General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: An Integreated Approach Ch. 9

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Notecards for review sections 4-5.
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1

A process that disrupts the stabilizing attractive forces in the secondary, tertiary, or quaternary structures.

Denaturation

2

When a protein is denatured, is its primary structure changed?

No.

3

When cooking food with heat about 50 degrees Celsius, what forces are disrupted?

Hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions

4

When bacteria produces lactic acid, which denatures milk proteins in the preparation of yogurt and cheese, what forces are disrupted?

Salt bridges and hydrogen bonds

5

When thiols are used in hair straightening or permanent waves, what forces in the hair are being disrupted?

Disulfide bonds

6

What happens when a person gets heavy metal poisoning?

The person is given eggs whites. The proteins in the egg whites are denatured by the mercury or lead and the combination forms a precipitate. An emetic is then administered to induce vomiting.

7

What is the most abundant protein in the body (about one-third of all protein)?

Collagen

8

Three polypeptide strands woven together to form a special quaternary structure.

Triple helix

9

Where is collagen found in the body?

Cartilage, skin, blood vessels, and tendons

10

When ____________ is absent, collagen becomes weakened and results in the common symptoms of spongy and bleeding gums, opening of healed scars, and nail loss.

Hydroxyproline

11

What does hemoglobin do (its function)?

Transports oxygen in the blood

12

What types of intermolecular forces attract hemoglobin subunits to form a protein quaternary structure that is biologically active?

Hydrogen bonds, London forces, and salt bridges (mainly held together by salt bridges)

13

A nonprotein part to the subunit of hemoglobin that is vital to the proteins function.

Prosthetic group

14

What is the prosthetic group called and what does it bind?

Heme. Iron, which binds oxygen.

15

When foreign substances like bacteria enter your body, your immune system produces proteins called ________ (also known as immunoglobulins) to recognize and destroy the foreign substances.

Antibodies

16

The foreign sub-stance recognized by an antibody.

Antigen

17

What is the structure of an antibody?

Four polypeptide subunits: two heavy chains, and two light chains

18

How is the quaternary structure of an antibody held together to form a Y shape?

Disulfide bridges

19

What portion of the Y, the stem or arms, binds to receptors on cells in the body?

The stem

20

Where do antigens bind to antibodies?

The top of the arms

21

What proteins span the nonpolar region of the membrane and facilitate the movement of polar substances?

Integral proteins

22

Name an important integral protein involved in electrolyte balance.

Sodium-potassium pump

23

Is the outside or inside of the integral protein polar?

Inside

24

True or False:
Energy (ATP) is not required to pump sodium and potassium ions through the integral protein channel.

False. Energy is required to pump through the channel.

25

Name an integral membrane protein with a polar surface and nonpolar interior.

ATPase