Digestive system part 1

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1

What is the basic function of the digestive system?

To get nutrients from outside the body, into the body

2

What organs does the digestive system include?

Oral cavity, teeth and tongue
Salivary glands
Pharynx
Esophagus
Stomach
Liver
Gallbladder
Small & large intestine
Pancreas

3

Name the four layers of GI tract, from deep to superficial.

1. Mucosa-3 layers
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa
4. Serosa-fluid excretions

4

What is the first layer of the Mucosa?

Mucosal Epithelium-it lines the internal surface of the GIT

5

The internal layers of mucosal epithelium?

There are 2
1. Stratified squamaous epithelium- lines the oral cavity pharynx and esophagus- think wet and abrasive
2. Simple columnar epithelium- secrete substances for absorption of nutrients, mucus & enzymes

6

Name the second/middle layer of mucosal epithelium.

Lamina propria- areolar conntective tissue, attaches to epithelium.
Contains blood vessels, lymph nodules and nerves

7

True or False?
The third layer of the mucosal epithelium is a thin layer of muscle?

True- called Muscularis Mucosae

8

True or false?
The Submucosa layer is dense irregular connective tissue?

True- Along the outer margin is submucosal plexus or meissner plexus- contains enteric nervous system, sensory neurons, parasympathetic ganglia and sympathetic postganglion fibers for stimulation of secretion, absorption and contraction of muscularis mucosa

9

True or false?
The third layer of GI Tract is Muscularis Externa?

True- it consists of an inner circular and outer longitudinal layer of smooth muscle to perform Peristalsis-wave like contractions that move food along the GI tract

10

True or false?
The 4th layer of Serosa also called visceral peritoneum covers the entire digistive tract?

FALSE! It does NOT cover the oral cavity, pharynx, esophagus and rectum. It is replaces here by a fibrous sheath called Adventita

11

The digestive tract has areas of plica, microvilli and villi which aid in
1. Supporting the large intestine
2. Moving blood along a pathway
3. Increased surface area

3. Increased surface area for secretion and absorption.

12

True or false?
The abdominopelvic cavity contains the peritoneal cavity

True-
Parietal peritoneum-inner
Visceral peritoneum-external surface
Produces serous fluid

13

True or False?
The mesenteries connect the parietal peritoneum with visceral peritoneum for the stabilization of organs?

True- 3 mesenteries are double layers of serous membrane, richly vascular

14

Name the 3 mesenteries

1. Lesser omentum-support stomach, liver, diaphram
Attaches to lesser curvature of stomach
2. Greater omentum-Fatty apron over intestines
Attaches to the greater curvature of stomach
3. Mesocolon-Supports the large intestine

15

True or false?
The organs that lie behind the peritoneal cavity, kidneys, pancreas are referred to as being retroperitoneal?

True- Retroperitoneal=behind

16

Name the contents of the oral cavity- hint 7

1. Upper and lower lips
2. Vestibule- space between lips and gingiva
3. Roof of mouth-hard palate & soft palate
4. Uvula-
5. Tongue
6. Salivary glands
7. Teeth

17

The uvula should raise symettrically?

True- It helps prevent food from entering pharynx before it is properly chewed.
It should raise symetrically-

18

The tongue is largely composed of skeletal muscle?

True- it has lingual papillae with taste buds and the lingual frenulum which connects the tongue to the floor of the oral cavity

19

Name the 3 types of salivary glands.

1. Parotid- Anterior to ear, empty into parotid ducts
2. Sublingual- Floor of mouth, empty into sublingual ducts
3. Submandibular- Floor of mouth, empty into submandibular ducts

20

How many baby teeth and permanent teeth?

Deciduous (Baby) teeth= 20 emerge around 24 months, fall out between 6 & 12 years
Permanent teeth= 32 usually!

21

What makes up the bulk of each tooth?

Dentin

22

Where is the pulp cavity located?

The pulp cavity is located In the center of each tooth, it receives blood and nerves from the root canal-a tunnel thru the root of the tooth.

23

Name the 3 tooth divisions

1. Root
2. Neck
3. Crown

24

The root of the tooth sits in a bony socket called
1. Cementum
2. Alveolus
3. Bicuspid

2. Alveoulus
Layer of Cementum covers the dentin of the root firmly anchoring the tooth and for protection

25

True or False?
The Neck marks the boundary between the gingiva and crown?

False! The neck marks the boundary between the Root and the Crown

26

The crown of a tooth if covered by enamel?

True. the crown is the exposed part of the tooth covered with enamel.

27

What is the hardes substance in the body?

Enamel! It is made up of calcium phosphate

28

The pharynx is a common pathway for which items?
1. Food
2. Liquids
3. Air
4. Boogers
5. All of the above

Lol! Unfortunatley it is a common pathway for all of them!

29

Name the 3 parts of the pharynx.

1. Nasophyrnx
2. Oropharynx
3. Laryngopharynx

30

The esophagus is a hollow tube for carrying food and liquid to the stomach.

True. Food is carried down the esophagus by peristalis, wave like muscular contractions.

31

True or false?
Food just randomly enters the stomach at all times?

False- there is an upper esophgeal sphincter and a lower esophageal sphincter. Closed at all times except when swallowing. Allows things IN only except when not functioning properly.

32

Name the layers of the esophagus. Hint think stomach except there are only 3.

1. Mucosa-stratified squamaous epithelium, large folds for expansion
2. Submucosa
3. Muscularis externa- skeletal muscle AND circular and longitudinal smooth muscle
NO SEROSA

33

True or false:
The Muscularis Externa has 2 types of muscle?

True.
Skeletal muscle
Smooth muscle- circular and longitudinal

34

Name the 3 phases of swallowing/deglutition

1. Buccal phase
2. Pharngeal phase
3. Esophageal phase

35

The Buccal Phase of swallowing is voluntary?

True

36

The stomach has 3 layers of muscle?

True- It has an extra layer in the musculara externa called the OBLIQUE layer, to help mix and churn effectively

37

The stomach is found in the hypogastric quadrant?

False- the stomach is found in the left upper quadrant of the peritoneal cavity and is 6-10 inches in an adult

38

Functions of the stomach does NOT include:
1. Temporary storage of food
2. Mechanical and chemical breakdown of food
3. Absorption of nutrients
4. Mixing food with secretions

3. There is no nutrient absorption in the stomach

39

The stomach produces Intrinsic Factor?

True- Intrinsic factor is produced by the stomach for the absorption of vitamin B12

40

Rugae is a highly acidic, soupy mixture of partially digested food?

False- Rugae are folds in the stomach that allow for distension, when you eat too much!
Chyme-is the viscous, highly acidic, soupy mixture of partially digested food