Texa Govt Unit 1b Review

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Texans’ predominantly conservative political culture is refl ected in voters’ Republican affi liation and in the state’s conservative public policies.

Women's rights: 1918-right to vote, 1972-rights in real estate, contracts, divorce, child custody, & property rights


Texas can be divided into 9 (series of cultural) regions with differing characteristics and traditions

East Texas, The Gulf Coast, South Texas, Southwest Texas, The German Hill Country, West Texas, The Panhandle, North Texas, & Central Texas


Hernandez v. Texas ( 1954)-established the constitutional concept of a "class apart"

Lawrence v. Texas ( 1973)-decriminalizing sexual activity of gays and lesbians


Texas public policies are conservative.

Per capita, only four states have lower taxes, and no state spends less on public services than Texas.


Texas spends less on public schools than 17 other states, howerver we have the largest % population w/out diplomas

Texas has more business- friendly economic policies and culturally traditional social policies than most states.


Only fi ve states score lower than Texas on the Scholastic Assessment Test ( SAT) scores.

Texas ranks fi rst among the states in emission of greenhouse gases into the air and toxins released into the water Texas ranks fi rst in the amount of cancer- causing chemicals released into the air and ranks seventh in those released into water. Overall, Texas ranks fi rst in the amount of hazardous waste generated.


Texas has become the second- most populous state and one of the most metro-politan.

In 2003, the federal government passed the AMBER Alert Act, creating a nationwide system for fi nding abducted children.


Pointer v. Texas-grants the accused the right to confront the witnesses against the accused.

Aguilar v. Texas-provides protections against unreasonable searches and seizures


Article I, Section 8 gives Congress the power, “ to establish an uniform Rule of Naturalization.”

1996, the federal government enacted the Defense of Marriage Act ( DOMA)-allow states to reject marriages between members of the same gender that occurred in other states.


Texans amended the state constitution in 2005, defi ning a marriage as being a union between a man and a woman.

The constitution expressly and implicitly gives the national government delegated powers in Article I, Section 8 and reserves powers to the state in the Tenth Amendment


Exclusive powers are given to the national government only

reserved powers belong only to the states


concurrent powers are shared between both levels of government

Chief Justice John Marshall took a broad view of national powers.


By the 1830s, a concept of dual federalism developed in which the national government was limited and distinctly separate from the states

in the 1930s when the New Deal began to offer extensive grants- in- aid to the states to help fi nance common national programs— the basis for a cooperative federalism.


some states, especially conservative ones, have come to resent national government mandates and conditions necessary to receive federal grants— they view today’s federal- state relationship as coercive federalism.

Texas receives less per capita in federal grants- in- aid than most other states and gets back a smaller share in the form of grants than it pays to the federal gov-ernment in the form of taxes.


Most federal grants are based on state spending eff ort, and Texas simply spends less for public services than most other states.

in the 1970s, when Congress amended the Fair Labor Standards Act to include state and local governments in the minimum wage, maximum hour, and overtime pay provisions.


National League of Cities v. Usery(1976)-cities could ignore the minimum wage and maximum hour provisions of the Fair Labor Standards Act.

Garcia v. San Antonio Metropolitan Transit Authority-moved the balance of power from the states to the national government, limiting the role of the Tenth Amendment and the powers reserved to the states.


The $2.5 trillion health care industry accounts for 17 percent of the United States Gross Domes-tic Product (GDP).

In Texas, 25 percent of residents, or 6.2 million Texans, do not have health insurance


When Texas was admitted to the union, it was given permission to divide itself into fi ve states

Sweatt v. Painter-led to the creation of what are now Texas Southern University and the Th urgood Marshall School of Law.


Brown v. Board of Education would lead to the desegregation of schools

Brown v. Board of Education, which eventually reversed Plessy v. Ferguson


Article I, Section 8, for instance, lists the enumerated powers “ expressly” granted to Congress by the Constitution.

Article VI, Section 2 stipulates the Supremacy Clause


Texas’s political culture or Ideology is: slightly to extremely Conservative 52% / slightly to extremely Liberal 22% / in the middle 25% / not sure 1%

Texans’ Partisanship is almost 50% Republicans or Independents leaning toward Republican / 37% Democrats or Independents leaning Democratic / 13% Independents / 2% not sure


Voter turnout in Texas is consistently counted among the lowest of the 50 states

Federal District Judge William Wayne Justice in United States v. Texas (1970) ordered the complete desegregation of all Texas public schools.


James Farmer, Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., Whitney Young, and Roy Wilkins, was one of the “ Big Four”

Nixon v. Herndon (1927) that the Texas White Primary law was unconstitutional


Smith v. Allwright (1944) that primaries were a part of the election process and that racial discrimination in the electoral process is unconstitutional.

Brown v. Board of Education (1954) public school desegregation decision did not bypass Texas