Chapter 15 The Female Reproductive System; Pregnancy and Birth

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 15
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1

gyn/o, gynec/o

woman

Ex. Gynecology
study of women's diseases

2

men/o, mens

month, menstruation

Ex. Premenstrual
before a menstrual periods

3

oo

ovum, egg cell

Ex. Oocyte
cell that gives rise to an ovum

4

ov/o, ovul/o

ovum, egg cell

Ex. Anovulatory
absence of egg ripening or of ovulation

5

ovari/o

ovary

Ex. Ovariopexy
surgical fixation of an ovary

6

oophor/o

ovary

Ex. Oophorectomy
excision of an ovary

7

salping/o

tube, uterine tube

Ex. Salpingoplasty
plastic repair of a uterine tube

8

uter/o

uterus

Ex. Intrauterine
within the uterus

9

metr/o, metr/i

uterus

Ex. Metrorrhea
abnormal uterine discharge

10

hyster/o

uterus

Ex. Hysterotomy
incision of the uterus

11

cervic/o

cervix, neck

Ex. Endocervical
pertaining to the lining of the cervix

12

vagin/o

vagina

Ex. Vaginometer
instrument for measuring the vagina

13

colp/o

vagina

Ex. Colpostenosis
narrowing of the vagina

14

vulv/o

vulva

Ex. Vulvar
pertaining to the vulva

15

episi/o

vulva

Ex. Episiotomy
incision of the vulva

16

perine/o

perineum

Ex. Perineal
pertaining to the perineum

17

clitor/o, clitorid/o

clitoris

Ex. Clitorectomy
excision of the clitoris

18

mamm/o

breast, mammary gland

Ex. Mammoplasty
plastic surgery of the breast

19

mast/o

breast, mammary gland

Ex. Amastia
absence of the breasts

20

amnio

amnion, amniotic sac

Ex. Diamniotic
showing two amniotic sacs

21

embry/o

embryo

Ex. Embryonic
pertaining to the embryo

22

fet/o

fetus

Ex. Fetometry
measurement of a fetus

23

toc/o

labor

Ex. Dystocia
difficult labor

24

nat/i

birth

Ex. Neonate
newborn

25

lact/o

milk

Ex. Lactose
sugar (-ose) found in milk

26

galact/o

milk

Ex. Galactogogue
agent that promotes (-agogue) the flow of milk

27

gravida

pregnant woman

Ex. Nulligravida
woman who has never (nulli-) been pregnant

28

para

woman who has given birth

Ex. Multipara
woman who has given birth two or more times

29

cervix

Neck. Usually means the lower narrow portion (neck) of the uterus (root: cervic/o); cervix uteri (U-ter-ī)

30

clitoris

A small erectile body anterior to the urethral opening that is similar in origin to the penis (root: clitor/o, clitorid/o)

31

contraception

The prevention of pregnancy

32

corpus luteum

The small yellow structure that develops from the graafian follicle after ovulation and secretes progesterone and estrogen

33

cul de sac

A blind pouch, such as the recess between the rectum and the uterus; the rectouterine pouch or pouch of Douglas

34

endometrium

The inner lining of the uterus

35

estrogen

A group of hormones that produce female characteristics and prepare the uterus for the fertilized egg. The most active of these is estradiol

36

fallopian tube

See uterine tube

37

fimbriae

The long fingerlike extensions of the oviduct that wave to capture the released ovum (singular: fimbria)

38

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the female, it stimulates ripening of the ova in the ovary

39

fornix

An archlike space, such as the space between the uppermost wall of the vagina and the cervix; from Latin meaning “arch”

40

labia majora

The two large folds of skin that form the sides of the vulva (root labi/o means “lip”) (singular: labium majus)

41

labia minora

The two small folds of skin within the labia majora (singular: labium minus)

42

luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the female, it stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum

43

mammary gland

A specialized gland capable of secreting milk in the female; the breast (root: mamm/o, mast/o)

