NBCOT (COTA) review - miscellaneous Flashcards

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created 11 years ago by Christa
Subjects frequently seen in NBCOT review books or subjects that I was unfamiliar/needed refreshed on. All information resourced from the following: -Quick Reference Dictionary for Occupational Therapy - 5th edition -NBCOT official COTA study guide -The COTA examination review guide - second edition -Introduction to Splinting: A clinical resasoning and problem-solving approach -Pedretti's Occupational Therapy: Practice Skills for Physical Dysfunction - 7th edition -Solomon & O'Brien's Pediatric Skills for Occupational Therapy -Mary Beth Early's Mental Health Concepts and Techniques for the Occupational Therapy Assistant
updated 11 years ago by Christa
Grade levels:
College: Fourth year
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Contraction of a muscle during which shortening or lengthening is prevented

Isometric contraction


Force generated by a contraction in which there is no joint movement and minimal change in its muscle length.

Isometric strength


Contraction of a muscle during which the force of resistance remains constant throughout the range of motion.

Isotonic contraction


Force of contraction in which a muscle moves a constant load through a range of motion

Isotonic strength


Ability of the brain to respond only after receiving input from multiple sources



Process of adapting or adjusting one thing or set of things to another.



Increase in muscle tone and stretch reflex of a muscle resulting in increased resistance to passive stretch of the muscle and hyper-responsivity of the muscle to sensory stimulation



An active process through which individuals become aware of and make choices toward a more successful existence. State of mental and physical balance and fitness.

Wellness - wellness program


These are prescribed to individuals with consistent diplopia resulting from permanent oculomotor nerve damage.

Prism glasses


Width of adult standard wheelchair

18 inches


width of adult narrow standard wheelchair

16 inches


depth of adult standard wheelchair

16 inches


depth of adult narrow standard wheelchair

16 inches


seat height of adult standard wheelchair

20 inches


seat height of adult narrow standard wheelchair

20 inches


Arm height of adult standard wheelchair

10 inches


arm height of adult narrow standard wheelchair

10 inches


width of junior standard wheelchair

16 inches


depth of junior standard wheelchair

16 inches


seat height of junior standard wheelchair

18.5 inches


arm height of junior standard wheelchair

10 inches


To use the hand or hold or manipulate objects

Prehension (prehension patterns)


Grasp used to stabilize objects against the palm and the fingers with the thumb acting as an opposing force. (holding a hammer, drinking glass)

cylindrical grasp


Grasp pattern assumed for holding a round objects such as a ball or apple. Two ulnar digits are supported in greater extension to allow a more open hand posture.

Spherical grasp/ball grasp


Grasp characterized by positioning of all MPs of the fingers in flexion, the DIP and PIP joints in full extension and the thumb in opposition to the third and fourth fingers. Used in grasping and holding large, flat objects such as books or plates.

Intrinsic plus grasp


Reciprocal motion of the wrist and fingers that occurs during active or passive wrist flexion and extension. Action of wrist extension producing finger flexion and wrist flexion producing finger extension.

Tenodesis (grasp)



Para-aminobenzoic acid


Type of splint used in the palm of the hand to keep the fingers from digging into the palmar surface. Frequently, rolled up cloths are put into the clenched hand; however, because this might facilitate increased spasticity, a hard splint is more appropriate.

Cone splint


Deformity of digits when PIP joint is hyperextended and DIP joint is flexed.

Swan neck deformity


Deformity of digits when DIP joint is flexed and has loss of active extension.

Mallet finger


Liquid level examples: water, ice chips, coffee, tea, milk, hot chocolate, fruit juices, broth, gelatin dessert, ice cream, sherbert; liquids quickly liquefy in the mouth and require an intact swallow

Thin liquids


Liquid level examples: extra thick milkshake, extra thick eggnog, strained creamed soups, yogurt and milk blended, v-8 juice; thickened to a consistency that coats and drips off of a spoon, similar to unset gelatin

Nectar thick liquids


Liquid level examples: nectar thickened with banana, nectar thickened with pureed fruit, regular applesauce with juice, eggnog with baby cereal, creamed soup with mashed potatoes, commercial thickener; the liquid flows off of a spoon in a ribbon

Honey thick liquids


Liquid level examples: commerical thickener, thickened to a pudding consistency and remain on the spoon in a soft mass

spoon thick liquids


Nerve of hand that is the primary motor supplier to the extensor and supinator muscles. Supplies the dorsum and radial border of the hand.

