JCCC sociology Final

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Socially Constructed

nothing in the nature of aging summons forth any particular viewpoint. Rather, attitudes toward the aged are rooted in society and therefore differ with groups around the world.l



S.G. prejudice, discrimination, and hostility directed against people because of their age; can be directed against any age group, including youth


Relationship between industrialization and the elderly in the US

lost respect for the elderly because people live longer than they used to.
- how it changed how we respect the elderly


Activity Theory

S.G. the view that satisfaction during old age is related to a person’s amount and quality of activity
whether retired people are more happy being retired and having nothing to do or they feel bored.
most people find informal intimate activities more satisfying than formal activities.
what makes one happy may not make the other happy.


conflict perspective

guiding principle is how social groups struggle to control power and resources.
Social Security legislation: before the 20's enacted the social security 2/3 of all over 65 had no savings.
- ex. social security came about because of competing interest groups - conflict theory



S.G. the focus of this theory is how people adjust to retirement by continuing aspects of their earlier lives
- How the elderly continue ties with their past.
- when people retire they often take on roles that are similar to the old ones.
- people who are used to more titles and roles are better equipped to handle the changes.
- people from higher social classes also have more resources available to adjust


How television ads and Cultural media typically portray the elderly

portray unfavorably


Nursing homes and nursing home workers

most are cared for by their family. But at any given time a million and half elderly people (65 and older) are in nursing homes.
one half of elderly women and 1/3 of elderly men spend at least sometime in a nursing home.
- 90% of homes are understaffed
- those who go to nursing homes tend to get sicker and die sooner


Economic situation of most elderly

Social security has pulled most elderly out of poverty. Elderly are less than likely to be poor.
- Asian Americans and White are less likely to be poor compared to African Americans and Latinos
- Working women are likely to make less money than men, therefore women are 70% more likely to be poor than elderly men


technological life

a form of existence that lies between life and death but is neither. ie someone who is brain dead have no self their person is gone dead yet technology keeps them alive.


Elisabeth Kubler-Ross's model of the stage of dying

studied how people cope during the living-dying interval - they went through 5 stages.
1. denial
2. anger
3. negotiation
4. Depression
5. Acceptance
not everyone goes through every step and it can regress


institutional death

people die surrounded by strangers in formal garb in sterile rooms filled with machines in an organization about routine rather than patients needs.



S.G. place (or services brought to someone’s home) for the purpose of giving comfort and dignity to a dying person
built around the idea that people the people who are dying and their families should contril the process of dying
-services brought into a dying persons home
- not meant to prolong life in anyway. intended to make death easier to bear. No pain or suffering.


Nuclear and extended family

Nuclear: husband wife and children
Extended: grandparents aunts uncles cousins in addition to nuclear


Family of orientation and family of procreation

orientation: family in which the individual grows up
procreation: the family that is formed when a couple had its first child.



S.G. a form of marriage in which men have more than one wife


Exogamy and endogamy

endo: specifies that it members must marry with in their group (not necessarily with in the family but race)
exo: people must marry outside their group


Choice of a marriage partner in the US

that it is influenced by age, education, religion


Martial satisfaction after the birth of the first child

sociologists have found that typically after the birth of a child marital satisfaction usually decreases.
because a two person provides more intimacy than a triad (three people)


Boomerang children

kids who leave the home and then come right back. like a boomerang


fictive kin

refers to stretching of kinship. Like people who have helped out in hard times are often given titles such as dad or uncle. They seem as if they are blood relatives.



Dual Income No Kids


Blended family

one whose members were once part of other families. ex. like two divorced people with kids get married, putting the families together


Age of average first-time bride and groom in the US

percentage of women and men between 20 and 24 who are married is now just a third of less of what it was in 1970.


Skipped-generation family

grandparents taking care of the grandkids permanently like raising them.


Sandwich generation

refers to people who find themselves sandwiched between and responsible for two other generations. their children and their own aging parents.


