Encompassing two cultures
Belonging to two nations
A political ideology marked by the belief in a limited role for government in taxation, economic regulation, and providing social services, they support traditional values and lifestyles, and are cautious in response to social change
A descendant of European-Spanish (or in some regions, French) immigrants to the Americas's
Population characteristics such as age, gender, ethnicity, employment, and income, that social scientist use to describe groups in society
A pattern of political beliefs about how society and the economy operate, including policy orientations consistent with that pattern; a set of beliefs consistent with a particular political perspective
A political subculture that views government as a practical institution that should further private enterprise but intervene minimally in people's lives
Having family and/or business interests in two or more nations
A white supremacist organization. The first Klan was founded during the Reconstruction era following the Civil War
Ku Klux Klan (KKK0
A political ideology marked by the advocacy of positive government action to improve the welfare of individuals, government regulation of the economy, support to civil rights and tolerance for social change
A factory in the Mexican border region that assemblies goods, imported duty-free into Mexico for export in Spanish, it literally means "twin plant'
A person of both Spanish and Native American heritage.
The greater Dallas-Fort Worth metroplex area
A political subculture that views government as a positive force, one that values the individual but foncions to benefit the general public
A treaty among Canada, Mexico and the U.S. that calls for the gradual removal of tariff's and other trade restrictions NAFTA came into effect in 1994
North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA)
the dominant political values and beliefs in a nation or state
A quasi-feudal system whereby a property's owner or patron gives workers protection and employment in return for their loyalty and service. The rancher or ranchero and workers all live on the rancho or ranch
A political subculture that views government as an institution to maintain the dominant social and religious values
An area along the Texas side of the Rio Grande River known for the production of citrus fruits
The practice of excluding African Americans from Democratic Party primary elections in Texas. First enforced by law and later by party rules, this practice was found unconstitutional in Smith v. Alwright 321 US 649(1944)
A system of government in which one central government has ultimate authority, any regional or local government are subordinate to the central government
A system of government in which member state or regional governments have all authority and any central institutions have only the power that regional governments choose to give them; also known as confederacies.
A system of government in which governmental power is divided and shared between a national or central government and state or regional governments.
Those powers that the constitution gives to the national government. These include those enumerated powers found in article I, Section 8 of the U.S. Constitutional as well as a few other powers that have evolved over time.
Those delegated powers that are found in Article I, Section 8 and are clearly listed in the U.S. Constitution
Those delegated powers that are assumed to exist in order for the federal government to perform the functions that are expressly delegated. These powers are granted by the necessary and proper clause in Articl I Section *
Those delegated powers that come with an office or position- generally the executive branch. While the US Constitution does not clearly specify powers granted to the executive branch, over the inherited powers have evolved as part of the powers needed to perform the functions of the executive branch
Those powers that belong to the states. The legitimacy of these powers comes from the Tenth Admendment
Those powers tat are shared by both the national government and the states
Article VI, Section 2 of the US Constitution, which states that the US Constitution, as well as laws and treaties created in accordance with the US Constitution, supersede state and local laws.
Section of the US Constitution that reserves powers to the states. It reads as follows: "The powers not delegated to the US by the Constitution, nor prohibited by it to the States, are reserved to the States respectively, or to the people."
An enumerated power in Article I, Section 8 of the US Constitution that gives Congress the power to regulate commerce
The last clause in Article 1, Section 8 of the US Constitution that gives Congress implied powers.
Necessary and proper cluase
The understanding that the federal government and state government are both sovereign within their sphere of influence.
A relationship where "the National Government and the States are mutually complementary parts of a single government mechanism all of whose powers are intended to realize the current purposes of government according to their applicability to the problem in hane."
Federal aid to state or local governments for specific purposes, granted under restrictive conditions and often requiring matching funds from the receiving government.
Federal grants to state of local governments for more general purposes and with fewer restrictions than categorical grants.
The attempt to enhance the power of state or local governments, especially by substituting more flexible block grants instead of restrictive categorical grants in aid.
Doctrine that resulted from the Supreme Court ruling Plessey v. Ferguson that legalized segregation.
State and local laws that promulgated(promote) racial segregation
Jim Crow laws
A relationship between the national government and states in which the former directs the states on policies they must take.
Obligations that the federal government imposes on state governments with little or no funding to help support the program.
Certain rights found in the Bill or Rights are rights that cannot be encroached upon by the stares.
General public acceptance of government's right to govern; also, the legality of a government's existence conferred by a constitution
An owner-occupied property protected from forced sale under most circumstances
Property acquired during marriage and owned equally by both spouses.
Customs upheld by courts and deriving from British tradition.
A ballot that results from the election of a large number of independent executive and judicial officers; giving the chief executive the power to appoint most executive and judicial officers results in a short ballot.
Law passed by legislature and written into code books.
A court order requiring that an individual be presented in person and that legal cause be shown for confinement; it may result in release from unlawful detention.
Writ of habeas corpus
The principle behind the concept of a government with three branches--legislative, executive, and judicial.
Separation of powers
The concept that each branch of government is assigned power to limit abuse in the others.
Checks and balances
Consisting of two houses or chambers; applied to legislative body with two parts, such as a senate and a house of representatives (or state assembly)
Note: only Nebraska has a one-house(unicameral) legislature.
Regular legislative sessions are scheduled by the constitution. In Texas, they are held once every two years; hence they are biennial.
biennial regular session
A legislative session called by the Texas governor, who also sets its agenda.
detailed state constitutional policies of narrow scope, usually handled by status passed by legislative bodies
State constitutional provisions voided by a conflicting US constitutional or statutory law; also provisions made irrelevent by changing circumstances
An executive branch with power divided among several independent officers and a weak chief executive.
The authority to fire appointed officials. The Texas governor has limited removal powers; they extend only to officials he or she has appointed and are subject to the consent of 2/3 of the state senate.
Texas governor's authority to appoin supervisory boards but not operational directors for most state agencies
indirect appointive powers
The power to issue binding orders to state agencies; the directive authority of Texas's governor is severely limited.
The power to propose a spending plan to the legislative body; a power limited for Texas's governor because of the competing influences of the Legislative Budget Board
Executive authority to veto sections of a bill and allow the remainder to become a law.
The power of some governors to reduce amounts in an appropriations bill without striking them out; Texas's governor does not have this power.
Chief executive's power to kill legislation by simply ignoring it after the end of the legislative session; this power is not available to Texas's governor.
General elections in which candidates are nominated by political parties, and thei party labels appear on the ballot.
A method of selecting judges based on the candidate's qualifications rather than politics. Under this system, the governor fills court vacancies form a list of nominees submitted by a judicial commission, and these appointees later face retention elections. Also known as the Missouri Plan.
The legal right to vote.
An election method that allows citizens to place a proposal on the ballot for voter approval. If the measure passes, it becomes law(permitted in some Texas cities but not in state government)
An election that permits voters to determine if an ordinance or statute will go into effect
A special election to remove an official before the end of his or her term, initiated by citizen petition (permitted in some Texas cities but not in state government)
In Texas, the proposal of a constitutional amendment must be approved by two- thirds of the total membership of each house of the Texas legislature.
proposal of constitutional amendments
Approval of a constitutional amendment by a majority of voters.
a 1965 privacy case that overturned a state law criminalizing the use of birth control.
Griswold v. Connecticut,
at the U. S. Constitutional Convention in 1787, Americans invented an entirely new form of government never before seen in the history of the world
Texas has one of the longest, most detailed, and most frequently amended state constitutions in the United States.
Most top state judges are selected using either nonpartisan elections or some type of merit plan rather than the Texas system of partisan election.