Radial nerve


Nerve of hand that provides motor supply to the flexor-pronator group, which includes most of the long flexors and the muscles of the thenar eminence. Supplies the palmar surface of the thumb, index, and long fingers and the radial half of the ring finger.

Median nerve


Nerve of hand that supplies most of the intrinsic muscles, the hypothenar muscles, the ulnarmost profundi, and the adductor pollicis brevis. Supplies the palmar surface of the ulnar half of the ring finger, the little finger, and the ulnar half of the palm.

Ulnar nerve


Built up pen or pencil used to accommodate limited grasp and prehension.

Wanchik writer


Communication device used to turn pages, point on keyboard when hand and arm function are inadequate.

Head pointer/wand


Title I of ADA applies to ...



Title II of ADA applies to...

State and local government


prohibits private employers, State and local governments, employment agencies and labor unions from discriminating against qualified individuals with disabilities in job application procedures, hiring, firing, advancement, compensation, job training, and other terms, conditions, and privileges of employment. The ADA covers employers with 15 or more employees, including State and local governments. It also applies to employment agencies and to labor organizations.

Title I of ADA


protects qualified individuals with disabilities from discrimination on the basis of disability in services, programs, and activities provided by State and local government entities. Extends the prohibition on discrimination established by section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973, as amended, 29 U.S.C. 794, to all activities of State and local governments regardless of whether these entities receive Federal financial assistance.

Title II of ADA


Title III of ADA applies to...

Public Accommodations and Commercial Facilities


prohibits discrimination on the basis of disability in the activities of places of public accommodations (businesses that are generally open to the public and that fall into one of 12 categories listed in the ADA, such as restaurants, movie theaters, schools, day care facilities, recreation facilities, and doctors' offices) and requires newly constructed or altered places of public accommodation—as well as commercial facilities (privately owned, nonresidential facilities such as factories, warehouses, or office buildings)—to comply with the ADA Standards.

Title III of ADA


type of group: ability to work and play in the presence of others, comfortably and with an awareness of their presence. Play is solitary, interact briefly from time to time. Must be at lease one adult available to give each of person support, encouragement, and attention when they need it.

Parallel group


type of group: ability to share a short term task with one or two other people. Interested in the task or game and recognized that he or she needs other people to do it, therefore the person is willing to take turns, share materials, to cooperate, ask for help and to give it. Not so much interested in the people as they are the task. Activities shared at this level only last for a short time and usually not more than a half hour. Person may engage in a number of activities in succession. Adult is needed to provide individual attention and to intervene when person has difficulty sharing.

Project level group


type of group: awareness of group's goals and norms and willingness to abide by them. Sensitivity to rules of the group and rights of self and others in the group. Can carry out long term activities that allow them to experiment with different roles and level of participation. Opportunity to recognize and reward the achievement of others and to seek recognition for oneself. Supervising adults still must provide support and encouragement to meet the esteem nedds of group members.

egocentric - cooperative group


type of group: ability to express feelings within a group and to be aware of and respond to the feelings of others. Can assume group maintenance roles, which support the emotional well being of the group. Groups whose members are of the same sex and approximate age. Adults are usually excluded from these groups which seem to function better on their own. Group's activities or tasks are not viewed as important, instead the feelings both positive and negative of each member on a variety of subjects are main agenda.

cooperative group


type of group: ability to take on a variety of group roles, both task roles and group maintenance roles, as needed in response to changing conditions in a group. participates in various clubs, and groups whose members are of both sexes, come from different backgrounds, and have different interests and skills.

mature level group


purpose of this exercise is to maintain strength when active motion is not possible or is contraindicated.

isometric exercises


reasoning based on corresponding a pt's deficits and physical symptoms with a procedure that may benefit the area of need

Procedural reasoning


Form of clinical reasoning that takes into account various systems and dynamics involved with a pt and his/her injury/illness.

Conditional reasoning


Type of reasoning in which Practicioner and pt collaborate so that practicioner may better understand pt's environment or situation.

Interactive reasoning


Type of reasoning in which takes the form of "story telling" in which practicioners share a similar experience, allowing for problem solving to occur.

Narrative reasoning.


Swelling of an extremity caused by obstruction of the lymphatic vessels



Telling inaccurate information/stories



Motor restlessness



Act of drawing or pulling.



