Nervous System // spinal cord

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created 9 years ago by cryina
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updated 9 years ago by cryina
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1

This is a neuron that has one process that branches into a dendrite and an axon.

a unipolar neuron

2

This is the most common type of neuron in the bran and spinal cord

multiple neurons

3

This type of neurons that are in the retina of the eye

Bipolar neurons

4

Sensory neurons that are found in Peripheral Nervous system

Unipolar neurons

5

This type of neuron has two processes, one dendrite and one axon.

Bipolar neuron

6

This is the type of neuron found in motor neurons in the peripheral nervous system

multipolar neurons

7

Basic parts of all neurons

dentrite, cell body, axon

8

what are located at the ends of an axon?

synaptic knob

9

this type of neuron has many dendrites & one axon

multipolar neuron

10

What connects the neuron to a muslce/gland/another neuron?

synapse (a small space)

11

Where is the neural impulse created?

a dendrite

12

Name 5 regions of the spinal cord

Cervical, thoracic, lumbar, sacral, coccygeal

13

State the number of pairs exiting out of the s

8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral

14

True/false motor neurons are located in the ventral root

False

15

True/false somatic visceral motor neurons are located in the anterior & lateral grey horns

True

16

What kind of nerves does spinal nerve contain.

Mixed

17

What are meningi?

Coverings of the brain

18

What are the 3 meninges that cover the brain?

dura mater, arachnoid, pia mater

19

What do the Spinal Meninges provide?

Physical support, shock absorption CFS & blood vessels deliver nutrients & oxygen

20

True/False:

Spinal Meninges are continues with the cranial meninges

True

21

What kind of tissue is the Arachnoid meningi made up of?

Epithelium

22

What does the denticulate ligament prevent?

lateral movement of the cord (side-to-side)

23

in what two spinal regions is the lateral horn found in?

The theracic & Lumbar

24

Cell bodies of motor neurons are found here

ventral gray horn

25

This Layer of the spinal cord contains large number sof axons organized in tracts & columbs

White Matter

26

What kind of nuclei do the gray horns contain?

somatic & visceral

27

The location of somatic motor nuclei

anterior gray horn

28

This location contains visceral motor nuclei

Lateral grey horn.

Also associated with sympathetic portion of Autonomic system

29

Where do the cervical enlargements supply nerves to?

shoulder girdles and upper limbs

30

This layer of the spinal cord contains cell bodies of neurons, neuroglia & unmyelinated axons

Gray matter

31

where do lumbar enlargements supply nerves to?

pelvis and lower limbs

32

What is the filum terminale?

slender strand of fibrous tissue, extending from the tip of the concus medullaris, to sacral vertebra providing longitudinal support of the spinal cord

33

True/False

After age 4 the vertebral column continues to elongate; spinal cord does now.

True.

34

Where does the adult spinal cord extend down to?

down to the second lumbar vertebra

35

continuation of nerves after the spinal cord that start around the L2 level are called this ___

hint: it looks like a horse's tail in a gross dissection

Cauda Equina

36

What is another name for a tract?

Fasciculus

37

What is a tract?

bundle of axons that relay the same type of information (uniform in respect to diameter, mylination & conduction speed

38

What do Ascending (afferent) tracts carry?

Sensory information toward the brain

39

What do descending (efferent) tracts carry?

Motor commands to the spinal cord

40

What two things decussate in the Spinal cord?

both sensory & motor information

ex: left side of the brain receives sensory information from the right side of the body & sends its motor commands to that side

41

How does ascending tracts work?

hint: there are 3 steps

First order: caries info to periphery from spinal cord where it synapses with 2nd order neuron

Second order neuron: Carries information from spinal cord to thalamus & synapses with 3rd order neuron.

Third order neuron: Carries info from thalamus to sensory cortex. This is where sensation is localized

42

Where is sensation first noticed?

Thalamus

43

True/False

Upper motor neuron is a PNS tissue

False. It is a CNS tissue

44

True/False

Nerves are part of the peripheral nervous system

True

45

True/False

Perineurium encloses all of the fascicles and forms the tough fibrous sheath enclosing the nerve

False. This is the Epineurium. The Perineurium bundle axons into fascicles

46

Where is the cervical plexus located?

c1-c5

47

Where is the brachial plexus located?

c5-T1

48

Where is the intercostal nerves located?

T1-T12

49

Where is the lumbar plexus located?

L1-L4

50

Where is the Sacral plexus located?

l4-s4

51

What is the major nerve running through the cervical plexus?

Phrenic nerve

52

What are the Nerves that are found in the brachial plexus?

Radial, ulnar, median, axillary

53

Largest nerve of the lumbar plexus

Femoral nerve

54

Where does the sacral plexus innervate?

Buttocks and lower limb

55

What nerve branches from the tibial and common fibular nerve?

Sciatic nerve

56

What is the purpose of reflexes?

To preserve homeostasis by making rapid adjustments in the function of organs

57

True/False

Reflexes can be learned

True

58

True/False axon sensory neurons sends impluse to the spinal cord by way of ventral root

False. Dorsal root

59

When you lean on a hot stove & pull your hand away, what kind of reflex is it?

Spinal cord reflex

60

Steps in a spinal cord reflex

1. arrival of stimulus
2.the activation of sensory neuron
3.Information processing by integration center
4.The activation of a motor neuron
5.The response of a peripheral effector

61

Which is NOT an example of a somatic stretch reflect

Knee jerk reflex or Rooting reflex

Rooting reflex

62

True/False

Most reflex arcs are polysynaptic, involving one or more interneurons

True

63

True/False

Ipsilateral reflex arcs have the sensory input and motor output on the opposite side of the CNS

False

64

True/False

Intersegmental reflex arcs have their output at a different vertical level of the spinal cord than their input

True

65

Which of the following reflexes is NOT an example of somatic reflex?

Reciprocal inhibition, corneal reflex, postural reflex, golgi tendon relfex

Corneal reflex. This is a type of Innate reflex