Level 3 Language Features

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created 7 years ago by kiwispouse
NCEA Level 3 Students need to know these terms as well as all previous year group terms (features are cumulative!) for our year-end exams.
updated 5 years ago by kiwispouse
Grade levels:
12th grade, College: First year
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a story with more than one meaning; when characters/events represent something else.

ex: Animal Farm is an allegory for the Russian Revolution, and the animals represent different sections of Russian society.

Allegories allow authors to put forth a point of view, how he might wish the world to be. They make a piece multidimensional.

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Appears to be contradictory, but may have some truth. Can be used to illustrate an idea that is contrary to accepted views.

Often used to make the reader think in a different way about something.

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An understatement - conveying less than what you mean.

Can heighten the impact of a dramatic moment.

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A rhetorical device, an allusion to the part instead of the whole.

ex: 'the wave' in the sense of 'the sea'
'keel' for 'ship'
'a hand' or 'a head' for 'a man'

Intention is to minimize the whole; can dehumanize a person, or can emphasise a part.

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Words to convey the opposite of what you mean, or actions that have the opposite effect of what is intended. Can be humorous.

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A strong pause within a line.

Purpose: If all the pauses in the sense of the poem were to occur at the line breaks, this could become dull; moving the pauses so they occur within the line creates a musical interest.

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The carryover, in poetry, of one sentence/thought into another line.

ex: I think that I will never see
A poem as lovely as a tree.

Purpose: makes the poem varied and pleasing to the eye/ear. Disrupts the senses & creates different expectations. Also forces to fit meter/rhyme scheme.

The opposite of enjambment is end-stopped line.


End stopped line

A metrical line ending at a grammatical boundary or break, or if it contains a complete phrase.

Then say not man’s imperfect, Heav’n in fault;
Say rather, man’s as perfect as he ought:
His knowledge measur’d to his state and place,
His time a moment, and a point his space.
--Alexander Pope

The opposite of end-stopped is enjambment.

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End rhyme

Poetry where the line endings rhyme.


Internal rhyme

Rhyme that occurs within the lines rather than at the end.

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Eye rhyme

Words that look as if they would rhyme. This occurs thanks to the Great Vowel Shift (change in pronunciation)of the 1400s.

ex: ear/bear, forth/worth.

Purpose: in more modern times, poets used eye rhyme to display familiarity with the written word (as poetry is read, not performed).

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The repetition of the same consonant two or more times in short succession, as in "all mammals named Sam are clammy."

An element of half-rhyme, consonance is popular in modern rap/hip-hop, creating a tongue-twister effect.

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A semi-colon indicates a pause in the rhythm of the poem but denotes a connectedness of thought between the two respective phrases.

Replaces the conjunctions: and, but.

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are rather ambiguous. in prose, the information inside is an aside - less important than the rest. but in poetry, it can add, change tone, or even be a visual reference.

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(Synecdoche and metalepsis are considered specific types of metonymy)

when a thing is called not by its name but by the name of something else associated in meaning to that thing or concept.

ex: Wall Street = American financial section; Hollywood = American film industry

Purpose: to make an analogy by replacing noun with associated feeling/idea word.