Hand position that permits finger and thumb contact while facilitating manipulation of objects.



Stage 1 of 5 stage group

Orientation activity


What stage of 5 stage group: reviewing the rules for appropriate behavior in the group

Stage 1 - orientation activity


Stage 3 of 5 stage group

Visual perceptual activity


What stage of 5 stage group: discussing emotional reactions to the craft activity done earlier in the group

Stage 3- visual perceptual activity


Stage 4 of 5 stage group:

Cognitive activity


Stage 2 of 5 stage group:

movement activity


What stage of 5 stage group: walking through an obstacle course to music

stage 2 - movement activity


Stage 5 of 5 stage group:

Closure activity


What stage of 5 stage group: sitting in a circle and reciting a short poem

stage 5 - closure activity: provide familiar activity to end the group on a positive note, affirming note.


Remedial training technique which focuses on helping pt correctly interpret sensory impulses through a program of graded sensory stimuli

Sensory re-educuation


Involves a program of graded sensory stimuli to gradually decrease hypersensitivity to sensory stimuli

Sensory desensitization


Retraining program of stimulating many senses

Sensory bombardment


FOR: uses voluntary muscle control during performance of activity for individuals with deficits in strength, endurance or ROM. Focuses on decreasing deficits in order to improve performance of daily activities.



FOR: applied to individuals with brain damage. Emphasis is on nervous system and methods for eliciting desired responses.



FOR: focuses on nervous system but emphasizes eliciting responses in developmental sequence



FOR: teaches an individual how to compensate for a deficit on either a temporary or permanent basis



poor balance and awkward movement; uncoordinated movement especially with gait



FOR: humans are intrinsically motivated to interact with the environment through meaningful activities. Positive feedback during purposeful activities and positive interpretation results in positive success cycle. Negative feedback during purposeful activities may result in negative interpretation and a lack of motivation to participate.

MOHO - model of human occupation


FOR: view life as an ongoing process. Assess and treat to progress the individual toward variable age-appropriate functioning. Treatment and evaluation are often down with caregiver and involvement.



FOR: behavior is shaped by environmental process. Reinforcement can be used to develop and increase desired behaviors. Intensity, duration, and frequency of behavior is important to consider.



FOR: unconscious forces affect behaviors as much as conscious ones. Treatment is used to develop socially acceptable ways to express drives. Treatment makes the unconscious drives conscious and allows them to be expressed appropriately.



FOR: Cognition is the basis for all behavior. There are six cognitive levels of processing, which can be determined through assessment. Modify the task difficulty to enable success and safety.

Cognitive disability


FOR:There is a difficulty in taking in and combining sensory information and integrating with functional skills. Responding adaptively to the environment enhances the intake and combining sensory info. Improved sensory processing provides a foundation for enhanced attention and academic ability.

sensory integration (si)


FOR: People are naturally motivated to explore their world and demonstrate mastery. Settings in which people experience success help them feel good about themselves. Through occupation, people develop their self-identity and derive a sense of fulfillment

PEOP - person, environment, ccupational performance


Portion of SOAP note: Addresses effectiveness of Tx and any changes needed, status of goals, justification of continuing OT Tx.

"A" - assessment


Utensil useful to use when trying to develop sucking.



Useful utensil to use when child can only manage one utensil at a time.



Best utensil used when trying to develop upper lip control

shallow spoon


Professionals trained to make and fit artificial limbs.



A physician with specialized training in physical medicine



Professional specialized in fitting and fabricating permanent splints and braces.



Deficit referring to difficulty in perceiving the relationship of an object to the self.

deficit in "position in space"


Difficulty with making judgments about moving through space refers to deficit with...

perceiving spatial relationships


AOTA guidelines for level of supervision: daily, direct contact at the site of work

close supervision


AOTA guidelines for level of supervision: direct contact is made every 2 weeks with interim supervision occurring by other methods such as telephone or written communication

routine supervision


AOTA guidelines for level of supervision: contact is made monthly

general supervision


AOTA guidelines for level of supervision: provided on an as needed basis. It is possible that is may be less than one time a month

minimal supervision


structured, supportive milieus with emphasis on enhancing positive social and life skills have been found to be helpful for what mental illness...



The ability to maintain an alert and focused state

Sensory modulation (disorder)


participating in work related activities

vocational program


Also called "palmar"; refers to the palm of the hand or the sole of the foot

volar (surface)


Frictionless arm support that is mounted to a wheelchair, table, or belt around the waist and uses gravity in an inclined plane to assist movement of the arms when shoulder and elbow muscles are weak.

