Texas Govt 2306 Unit 1 Review

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1

Encompassing two cultures

bicultural

2

Belonging to two nations

binational

3

A political ideology marked by the belief in a limited role for government in taxation, economic regulation, and providing social services, they support traditional values and lifestyles, and are cautious in response to social change

conservative

4

A descendant of European-Spanish (or in some regions, French) immigrants to the Americas's

Creole

5

Population characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, employment, and income, that social scientist use to describe groups in society

demographics

6

A pattern of political beliefs about how society and the economy operate, including policy orientations consistent with that pattern; a set of beliefs consistent with a particular political perspective

ideology

7

A political subculture that views government as a practical institution that should further private enterprise but intervene minimally in people's lives

individualistic culture

8

Having family and/or business interests in two or more nations

internationality

9

A white supremacist organization. The first Klan was founded during the Reconstruction era following the Civil War

Ku Klux Klan (KKK0

10

A political ideology marked by the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, government regulation of the economy, support to civil rights and tolerance for social change

liberal

11

A factory in the Mexican border region that assemblies goods, imported duty-free into Mexico for export in Spanish, it literally means "twin plant'

maquiladora

12

A person of both Spanish and Native American heritage.

Mestizos

13

The greater Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex area

Metroplex

14

A political subculture that views government as a positive force, one that values the individual but foncions to benefit the general public

moralistic culture

15

A treaty among Canada, Mexico and the U.S. that calls for the gradual removal of tariff's and other trade restrictions NAFTA came into effect in 1994

North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)

16

the dominant political values and beliefs in a nation or state

political culture

17

A quasi-feudal system whereby a property's owner or patron gives workers protection and employment in return for their loyalty and service. The rancher or ranchero and workers all live on the rancho or ranch

ranchero culture

18

A political subculture that views government as an institution to maintain the dominant social and religious values

traditionalistic culture

19

An area along the Texas side of the Rio Grande River known for the production of citrus fruits

The Valley

20

The practice of excluding African Americans from Democratic Party primary elections in Texas. First enforced by law and later by party rules, this practice was found unconstitutional in Smith v. Alwright 321 US 649(1944)

White primary

21

A system of government in which one central government has ultimate authority, any regional or local government are subordinate to the central government

unitary system

22

A system of government in which member state or regional governments have all authority and any central institutions have only the power that regional governments choose to give them; also known as confederacies.

Confederal system

23

A system of government in which governmental power is divided and shared between a national or central government and state or regional governments.

federal system

24

Those powers that the constitution gives to the national government. These include those enumerated powers found in article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitutional as well as a few other powers that have evolved over time.

delegated powers

25

Those delegated powers that are found in Article I, Section 8 and are clearly listed in the U.S. Constitution

Expressed powers

26

Those delegated powers that are assumed to exist in order for the federal government to perform the functions that are expressly delegated. These powers are granted by the necessary and proper clause in Articl I Section *

Implied powers

27

Those delegated powers that come with an office or position- generally the executive branch. While the US Constitution does not clearly specify powers granted to the executive branch, over the inherited powers have evolved as part of the powers needed to perform the functions of the executive branch

Inherent powers

28

Those powers that belong to the states. The legitimacy of these powers comes from the Tenth Admendment

Reserved powers

29

Those powers tat are shared by both the national government and the states

Concurrent powers

30

Article VI, Section 2 of the US Constitution, which states that the US Constitution, as well as laws and treaties created in accordance with the US Constitution, supersede state and local laws.

Supremacy Clause

31

Section of the US Constitution that reserves powers to the states. It reads as follows: "The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."

Tenth Amendment

32

An enumerated power in Article I, Section 8 of the US Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate commerce

Commerce clause

33

The last clause in Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution that gives Congress implied powers.

Necessary and proper cluase

34

The understanding that the federal government and state government are both sovereign within their sphere of influence.

Dual Federalism

35

A relationship where "the National Government and the States are mutually complementary parts of a single government mechanism all of whose powers are intended to realize the current purposes of government according to their applicability to the problem in hane."

Cooperative Federalism

36

Federal aid to state or local governments for specific purposes, granted under restrictive conditions and often requiring matching funds from the receiving government.

Categorical grants

37

Federal grants to state of local governments for more general purposes and with fewer restrictions than categorical grants.

Block grants

38

The attempt to enhance the power of state or local governments, especially by substituting more flexible block grants instead of restrictive categorical grants in aid.

