood cavity where most of the organs are found)

86

What taxa are psuedocoelomates?

Nematoda and Rotifera

87

Tripoblastic animals that have body cavities completely lined by mesoderm are called

coelomates

88

The blastopore becomes the mouth in what type of animal?

protostomes (means first mouth)

89

The blastopore becomes the anus in what type of animal?

deuterostomes (means other mouth)

90

Type of development of coleom in protostomes is called

schizocoelous development

91

Protostomes use what type of cell cleavage?

spiral

92

In deuterstomes, the mesoderm forms from sections of the archenteron wall. This type of coelum development is called

enterocoelous

93

Deuterostomes use what type of cell cleavage?

radial

94

What taxa are protostomes?

mollusca, annelida, arthoropoda

95

What taxa are deuterstomes?

Echinodermata, Chordata

96

The system that is comprised of a network of vessels for the circulation of fluids throughout the animal body

circulatory system

97

In what type of circlulatory system does a blood-like fluid completely surround and bath all organs?

open circulatory system

98

What is the name for the fluid in an open circulatory system that is a mix of blood and interstitial fluid?

hemolymph

99

Eumetazoans that have an open circulatory system are

molluscs
arthropods

100

Does hemolymph play a role in respiraton of insects?

no
(but it does for arachnids)

101

Type of circulatory system in which blood is confined to vessels

closed circulatory system

102

Eumetazoan groups with closed circulatory systems

annelids, cephalopod (octopi & squid) molluscs, vertebrates

103

Arteries carry blood where?
Veins carry blood where?

Arteries: away from the heart
Veins: toward the heart

104

Name for the smallest blood vessels that connect arterioles to venules

capillaries

105

Which blood vessels carry a large amount of blood under HIGH pressure

arteries

106

What are ateries mostly made up of?

mostly connective tissue
some smooth muscle
higher the pressure, the less smooth muscle

107

Veins are made up of more or less smooth muscle than arteries?

less

108

What are the major functions of blood?

1. transport of nutrients
2. transport of wastes
3. transport of gases
4. transport of cells (ie WBC's)
5. dissipation of heat
6. transmission of force

109

Which blood carrier uses iron?

Which taxa use this blood carrier?

Hemoglobin

annelids,
echinoderms
vertebrates

110

Which blood carrier uses copper?

Which taxa use this blood carrier?

Hemocyanin

molluscs
arthropods other than insects

111

Blood is composed of what two parts?

Plasma, formed elements

112

What do the formed elements of blood contain?

red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets (for clotting)

113

Is the speed of blood in the capillaries higher or lower than the speed in the larger vessels?

Slower (due to the vastly greater number of capillaries)

114

The force of the blood against the capillary wall is called

Hydrostatic pressure

115

Hydrostatic pressure is greatest when...

Hydrostatic pressure is lowest when...

greatest when blood first entering the capillary

lowest when blood leaves the capillary

116

the force required to prevent water from moving across a barier

osmotic pressure

117

where is osmotic pressure the highest

at the veinule end of the capillary.
(because hydrostatic force is low enough here to allow water and solutes to move in)

118

What causes the osmotic pressure into the capillary?

the blood in the capillary has a high concentration of albumin

119
card image

What cavity is labeled #1?

blastocoel

120
card image

What cavity is labeled #2

archentron

121

What is the tissue labeled #3?

ectoderm

122

What will the tissue (layer) labeled #3 become in an adult deuterostome?

nervous tissue

123

What will the tissue lining, of the cavity labeled #2, become in an adult protostome?

gut tube lining

124

Which one of the following characterizes protostomes?
A. they are acoelomates

B. they are pseudocoelomates

C. they show no gastrulation
Correct

D. they are schizocoelous & develop from spiral cleavage

E. they are enterocoelous & develop from radial cleavage

they are schizocoelous & develop from spiral cleavage

125

Which one of the following follows schizocoelous development?
A. insects

B. echinoderms

C. vertebrates

D. nematodes

E. sponges

insects

126

In which end of a capillary is hydrostatic pressure lower than osmotic pressure?

venule end

127

Which one of the following is the O2 carrier in many arthropods?
a. platelets

B. albumin

C. hemocyanin

D. hemoglobin

E. globin

hemocyanin

128

Rotifers and Nematodes are considered:
A. acoelomates

B. pseudocoelomates

C. parazoans

D. protostomes

E. deuterostomes

B. pseudocoelomates

129

5 taxa of animals that use body surface respiration:

sponges
cnidarians
platyhelminthes
annelida (oligochaetes)
amphibians

130

what are the three major types of respiratory organs

tracheal systems, gills, lungs

131

in what animal group are tracheal systems typically found?

insects

132

openings on the body surface that connect to the tracheal system

spiracles

133

smallest part of a tracheal system

tracheoles (have direct contact with all cells)

134

What is used to keep the tracheal tubes open in insects?

