General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: An Integreated Approach Ch. 9
A process that disrupts the stabilizing attractive forces in the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures.
When a protein is denatured, is its primary structure changed?
When cooking food with heat about 50 degrees Celsius, what forces are disrupted?
Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions
When bacteria produces lactic acid, which denatures milk proteins in the preparation of yogurt and cheese, what forces are disrupted?
Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds
When thiols are used in hair straightening or permanent waves, what forces in the hair are being disrupted?
What happens when a person gets heavy metal poisoning?
The person is given eggs whites. The proteins in the egg whites are denatured by the mercury or lead and the combination forms a precipitate. An emetic is then administered to induce vomiting.
What is the most abundant protein in the body (about one-third of all protein)?
Three polypeptide strands woven together to form a special quaternary structure.
Where is collagen found in the body?
Cartilage, skin, blood vessels, and tendons
When ____________ is absent, collagen becomes weakened and results in the common symptoms of spongy and bleeding gums, opening of healed scars, and nail loss.
What does hemoglobin do (its function)?
Transports oxygen in the blood
What types of intermolecular forces attract hemoglobin subunits to form a protein quaternary structure that is biologically active?
Hydrogen bonds, London forces, and salt bridges (mainly held together by salt bridges)
A nonprotein part to the subunit of hemoglobin that is vital to the proteins function.
What is the prosthetic group called and what does it bind?
Heme. Iron, which binds oxygen.
When foreign substances like bacteria enter your body, your immune system produces proteins called ________ (also known as immunoglobulins) to recognize and destroy the foreign substances.
The foreign sub-stance recognized by an antibody.
What is the structure of an antibody?
Four polypeptide subunits: two heavy chains, and two light chains
How is the quaternary structure of an antibody held together to form a Y shape?
What portion of the Y, the stem or arms, binds to receptors on cells in the body?
Where do antigens bind to antibodies?
The top of the arms
What proteins span the nonpolar region of the membrane and facilitate the movement of polar substances?
Name an important integral protein involved in electrolyte balance.
Is the outside or inside of the integral protein polar?
True or False:
Energy (ATP) is not required to pump sodium and potassium ions through the integral protein channel.
False. Energy is required to pump through the channel.
Name an integral membrane protein with a polar surface and nonpolar interior.