Chemistry - General, Organic, and Biological Chemistry:An Integrated Approach, Ch. 11
The molecule in our cells that stores and directs information responsible for cell growth and reproduction.
Where is DNA found?
In the nucleus
Genetic information contained in DNA.
Part of a genome that contains information to make a particular protein for the cell.
Big molecules made up of repeating building blocks called nucleotides.
Name the three components of every nucleotide.
Nitrogenous base, five-carbon sugar (pentose), phosphate functional group
Name the four nitrogenous bases in DNA.
Adenine, guanine, thymine, cytosine
What is the difference in nitrogenous bases between DNA and RNA?
RNA contains uracil instead of thymine
What is the difference between thymine and uracil?
Thymine has a methyl group that uracil does not have
Which of the DNA nitrogenous bases are purines?
Which of the DNA nitrogenous bases are pyrimidines?
What symbol is added to the carbon numbering of sugars to distinguish them from the carbons in the nitrogenous bases?
A prime symbol (')
What is the structural difference between ribose and deoxyribose?
Deoxyribose lacks and oxygen on carbon 2' of the pentose
Know the cyclic structures for deoxyribose and ribose.
What is the molecular formula for ribose?
C5 H10 O5
What is the molecular formula for deoxyribose?
C5 H10 O4
A pentose and a nitrogenous base can join by this reaction, when a nitrogen in the base bonds to C1 of the pentose, forming a carbon-nitrogen glycosidic bond.
What type of molecule forms from a condensation reaction between a nitrogenous base and a pentose?
What type of molecule is formed in a condensation reaction between a nucleoside and a phosphate group?
What is the difference between a nucleoside and a nucleotide?
The nucleotide has a nucleoside plus a phosphate group
How do you name a nucleotide?
Nucleotides include the nucleoside name and the number of phosphates present
When naming nucleotides, what is inserted at the beginning of the abbreviation if deoxyribose is found in the nucleotide?
A lowercase d
What is the primary structure of a nucleic acid?
Sequence of nucleotides
What type of bond links nucleotides together and what is the bond between?
Phosphodiester bonds. Phosphate oxygens are connected between the 3' and the 5' carbons of adjacent sugar molecules.
What does the backbone of a nucleic acid consist of?
Alternating sugar and phosphate with the bases dangling from the sugar
In DNA, the amount of adenine is always equal to the amount of _________ and the amount of guanine is always equal to the amount of _________.
DNA’s secondary structure, described by the interaction of two nucleic acids.
What does the term antiparallel refer to?
The DNA backbones run in opposite directions
What type of bonding holds the two bases in a "ladder rung" together?
What are these pairs called: A-T and G-C?
Complementary base pairs
A large biomolecule’s overall shape when it folds onto itself.
The further twisting of DNA.
What structure is the double helix before folding? (primary, secondary, tertiary, quaternary)
Proteins DNA in a human cell is supercoiled around.