Devolution

39

Doctrine that resulted from the Supreme Court ruling Plessey v. Ferguson that legalized segregation.

Separate-but=equal doctrine

40

State and local laws that promulgated(promote) racial segregation

Jim Crow laws

41

A relationship between the national government and states in which the former directs the states on policies they must take.

Coercive Federalism

42

Obligations that the federal government imposes on state governments with little or no funding to help support the program.

Unfunded mandates

43

Certain rights found in the Bill or Rights are rights that cannot be encroached upon by the stares.

Incorporation doctrine

44

General public acceptance of government's right to govern; also, the legality of a government's existence conferred by a constitution

Legitimacy

45

An owner-occupied property protected from forced sale under most circumstances

Homestead

46

Property acquired during marriage and owned equally by both spouses.

Community property

47

Customs upheld by courts and deriving from British tradition.

Common law

48

A ballot that results from the election of a large number of independent executive and judicial officers; giving the chief executive the power to appoint most executive and judicial officers results in a short ballot.

Long ballot

49

Law passed by legislature and written into code books.

Statutory law

50

A court order requiring that an individual be presented in person and that legal cause be shown for confinement; it may result in release from unlawful detention.

Writ of habeas corpus

51

The principle behind the concept of a government with three branches--legislative, executive, and judicial.

Separation of powers

52

The concept that each branch of government is assigned power to limit abuse in the others.

Checks and balances

53

Consisting of two houses or chambers; applied to legislative body with two parts, such as a senate and a house of representatives (or state assembly)

Note: only Nebraska has a one-house(unicameral) legislature.

bicameral

54

Regular legislative sessions are scheduled by the constitution. In Texas, they are held once every two years; hence they are biennial.

biennial regular session

55

A legislative session called by the Texas governor, who also sets its agenda.

special session

56

detailed state constitutional policies of narrow scope, usually handled by status passed by legislative bodies

statute-like detail

57

State constitutional provisions voided by a conflicting US constitutional or statutory law; also provisions made irrelevent by changing circumstances

deadwood

58

An executive branch with power divided among several independent officers and a weak chief executive.

plural executive

59

The authority to fire appointed officials. The Texas governor has limited removal powers; they extend only to officials he or she has appointed and are subject to the consent of 2/3 of the state senate.

removal powsers

60

Texas governor's authority to appoin supervisory boards but not operational directors for most state agencies

indirect appointive powers

61

The power to issue binding orders to state agencies; the directive authority of Texas's governor is severely limited.

directive authority

62

The power to propose a spending plan to the legislative body; a power limited for Texas's governor because of the competing influences of the Legislative Budget Board

budgetary power

63

Executive authority to veto sections of a bill and allow the remainder to become a law.

item veto

64

The power of some governors to reduce amounts in an appropriations bill without striking them out; Texas's governor does not have this power.

reduction veto

65

Chief executive's power to kill legislation by simply ignoring it after the end of the legislative session; this power is not available to Texas's governor.

pocket veto

66

General elections in which candidates are nominated by political parties, and thei party labels appear on the ballot.

partisan election

67

A method of selecting judges based on the candidate's qualifications rather than politics. Under this system, the governor fills court vacancies form a list of nominees submitted by a judicial commission, and these appointees later face retention elections. Also known as the Missouri Plan.

Meritt Plan

68

The legal right to vote.

suffrage

69

An election method that allows citizens to place a proposal on the ballot for voter approval. If the measure passes, it becomes law(permitted in some Texas cities but not in state government)

initiative

70

An election that permits voters to determine if an ordinance or statute will go into effect

referendum

71

A special election to remove an official before the end of his or her term, initiated by citizen petition (permitted in some Texas cities but not in state government)

popular recall

72

In Texas, the proposal of a constitutional amendment must be approved by two- thirds of the total membership of each house of the Texas legislature.

proposal of constitutional amendments

73

Approval of a constitutional amendment by a majority of voters.

ratification

74

a 1965 privacy case that overturned a state law criminalizing the use of birth control.

Griswold v. Connecticut,

75

at the U. S. Constitutional Convention in 1787, Americans invented an entirely new form of government never before seen in the history of the world

Federal System

76

Texas has one of the longest, most detailed, and most frequently amended state constitutions in the United States.

Most top state judges are selected using either nonpartisan elections or some type of merit plan rather than the Texas system of partisan election.