What is the main function of the kidney?
Filter blood plasma
What hormones does the kidney produce?
renin, erythropoietin and calcitriol
How many kidneys does the body have?
two. Two kidneys, two ureters, one urinary bladder and one urethra
T or F- the right kideny is lower than the left
True due to the position of the liver
What is the hilus
Renal artery, nerves enter and renal vein exits the kidney
What is renal capsule made out of?
layer of tough collagen fiber that covers the surface of the organ
What are the three layers of connective tissue that protect the kidney?
1. Renal capsule (tough collagen fiber)
2. Adipose capsule (thick layer of fat)
3. Renal fascia (dense fibrous outer layer)
T or F: the outer cortex contains the renal pyramids and the renal columns
FALSE! the outer cortex is the superficial portion.The inner medulla consists of the renal pyramids and the renal columns
What is the tip of the renal pyramid called
What ducts is urine collected in?
major and minor calyx. 2 or 3 major calyx combine to form a funnel shaped renal pelvis that drains into the ureter
T or F: The kidney recieves 25? of total cardiac output at rest
What is the functional unit of the kideny?
Nephron. The nephron cosists of the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
What is the intertwining capillary network of the kidney
What is the outer wall that encapsulates the glomerulus
T or F: blood arrives at the glomerulus by way of the Efferent arteriole
FALSE! Blood arrives at the glomerulus by way of an Afferent arteriole and departs by way of the Efferent arteriole
What happens in the renal corpuscle
In the renal corpuscle blood pressure within the glomerular capillaries forces fluid and dissolved solutes across the filtration membrane out of blood plasma into the capsular space
What passes through a filtraton membrane
What are the three layers of the filtration membrane
1. Fenestrated endothelium (large pores)
2. lamina densa (basement membrane of connective tissure)
3. filtration slits (gaps in outer membrane)
What does the renal tubule consist of
1. proximal convoluted tubule
2. distal convoluted tubule
Separated by u shaped loop of henle
T or F: the proximal convoluted tubule reabsorbs 65% of the glomerular filtrate and returns it to the peritubular capillaries
Loop of Henle
The loop of Henle can be divided into a descending limb and an ascending limb.
Responsible for reabsorbing water, Chloride, Sodium & Potassium.
Close to cortex. Contains active transport mechanisms to pump Na and Cl out of the tubular fluid
freely permeable to water only not other solutes
Distal convoluted tubule
Reabsorbs: Na, Ca, Cl, phosphate and water
Secretes: K, and H
What does the Juxtaglomerular Apparatus consist of
juxtaglomerular cells:special smooth muscle cells of the afferent arteriole
macula densa: special cells of the distal convoluted tubule
Mesangial cells: May be involved in mediating communication b/w JG cells and macula densa
Fill in the Blank: Each collecting duct begins in the cortex and descends into the ...
Medula. It carrys fluid to a papillary duct and papillary ducts drain into a minor calyx/ major calyx
Vasa Recta Capillaries
Long straight capillaries that parallel the loop of henle (connect to peritubular capillaries which surround the entire renal tubule of cortical nephrons.
Glomerular filtration, tubular reabsorption and secretion, and water conservation are components of...
producing urine in the nephron
Sympathetic or parasympathetic control of blood flow to the glomerulus
What are the ureters
Pair of muscular tubes that extend from the kidneys to the urinary bladder. funnel shapted
3 layers of the ureter
inner mucosa lined by transitional epithelium
middle muscular layer
outer connective tissue layer
What is the urinary bladder and what are the layers
A hollow muscular organ that functions as a temporary storage reservoir and can hold approximately a liter of urine
muscularis (detrusor muscle)
What is the trigone of the bladder
a smooth thick triangular area bound by the ureteral openings and the entrance to the urethra. It acts as a funnel that channels urine to the entrance of the urethra, the most inferior point in the urinary bladder
T or F: the male urethra is shorter than the female
FALSE: female is 1-2 inches. MAle 7-8 inches. Wipe the right way
T or F: Urinary bladder muscle (detrusor muscle) is stimulated to contract by parasympathetic stimulation