Manifest and latent functions of education

Manifest: the intended consequences of peoples actions
latent: unintended beneficial consequences of people actions
ex. sending kids to school > manifest= so they can learn Latent= not having to pay for child care


credential society

S.G.the use of diplomas and degrees to determine who is eligible for jobs, even though the diploma or degree may be irrelevant to the actual work






another term for social placement. Some school use some sort of tracking to sort them into different tracks based on perceived abilities.
S.G.the process by which education opens and closes doors of opportunity; another term for the social placement function of education


The most significant predictor of Whether a student will attend college

Regardless of abilities, people from more well to do families are more likely to attend college.
Social class or family background is the best predictor of who will go to college rather than test scores.


Ray Rist Research

S.G. This sociologist’s classic study of an African American grade school uncovered some of the dynamics of educational tracking.
STUDY: Kindergarten teacher tracked her students according to how intelligent they think the kids they are. The original label followed them throughout the entire time in school. It became a self fulfilling prophecy.


Rosenthal and Jacobson research

S.G. These social psychologists conducted a study of teacher expectations and student performance and found that a self-fulfilling prophecy had taken place—when teachers were led to believe certain students were smart, they came to expect more of them, and the students gave more in return.
STUDY: Told the teacher which students would do very well, the students responded to the prediction and did do very well. Regardless of ability those who are expected to do well do well and students who are expected to do poorly do poorly.


George Farkas research

S.G. Farkas and a team of researchers investigated how teacher expectations affect student grades. They found that students signal teachers that they are good students by being eager, cooperative and working hard.
-often students signal to the teacher that they are smart or working really hard and the teacher tries to pick up on this and reward them with good grades
- not quite sure how it is that teachers communicate their expectations or how students comm their messages



-that there is a rising tide in mediocrity in education, the standards are not held as high.


Grade Inflation

S.G. higher grades given for the same work; a general rise in student grades without a corresponding increase in learning


Social Promotion

S.G. passing students to the next level even though they have not mastered basic materials


School violence

-principals can refuse to tolerate any kind of threat and expel any students who does so
-school shootings have actually dropped in the past years not raised like the media likes to make it seem.


The sick Role

S.G. a social role that excuses people from normal obligations because they are sick or injured, while at the same time expecting them to seek competent help and cooperate in getting well
- Talcott Parsons who first analyzed the sick role
- four elements
1. you are not held responsible for being sick
2. you are exempt from normal responsibilities
3. you don't like the role
4. you will get competent help so you can return to your routines
- people who do not accept these roles are then help to the oppisite of the role. You are blamed for being sick, you get the cold shoulder, and are not given the right to claim sympathy for sickness



S.G. study of disease and disability patterns in a population


Is health care a right in the US

no it is not a right it is a commodity



S.G. dealing with people as though they were objects; in the case of medical care, as though patients were merely cases and diseases, not people


Conflicts of interest

-The fact that you trust the medical professionals and the prof rely on clinical trials, but the clinical trials are done by the companies who produce them.
- SOme drug companies pa doctors to prescribe their brand of drug
- is what the doctor is doing based on what needs to be done for the patient or what needs to be done for them to make another profit


Gender bias in medicine

-womens helath complaints are not often taken seriously. Surgeons often operate on them when heart disease has already progressed.
- very subtle even to the people doing it do not realize although some is blatant


Active and passive euthanasia

active: when a doctor ends a patient's life such as injecting lethal dose of a drug
passive:to with hold life support nutrients of liquids - when a patient decides to stop treatment
-disconnecting someone from life support whom is brain dead however falls somewhere in between...



hospitals discharging unprofitable paitients.
attempt by hospitals to reduce cost.


Recreational drugs

alcohol is the #1 standard recreational drug in America
nicotine kills 400,000 americans each year, by far the most lethal recreational drugs - nicotine may be as addicting as heroine


Tuskegee syphilis experiment

Experiment conducted by US Public Health Service did not tell 399 African American men in Mississippi that they had syphilis. Doctors recorded their symptoms every year and letting the disease kill them.


Alternative Medicine

S.G. (also called nontraditional medicine) medical treatment other than that of standard Western medicine; often refers to practices that originate in Asia, but may also refer to taking vitamins not prescribed by a doctor
-some think it is superstitious practices of ignorant people.
- although now both Western and Eastern medicine are beginning to work together


Medical Assistance on the internet