Mobile arm support (MAS)


Plastic-based material that is soft and pliable when warmed and hard when cooled.

Thermoplastic material - used for splinting


Approach used for helping depressed and confused people organize and verbalize their thoughts and feelings in a group discussion. Topic selection is based on clients' interests, age, cultural backgrounds, and personal histories. Usually draws on long term memory, which may remain intact and quite sharp despite deterioration of short-term memory and orientation to the present.

Remotivation approach


Social disapproval. The person is shunned and excluded from normal social interactions.



Reflex demo'd when infant's lips are touched, the mouth opens, and sucking movements begin.

Suck-swallow reflex


Reflex elicited by stimulation to the back three fourths of the tongue. It protects the infant from swallowing anything that may block the airway.

Gag reflex


Reflex demo'd when infant's gums are stimulated- infant responds with a rhythmic up and down movement of the jaw.

phasic-bite release reflex


reflex that forms the basis for munching and chewing

phasic-bite release reflex


Level of ACL: mostly unaware of what is going on. Pays attention for only a few seconds but carries out automatic habitual motor routines (i.e. self feeding).. very slow to respond to therapist's requests but may respond by rolling over or holding up a hand.

Level 1 - severe impairment


Level of ACL: seems to be aware of movement and position and of the effects of gravity. Sits and initiates some gross motor actions. Not aware of social context and may wander off. May assume bizarre positions or perform strange-looking movements.

Level 2


Level of ACL: interested in what is going on. Easily distracted by objects in environment and Enjoys touching them and manipulating them. Engages in simple repetitive craft but is likely to be surprised to see that something has been produced. Difficulty understanding cause and effect expect in his or her own simple actions. Easily disoriented and may get lost.

Level 3


level of ACL: able to copy demo'd directions presented one step at a time. Can visualize the goal of making something and is interested in doing simple two dimensional projects. Does not plan for such details such as spacing. Finds it easier to imitate a sample than to follow a diagram or picture. Cannot recognize erors and may not be able to correct them when they are pointed out. Does not understand that objects can be hidden from view.

level 4


Level of ACL: shows interest in the relationship between objects. Relationships must be concrete and obvious. Person is interested in the effects that can be produced using the hands and may vary the pressure of the speed of hand motions. Generally performs a task involving 3 familiar steps and one new one. New steps must be demonstrated. May appear careless because of inability to anticipate the possible consequences of actions. May not take ordinary and reasonable care regarding the rights of others.

Level 5


Level of ACL: appreciates the relationships between objects even when they are not obvious. Able to anticipate errors, reason why they may occur and plan way sto avoid them. Associated with higher levels of education, occupational background, and socioeconomic status.

level 6


the purging of the emotions or relieving of emotional tensions, especially through certain kinds of art, as tragedy or music; discharge of pent-up emotions so as to result in the alleviation of symptoms or the permanent relief of the condition. (i.e. punching a pillow to relieve anger)



Review of client's case to determine if OT services are necessary



U.S. federal act that protects persons with disabilities from discrimination in employment, transportation, public accommodations, telecommunications, and activities of state and local government.

Americans with Disabilities Act (1990) (ADA)


U.S. federal legislation that provides resources to school-aged children with disabilities

Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (1990) (IDEA)


FOR: focuses on how thought and information processing can become distorted and lead to maladaptive emotions and behavior.

cognitive behavior


Assisting clients in examining how occupations contribute to healthy or unhealthy states and customizing change.

Lifestyle redesign


Three behavioral areas assessed in glascow coma scale (GCS):

Eye opening, motor responses, verbal responses


Most reliable area assessed in GCS:

motor score


GCS score: Spontaneous, eyes open on own



GCS level: no awareness of slef or the environment and an inability to interact with others

level 1 - vegetative state


GCS level: no sustained, reproducible, or voluntary behavioral responses to sensory stimuli

level 2


GCS level: no language comprehension or expression

level 3


GCS level: sleep-wake cycles of variable length

level 4


GCS level: ability to regulate temperature, breathing, and circulation to permit survival with routine medical and nursing care

level 5


GCS level: incontinence of bowel and bladder

level 6


GCS levle: variably preserved cranial nerve and spinal reflexes

level 7


GCS score: speech,pens eyes when asked to in a loud voice



GCS score: pain, opens eyes when pinched



GCS score: pain, does not open eyes



GCS score: commands, follows simple commands



GCS score: pain, pulls examiner's hand away when pinched



GCS score: pain, pulls a part of body away when pinched by examiner



GCS score: flexes body inappropriately to pain (decorticate posturing)



