Chemistry - General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry:An Integrated Approach, Ch. 11

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 8 years ago by AshleyLieser
187 views
Notecards for reviewing sections 1-3 of the chapter
updated 8 years ago by AshleyLieser
Grade levels:
College: First year, College: Second year
Subjects:
chemistry, science
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

The molecule in our cells that stores and directs information responsible for cell growth and reproduction.

DNA

2

Where is DNA found?

In the nucleus

3

Genetic information contained in DNA.

Genome

4

Part of a genome that contains information to make a particular protein for the cell.

Gene

5

Big molecules made up of repeating building blocks called nucleotides.

Nucleic acids

6

Name the three components of every nucleotide.

Nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar (pentose), phosphate functional group

7

Name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA.

Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine

8

What is the difference in nitrogenous bases between DNA and RNA?

RNA contains uracil instead of thymine

9

What is the difference between thymine and uracil?

Thymine has a methyl group that uracil does not have

10

Which of the DNA nitrogenous bases are purines?

Adenine, Guanine

11

Which of the DNA nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?

Thymine, cytosine

12

What symbol is added to the carbon numbering of sugars to distinguish them from the carbons in the nitrogenous bases?

A prime symbol (')

13

What is the structural difference between ribose and deoxyribose?

Deoxyribose lacks and oxygen on carbon 2' of the pentose

14

Know the cyclic structures for deoxyribose and ribose.

card image
15

What is the molecular formula for ribose?

C5 H10 O5

16

What is the molecular formula for deoxyribose?

C5 H10 O4

17

A pentose and a nitrogenous base can join by this reaction, when a nitrogen in the base bonds to C1 of the pentose, forming a carbon-nitrogen glycosidic bond.

Condensation reaction

18

What type of molecule forms from a condensation reaction between a nitrogenous base and a pentose?

Nucleoside

19

What type of molecule is formed in a condensation reaction between a nucleoside and a phosphate group?

Nucleotide

20

What is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?

The nucleotide has a nucleoside plus a phosphate group

21

How do you name a nucleotide?

Nucleotides include the nucleoside name and the number of phosphates present

22

When naming nucleotides, what is inserted at the beginning of the abbreviation if deoxyribose is found in the nucleotide?

A lowercase d

23

What is the primary structure of a nucleic acid?

Sequence of nucleotides

24

What type of bond links nucleotides together and what is the bond between?

Phosphodiester bonds. Phosphate oxygens are connected between the 3' and the 5' carbons of adjacent sugar molecules.

25

What does the backbone of a nucleic acid consist of?

Alternating sugar and phosphate with the bases dangling from the sugar

26

In DNA, the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of _________ and the amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of _________.

Thymine, cytosine

27

DNA’s secondary structure, described by the interaction of two nucleic acids.

Double helix

28

What does the term antiparallel refer to?

The DNA backbones run in opposite directions

29

What type of bonding holds the two bases in a "ladder rung" together?

Hydrogen bonding

30

What are these pairs called: A-T and G-C?

Complementary base pairs

31

A large biomolecule’s overall shape when it folds onto itself.

Tertiary structure

32

The further twisting of DNA.

Supercoiling

33

What structure is the double helix before folding? (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary)

Secondary

34

Proteins DNA in a human cell is supercoiled around.

Histone