chitin (it is heavy and this is why insects can't grow very large)

135

name for a structure that is a cluster of hydrophobic setae surrounding the spiracles of a tracheal system. They keep water from inetering and maintain a permanent layer of air around the body of an aquatic insect

physical gills

136

Two things all gills have in common

they present a very large surface area to the external environment

they are vascularized

137

tufted or branching gills are called

external gills

138

plate like gills are called

internal gills

139

type of gill adapted for maximum efficiency

lamellar gills

140

bivalve molluscs have what type of gill

lamellar gills

141

term for a gill mechanism whereby water flows over the gills in the opposite direction of blood flow for maximum O2 absorption

countercurrent flow

142

Lungs are found in what invertebrates?

some crustaceans and some mollucs (order pulmonata)

143

Lungs of amphibians are typically inflated using positive pressure. Some frogs swallow air in a process called

buccal pumping

144

name a creature that is lungless and exchanges gasses through their always moist skin and the lining of their mouths

salamanders

145

Alligators have a system that involves a muscle connecting the liver to the pubic bone in order to inflate the lungs. It is called

hepatic piston

146

Mammalian lungs use what muscle for inflation

diaphragm

147

the respiratory surface is made up of what structure

alveoli

148

what are the 3 interactions that assist in gas exchange

partial pressure differences
relative solubility of gases in plasma
hemoglobin's affinity for o2 and co2

149

The majority of co2 is transported as

bicarbonate ion hco3-

150

Animals in aquatic environments specialize in removing excess nitrogen in wastes as

ammonia
(this is tied to the need to eliminate a lot of water from body)

151

Animals in non aquatic environments that need to limit water excretion but can't handle high concentrations remove nitrogen as

urea
(mammals do this)

152

Animals that need to preserve the most water excrete urine as

uric acid
(usually paste like such as bird droppings)

153

term for the removal of metabolic waste

excretion

154

term for the removal of undigested waste

elimination

155

simplest structure for excretion

contractile vacuole

156

cell arrangements for excretion are referred to as

nephridia

157

excretion form used by platyhelminthes using a flame cell and tube cell that empty out through excretory pores

protonephridium

158

excretion form that is the simplest closed circuit

metanephridium

159

glands that are stand alone nephridia found at the base of the antennae in crayfish and other crustaceans

antennal glands

160

kidneys perform what 3 functions

filtrate the blood

reabsorption

active transport

161

Which one of the following taxa do not use their body surface, in whole or in part, for gas exchange?
A. Platyhelminthes

B. Cnidaria

C. Insecta

D. Amphibia

E. Cephalopoda

Ceplalapoda

162

The Insects have what type of respiratory system?

A. tracheal system

B. gills

C. open system

D. hemolymph

E. lamellar gills

A. tracheal system

163

What would be the main limitation of a concurrent* system, for gas exchange, in the gills of fish? *concurrent system = the blood and the water washing over the gill lamella both flow in the same direction (ie. opposite of countercurrent flow)

It would not maintain a gradient favorable for gas exchange along the entire length of a lamella.

164

Amphibians use which of the following mechanism(s) for respiration?

A. negative pressure

B. buccal pumping

C. body surface (i.e. cutaneous) gas exchange

D. hepatic piston

E. both A & B

F. both B & C

G. both C & D

both B & C

165

The majority of CO2 of mammals is transported as what material in their blood?

A. the bicarbonate ion

B. carbaminohemoglobin

C. oxyhemoglobin

D. urea

E. ammonia

F. uric acid

A. the bicarbonate ion

166

At the cardiovascular/tissue interface, which one of the following will occur under normal conditions?

A. the loading of O2 onto hemoglobin forces the unloading of CO2 into the tissues

B. the loading of CO2 onto hemoglobin forces the unloading of CO2 into the tissues

C. the loading of CO2 onto hemoglobin forces the unloading of carbaminohemoglobin into the tissues

D. the loading of O2 onto globin forces the unloading of CO2 into the tissues
Correct

E. the loading of CO2 onto globin forces the unloading of O2 into the tissues

the loading of CO2 onto globin forces the unloading of O2 into the tissues

167

Which of the following taxa secrete their nitrogen waste in the form of ammonia?

A. saltwater fish

B. freshwater fish

C. aquatic invertebrates

D. crocodylians

E. birds

F. A, B & C

G. B, C, and D

B, C, and D

168

What type of excretory system use flame cells as its functional unit?

A. kidneys

B. malphigian tubules

C. antennal glands

D. metanephidia

E. protonephridia

protonephridia

169

The functional unit of a kidney is what? What are its 2 major parts?
Correct

A. nephron; renal corpuscle & renal tubules

B. nephron; renal corpuscle & metanephiium

C. protonephridium; renal corpuscle & renal tubules

D. malphigian tubules; antennal gland & renal tubules

E. metanephridium; glomerulus & Bowman's capsule

A. nephron; renal corpuscle & renal tubules