GCS score: pain, body becomes rigid in an extended position when examiner pinches victim (decerebrate posturing)



GCS score: pain, has no motor response to pinch



GCS score: speech, carries on a conversation correctly and tells examiner where and who he or she is and the month and year



GCS score: speech, seems confused or disoriented



GCS score: speech, talks so examiner can understand but makes no sense



GCS score: speech, makes sounds that examiner can't understand



GCS score: speech, makes no noise



Reflex & age: When a client exerts against resistance with one upper extremity, the other upper extremity will mimic the motion

Associated reactions - normal throughout life when attempting strenuous activity


Reflex and age: When the client is blindfolded in prone or supine and has asymmetrical pressure applied to the sense organs on the anterior body surface, the client will bring the head into a face-vertical position. this orients the head to the surface with which the client is in contact.

body righting acting on the head - 6mo-5 yrs


Reflex and age: when the client's head is activity or passively turned to one side, the body rotates in segments around the body axis toward the direction of the head

body righting on the body - 6mo-18mo


Reflex: when the client is in supine with one leg flexed and the other extended, passive flexion of the extended leg will cause the flexed leg to extend and the hip to internally rotate and adduct

crossed-extension reflex - birth-2mo


Reflex and age: when a client is rocked enough to disturb balance, there are automatic protective movements, and movements to maintain balance and right the head and body

Equilibrium reaction - 6mo-throughout life


Reflex and age: When the client is in supine with one leg flexed and the other extended, pressure applied to the ball of the flexed foot will cause it to extend uncontrollably.

extensor thrust - birth-2mo


Reflex and age: when stimulation is applied to the sole of the foot, the leg flexes uncontrollably

flexor withdrawal - birth-2mo


Reflex and age: when pressure is applied to the palm or ulnar side of the hand, the fingers flex, grasping the stimulus object

Grasp reflex - birth-3-4mo


Reflex and age: with the client prone and suspended in space with a support under the chest, passive or active neck extension will cause the back and legs to extend

Landau reflex - 4mo-12-24 mo


reflex and age: when the client is startled, either by a loud noise or by allowing the head to drop backward, he or she will extend or flex and abduct the arms as well as spread the fingers

moro reflex - birth-5mo


Reflex and age: when the head is passively turned to one side, the body rotates as a whole in the direction of the face

neck righting - birth-6mo


Reflex and age: with the head laterally flexed, the client with vertically orientate the head in relation to landmarks observed in space

optic righting - 2mo-throughout life


reflex and age: when the dorsum of the client's hand is brushed against the underside of a table, the client with flex the arm and place the hand on the tabletop

placing reaction - birth-2mo


reflex and age: when the ball of a dorsiflexed foot is placed firmly on the floor, the lower extremity will extend rigidly due to cocontraction of the flexors and extensors of teh knee and hip joints

positive supporting reaction - birth-6mo


reflex and age: when the client's body id displaced forward, backward, or laterally, the client will extend to the limbs to protect the head

protective extensor thrust - 6mo-throughout life


reflex and age: if the client is support in an upright position and leaned forward so that pressure is applied to the feet, rhythmic, alternate stepping will occur

reflex stepping - birth-3mo


reflex and age: when the client is prone with the head at midline, will flex or have increased flexor tone

tonic labyrinthine reflex (TLR) the extremities - birth-4mo


reflex and age: when the client is supine with the head at midline, the extremities will extend or have increased extensor tone

tonic labyrinthine reflex:supine - birth-4mo


FIM # given when client completes task with complete independence (timely, safely)

7 (no helper)


FIM # given when client completes task with moderate independence (requires extra time, assistive device)

6 (no helper)


FIM # given when client requires supervision to complete task but completes task independently

5 - helper-modified dependence


FIM # given when client completes 75% or more of the work

4 - helper-modified dependence


FIM # given when client completes 50% or more of task

3 - helper-modified dependence


FIM # given when client completes 25% or more of task

2 - helper-complete dependence


FIM # given when client completes less than 25% of task or task is not testable

1 - helper-complete dependence


Approach designed to maintain or improve awareness of time, situation, and place, and often uses activities related to holidays ad other temporal concepts.

