Miicrobiology Lecture- Chapter 22 Microbial Diseases of the Nervous System

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1

Does the nervous system have any normal microflora?

no

2

The human nervous system is divied into 2 major components:

Central Nervous System-
-brain
-spinal cord

Peripheral Nervous system-
-nerves extending from the spinal cord

3

Bacteria in the nervous system can do great damage.
Why?

Because the central nervous system is the control mechanism for our body and bacteria causing disease in there is very serious.

4

CNS protection from physical damage:

Bone- The brain is encased in the skull
spinal cord within the vertebrae

Meninges- 3 protective layers

Blood Brain Barrier-made up of cerebral capillaries

5

The nervous system doesn't have phagocytic cells exactly but the do have __________ cells that have phagocytic capability that are unique to the nervous system.

microglial cells

6

The meninges are __________.

3 sheets of connective tissue that protect and encircle the brain and spinal cord.

7

The 3 layers of the meninges are:

Exterior to closest to brain:
Dura
Arachnoid
Pia
DAP

8

Cerebrospinal fluid is located?

subarachnoid space

9

A normal weight individual has how many mL of cerebrospinal fluid?

100-160 mL

10

Why would it be bad if you cracked your skull open and some microbes got into your CNS?

The CNS has little to no:
-antibodies
-phagocytic cells
-complement proteins

Lacking the complement system their is no lysing of foreign invaders, no enhancement of phagocytosis and no innate system to trigger the adaptive immune system.

11

The blood brain barrier consists of 3 layers of _________.

Capillaries

12

Characteristics of the BBB are:

thick
no pores
highly selective as to what gets through
-some substances can cross into the brain
-substances that typically cross are lipid soluble

13

In cases where medicines are needed to be taken for disease in the CNS what needs to be different about these medicines than in other parts of the body?

Higher dosage
lipid soluble

14

True or false capillaries in BBB are leaky in diseased state?

true

15

Inflammation as a result of infection makes ______ more ________ .Which in turn would let drugs cross over easier.

capillaries
permeable

16

The BBB is 3 layers

Feet of astrocytes
-which are specific to NS
Basement Membrane
Endothelial cells

17

The endothelial cells are held together by protein staples called?

tight junctions- nothing gets a crossed

18

Diseases of the NS

meningitis
encephalitis
meningoencephalitis

19

Meningitis

inflammation of the meninges

20

Encephalitis

inflammation of the brain

21

Meningoencephalitis

inflammation of the meninges and brain

22

True or false a lot of viruses that cause diseases causes humans to have flu like symptoms?

true

23

True or false humans and horses are often affected by the same viruses?

true

24

Meningitis is

inflammation of the meninges
Maybe caused by variety of microbes
usually caused by viruses
way more serious when caused by
-bacteria
-fungi
-protozoa

25

Meningitis is diagnosed by

sample of CSF taken from between the 3rd and 4th lumbar region.

26

If the CSF is turbid and thick what does that mean?

that the CSF is infected and hard to extract from the lumbar region

27

How do you ID the bacteria from CSF?

gram stain
bacterial cultures
-separate colonies
-serial dilution

latex agglutination tests
-latex made for the most common bacterial causes of meningitis
-clumps it is positive for that bacteria
- not good for less common bacteria or viruses
-quick results

28

Bacterial nerve diseases: they are neuroparalytic

Hansen disease- Leprosy
Tetanus
Botulism

29

Hansen's disease is caused by

Mycobacterium leprae
-only bacterium known to cause damage to the PNS
-slow growing ( 12 days to replicate from 1--->2 cells
-acid fast bacteria

30

Tetanus is caused by

Clostridium tetani
-spore forming bacillus

31

Botulism caused by

Clostridium botulinum- most potent toxin known to man
-endospore
mainly due to food poisoning- ingestion of spores

32

There are 3 types of botulism

infant
wound- rarest form
food

33

In Hansen's disease (Leprosy) people tend to be ____________.

asymptomatic at first
slow growth

34

Hansen's disease destroys ________ and _________.

skin
mucous membrane

35

Mycobacterium travel to _______ areas of the body such as appendages, ears, skin and nose.

cooler

36

The Island of Molokai was _____________.

A leper colony where people with Hansen's disease were sent to live out their natural lives with no medical attention

37

Tetanus symptoms are:

muscle spasms
stiffness
lockjaw (one of the first signs)
arched back
clenched fists

38

Tetanus prevents ______________.

muscle relaxation- death usually due to asphyxia if respiratory muscles are affected

39

In tetanus the _________ is causing the problem not the _________.

toxin
bacteria

40

Clostridium tetani is

obligate anaerobe- O2 kills it

41

In tetanus the bacteria is preventing the glycine signal to be released so it doesn't prevent _______
from being disbursed causing constant contractions no muscle relaxation.

acetylcholine

42

If someone steps on a nail and gets a puncture wound and needs quick attention and not immunized they receive the __________

TIG - tetanus immune globulin which immediately makes mass # of antibodies

43

If a person who is immunized against tetanus has the same scenario they receive the ______

toxoid vaccine

44

1 million cases of tetanus world wide over 1/2 are in _________.

infants

45

Botulism is derived from the Latin meaning _______ and is ______ shaped. Even a taste of this can be fatal.

sausage
bacillus

46

Botulism produces ________ which affects neuromuscular junction.

exotoxin (neurotoxin)

47

Infant botulism was first discovered in 1976. Also referred to as _______________.

floppy baby syndrome (flaccid state)cannot contract muscles

48

Should infants be given honey?

no

49

Food botulism is the most common. Caused by _______.

Intoxication- caused by toxin not bacteria

50

True or false 1 ounce can kill the entire U.S. population.

true

51

True or false. In California 10% of the jars of honey sold contain botulism.

true

52

Wound botulism is introduced deep enough to be in an _________ environment.

anaerobic

53

Wound botulism is:

least common form of botulism
no more than 1 case per year in the U.S.
occurs in deep wounds
Tissue damage impairs circulation
Toxins reach tight junctions between neurons and muscle cells

54

Positive form of botulism

Botox
relaxes muscles to wrinkle less