General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry: An Integreated Approach Ch. 12

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Notecards for reviewing the chapter sections 1-3
updated 8 years ago by AshleyLieser
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1

Chemical reactions occurring in the body that break down or build up molecules.

Sum of all chemical reactions occurring in living systems.

Metabolism

2

The chemical reactions of metabolism that occur in a series of steps.

Metabolic pathway

3

True or False:
Animals, including humans, can get energy from the covalent bonds contained in carbohydrates, fats, and proteins.

True

4

Chemical intermediates formed by enzyme-catalyzed reactions in the body.

Metabolites

5

What is a two carbon metabolite called?

Acetyl

6

Pyruvate, a three carbon molecule, is an example of a ________.

Metabolite

7

Proteins break down into _____ _____.

Amino acids

8

Polysaccharides break down into __________.

Monosaccharides

9

Lipids break down into _______ and _____ _____.

Glycerol, fatty acids

10

What two molecules are ultimately produced in catabolism?

CO2 and H2O

11

Which metabolic pathway breaks down glucose?

Glycolosis

12

Chemical reactions where larger molecules are broken down into a few common smaller molecules called metabolites.

Catabolism

13

Chemical reactions where metabolites combine to form larger molecules.

Anabolism

14

These reactions tend to generate energy and are oxidative, they involve the loss of hydrogen or the addition of oxygen.

Catabolic

15

These reactions tend to require energy and are reductive, they involve the removal of oxygen or the addition of hydrogen.

Anabolic

16

Act as energy exchangers and can also be coenzymes in cells.

Nucleotides

17

What two forms do metabolic nucleotides have?

High energy and low energy

18

What forms when ATP hydrolyzes and energy is released as a product?

ADP

19

Which nucleotide, ATP or ADP, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?

ATP is the high energy form and ADP is the low energy form

20

Name the eight metabolically relevant nucleotides.

ATP, ADP, NADH, NAD+, FADH2, FAD, acetyl coenzyme A, coenzyme A

21

Which nucleotide, NAD or NADH, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?

NAD+ is the low energy form and NADH is the high energy form

22

Is the high energy form reduced or oxidized?

Reduced

23

Which nucleotide, FADH2 or FAD, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?

FADH2 is the high energy form and FAD is the low energy form

24

Which nucleotide, Acetyle coenzyme A or coenzyme A, is the high energy form and which one is the low energy form?

Acetyle coenzyme A is the high energy form and coenzyme A is the low energy form

25

When food enters the body, it begins to break down in a process called ________.

Digestion

26

What is the name of the enzyme contained in saliva?

Alpha-amylase

27

Why might someone have a sweet taste in his mouth after eating a saltine?

Glucose present in the hydrolysis products

28

What can be transported through the intestinal wall and into the bloodstream?

A) Monosaccharides
B) Disaccharides
C) Oligosaccharides
D) Polysaccharides
E) All of the above

A) Monosaccharides

29

The digestion of carbohydrates begins in the ______ and is completed in the _______ ________.

Mouth, small intestine

30

What is the purpose of insoluble fiber in our diets?

Stimulates the large intestine to help the body excrete waste

31

The process of breaking up larger nonpolar globules into smaller droplets (micelles).

Emulsification

32

What amphipathic substance places their nonpolar face toward the dietary fats and their polar face toward the water, forming micelles?

Bile salts

33

What is the purpose of bile and what organ excretes it?

To assist in the digestion of dietary fats. Gall bladder.

34

Repackaged lipoprotein containing triglycerides, cholesterol, and protein?

Chylomicron

35

Where and how does protein digestion begin?

Stomach by acidic digestive juices

36

What does pepsin do?

Hydrolyzes peptide bonds