Orientation approach


Something frequently used to initiate discussion of how a patient usually spends his leisure time and to identify areas of specific interest

Interest checklist


Used to assess the patient's use of time ad his feelings about all of the activities he performs in a typical day or week.

activity configuration


Typically used in therapy to provide sensorimotor/vestibular input



Allows a child to assume a standing or weight bearing position

card image

prone stander


Involves ongoing communication that helps team members problem solve more effectively. Exchanging views and conferring throughout the practice process with a wide range of clients or in management, education, or research, with team members, community support personnel, social agencies, government personnel, business reps, non-governmental organizations, consumer groups, special interest groups and more.



Type of play that generally develops a child's body awareness and sensory experience.

sensorimotor play


type of play that requires the ability to learn and apply rules

game play


slowing of cognitive and motor functions

psychomotor retardation


Primary goal of this burn recovery phase is preventative. Provide cognitive reorientation and psychologic support, reduce edema, prevent loss of joint ROM and skin mobility, prevent loss of strength and Ax tolerance

acute phase


Goals of this burn recovery phase is to preserve or enhance performance skills and patterns while supporting surgical objectives. Providing A/E, continue psychologic support, protect and preserve graft and donor sites by fabricating splints and establishing positioning techniques that support surgeon's post-op care orders, prevent muscular atrophy and loss of Ax tolerance, reduce risk for thrombophlebitis by providing exercise for area that are not immobilized, teach alternative techniques in self care as needed

surgical or postoperative phase


This stage begins as wound closure occurs. Focus of intervention is maximizing function and participation in occupations, promoting physical and emotional independence, and managing scar formation to prevent or correct deformity and contracture formation. Compression and vascular garments and prevention of scarring, promote independent self care skills or ability to direct others to assist when needed including appropriate positioning, exercise, and skin care, provide instruction on scar development including potential sensory and cosmetic changes, scar mgmt techniques and related safety precautions.

rehabilitation stage


At what month do kids experiment with forks by stabbing their food?

30-36 months


Occurs when person's peripheral vision is lost.

Bitemporal hemianopsia

AKA tunnel vision


If a person is unable to see two things close together in one area, on either the left or right side, they demonstrate...

visual field cut


Awareness of posture, movement, and changes in equilibrium and the knowledge of position, weight, and resistance of objects in relation to the body



Cognitive development stage & age it occurs: has needs gratified, gives to others in return, develops drive and hope. Typical behaviors include fussy periods to relieve stress, smiles, imitates gestures, uses special smiles for different people and events, may experience joy and anger, fears strangers, gives affection, learns about cause and effect, understands concept of object permanence

Erickson's Trust vs. mistrust
period-infancy, age 0-1yr


cognitive development stage and age it occurs: considers self separate from parents, develops self-control and willpower, struggles with a conflict between holding on and letting go; typical behaviors include (early stage) attaches to transitional object, imitates others, understands function of objects and means of behaviors, may experience joy and anger. (late stage) is egocentric, experiences separation anxiety, loves an audience and attention, often say phrases like "me do it" and "no", has difficulty sharing, begins to become independent and spend time alone.

Erickson's autonomy vs. shame and doubt
period - early childhood, age 1-3yrs


cognitive development stage and age it occurs: displays purpose in actions, has lively imagination, tests reality, imitates parental actions and roles, seeks new experiences that if successful lead to sense of initiative, needs balance between initiative and responsibility for own actions, accepts consequences of actions; typical behaviors include seeming optimistic, asking why, spontaneous, seeks other playmates, fears monsters, spiders, and son on, has bad dreams, plays with imaginary playmates, tells exaggerated stories

Erikson's initiative and imagination vs guilt
period- early childhood, age 3-5 yrs


cognitive development stage and age it occurs: sees work as pleasurable, develops sens of responsibility and competence, learns work habits, learns to use tools, likes recognition for accomplishments, is sensitive to performance in comparison with others, tries new activities, becomes scholastically and socially competent; typical behaviors (early stages) acts assertive and bossy, acts like a "know it all", is critical of self, experiences night-terrors, shares and takes turns, may experience joy and anger; (late stages) desires privacy, acts with impulsivity and more control, looks up to and focuses on being like a certain person like a "hero", becomes more competitive, expects perfection from others.

