General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: An Integreated Approach Ch. 12
Chemical reactions occurring in the body that break down or build up molecules.
Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in living systems.
The chemical reactions of metabolism that occur in a series of steps.
True or False:
Animals, including humans, can get energy from the covalent bonds contained in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.
Chemical intermediates formed by enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the body.
What is a two carbon metabolite called?
Pyruvate, a three carbon molecule, is an example of a ________.
Proteins break down into _____ _____.
Polysaccharides break down into __________.
Lipids break down into _______ and _____ _____.
Glycerol, fatty acids
What two molecules are ultimately produced in catabolism?
CO2 and H2O
Which metabolic pathway breaks down glucose?
Chemical reactions where larger molecules are broken down into a few common smaller molecules called metabolites.
Chemical reactions where metabolites combine to form larger molecules.
These reactions tend to generate energy and are oxidative, they involve the loss of hydrogen or the addition of oxygen.
These reactions tend to require energy and are reductive, they involve the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.
Act as energy exchangers and can also be coenzymes in cells.
What two forms do metabolic nucleotides have?
High energy and low energy
What forms when ATP hydrolyzes and energy is released as a product?
Which nucleotide, ATP or ADP, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?
ATP is the high energy form and ADP is the low energy form
Name the eight metabolically relevant nucleotides.
ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD+, FADH2, FAD, acetyl coenzyme A, coenzyme A
Which nucleotide, NAD or NADH, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?
NAD+ is the low energy form and NADH is the high energy form
Is the high energy form reduced or oxidized?
Which nucleotide, FADH2 or FAD, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?
FADH2 is the high energy form and FAD is the low energy form
Which nucleotide, Acetyle coenzyme A or coenzyme A, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?
Acetyle coenzyme A is the high energy form and coenzyme A is the low energy form
When food enters the body, it begins to break down in a process called ________.
What is the name of the enzyme contained in saliva?
Why might someone have a sweet taste in his mouth after eating a saltine?
Glucose present in the hydrolysis products
What can be transported through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream?
E) All of the above
The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the ______ and is completed in the _______ ________.
Mouth, small intestine
What is the purpose of insoluble fiber in our diets?
Stimulates the large intestine to help the body excrete waste
The process of breaking up larger nonpolar globules into smaller droplets (micelles).
What amphipathic substance places their nonpolar face toward the dietary fats and their polar face toward the water, forming micelles?
What is the purpose of bile and what organ excretes it?
To assist in the digestion of dietary fats. Gall bladder.
Repackaged lipoprotein containing triglycerides, cholesterol, and protein?
Where and how does protein digestion begin?
Stomach by acidic digestive juices
What does pepsin do?
Hydrolyzes peptide bonds