Erikson's industry vs. inferiority
period - middle childhood, age 5-11 yrs


cognitive development stage and age it occurs: has a temporal perspective, experiments with roles (parents, friends, various groups), enters sexual relationship, shares self with others, develops ideological commitments; typical behaviors include acts as if right now is most important thing in life, accepts and adjusts to changing body, plays to imaginary audience, believes in personal fable (of infallibility) and characterized by the phrase "it won't happen to me", begins working, achieves emotional independence

Erikson's self-identity vs. role confusion
period - adolescence, age 11-13 yrs


Degree of burn:
tissue depth: superficial epidermis
findings: dry, no blisters, short-term moderate pain
common causes: sunburn, brief flash burns, brief exposure to hot liquids or chemicals
scar potential: no potential for hypertrophic scarring or contractures

Superficial (first degree) burn


degree of burn:
tissue depth: epidermis, upper dermis
findings: wet, blisters, significant pain
common causes: severe sunburn or radiation burn, prolongs exposure to hot liquids, brief contact with hot metal objects
scar potential: minimal potential for hypertrophy or contractures if healing is not delayed by secondary infection or further trama

superficial partial thickness (superficial second degree) and donor sites


degree of burn:
tissue depth: epidermis and much of the dermis nonviable, but survival of skin appendages from which skin may regenerate
findings: larger, usually broken blisters on skin with hair, on glabrous skin of the palms and soles of the feet, large, possibly intact blisters over beefy red dermis, severe pain to even light touch
common causes: flames, firm or prolonged contact with hot metal objects, prolongs contact with hot viscious liquids
scar potential: high potential for hypertrophic scarring and contractures across joints, web spaces, and facial contours, high risk for boutonniere deformities if the dorsal surface of fingers involved

deep partial thickness (deep second degree) burn


degree of burn:
tissue depth: epidermis and dermis: nonviable skin appendages and nerve endings
findings: pale, nonblanching, dry, coagulated capillaries possible, no sensation to light touch except at deep partial-thickness borders
common causes: extreme heat or prolonged exposure to head, hot objects, or chemicals for extended period of time
scar potential: extremely high potential for hypertrophic scarring or contractures, depending on the method used for wound closure

full thickness (third degree) burn


degree of burn:
tissue depth: full-thickness burn with damage to underlying tissues
findings: possibly charring of nonviable surface or with exposed fat, possible presence of small external wounds on tendons, muscles, with electrical injuries, possibility for small external wounds with significant secondary loss of subdermal tissue and peripheral nerve damage
common causes: electrical burns and severe long-duration burns (i.e. entrapment in or under a burning motor vehicle or hot exhaust system)
scar potential: similar to full-thickness burns except when amputation removes the burn site

subdermal burn


three phases of burn recovery:

2-surgical and post-operative
3-rehabilitation (inpatient and outpatient)


automatic movements that occur involuntarily and disappear as the infant matures

primitive reflexes


Type of outpatient program that serves as a transition to community living. it offers most of the structure and services available on an inpatient unit while allowing individuals to live in the community.

partial hospitalization


Correctly sequenced progression of difficulty in meal prep:

1-access a prepared meal
2-prepare a cold meal
3-prepare a hot beverage,soup, or prepared dish
4-prepare a hot one dish meal
5-prepare a hot multi-dish meal


group in which the focus is on providing social opportunities for sharing life stories and feelings, expressing pride in pas life experiences, and gaining support for past life difficulties, which enhance self-esteem and help residents achieve acceptance of past and present life.

Reminiscence group


Type of toothbrush that would be appropriate for child with tongue thrust

soft bristled toothbrush


Type of toothbrush that would be appropriate for child with oral hypersensitivity

soft sponge-tipped toothette


Approach that utilizes a teacher-student format as opposed to learning by doing approach. Often includes a homework component.

Psychoeducational approach


Purpose of this type of group is to focus on the here-and-now; involve learning through doing, activity, and processing; and involve the development of daily living skills and work skills

Task group


The ability to spread the toes to maintain balance in standing

Clawing AKA fanning


Cruising occurs at approximately what age

12 months - directly precedes walking


Four point mobility in a prone position - what age does this happen?

creeping - 7-12 months


ability to move forward while in a prone position - what age does this happen?

crawling - about 7 months


FOR: attempts to clarify thoughts, feelings, and experiences that influence behavior

Object relations FOR