44

menarche

The first menstrual period, which normally occurs during puberty

45

menopause

Cessation of menstrual cycles in the female

46

menstruation

The cyclic discharge of blood and mucosal tissues from the lining of the nonpregnant uterus (root: men/o, mens); menstrual period, menses (MEN-sēz)

47

myometrium

The muscular wall of the uterus

48

ovarian follicle

The cluster of cells in which the ovum ripens in the ovary

49

ovary

A female gonad (root: ovari/o, oophor/o)

50

ovulation

The release of a mature ovum from the ovary (from ovule, meaning “little egg”)

51

ovum

The female gamete or reproductive cell (plural: ova) (root: oo, ov/o)

52

perineum

The region between the thighs from the external genitals to the anus (root: perine/o)

53

progesterone

A hormone produced by the corpus luteum and the placenta that maintains the endometrium for pregnancy

54

tubal ligation

Surgical constriction of the oviducts to produce sterilization

55

uterine tube

A tube extending from the upper lateral portion of the uterus that carries the ovum to the uterus (root: salping/o). Also called fallopian tube

56

uterus

The organ that receives the fertilized egg and maintains the developing offspring during pregnancy (root: uter/o, metr, hyster/o)

57

vagina

The muscular tube between the cervix and the vulva (root: vagin/o, colp/o)

58

vulva

The external female genital organs (root: vulv/o, episi/o)

59

candidiasis

Infection with the fungus Candida, a common cause of vaginitis

60

dysmenorrhea

Painful or difficult menstruation. A common disorder that may be caused by infection, use of an intrauterine device, endometriosis, overproduction of prostaglandins, or other factors

61

endometriosis

Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic cavity

62

fibroid

Benign tumor of smooth muscle (see leiomyoma)

63

leiomyoma

Benign tumor of smooth muscle, usually in the uterine wall (myometrium). In the uterus, may cause bleeding and pressure on the bladder or rectum. Also called fibroid or myoma

64

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Condition caused by the spread of infection from the reproductive tract into the pelvic cavity. Commonly caused by sexually transmitted gonorrhea and chlamydial infections

65

salpingitis

Inflammation of the oviduct; typically caused by urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection. Chronic salpingitis may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy (development of the fertilized egg outside of the uterus)

66

vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina

67

colposcope

Instrument for examining the vagina and cervix

68

cone biopsy

Removal of a cone of tissue from the lining of the cervix for cytologic examination; also called conization

69

dilation and curettage (D&C)

Procedure in which the cervix is dilated (widened) and the uterine lining is scraped with a curette

70

hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus. Most commonly done because of tumors. Often the oviducts and ovaries are removed as well

71

mammography

Radiographic study of the breast for the detection of breast cancer

72

mastectomy

Excision of the breast to eliminate malignancy

73

oophorectomy

Excision of an ovary

74

Pap smear

Study of cells collected from the cervix and vagina for early detection of cancer. Also called Papanicolaou smear or Pap test.

75

salpingectomy

Surgical removal of the oviduct

76

Sentinel node biopsy

Biopsy of the first lymph nodes to receive drainage from a tumor; used to determine spread of cancer in planning treatment

77

stereotactic biopsy

Needle biopsy using a computer-guided imaging system to locate suspicious tissue and remove samples for study

78

adnexa

Appendages, such as the adnexa uteri—the ovaries, oviducts, and uterine ligaments

79

areola

A pigmented ring, such as the dark area around the nipple of the breast

80

graafian follicle

Mature ovarian follicle

81

greater vestibular gland

A small mucus-secreting gland on the side of the vestibule (see below) near the vaginal opening. Also called Bartholin (BAR-tō-lin) gland

82

hymen

A fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance of the vagina

83

mons pubis

The rounded, fleshy elevation anterior to the pubic joint that is covered with hair after puberty

84

oocyte

An immature ovum

85

perimenopause

The period immediately before and after menopause; begins at the time of irregular menstrual cycles and ends one year after the last menstrual period; averages three to four years

86

vestibule

The space between the labia minora that contains the openings of the urethra, vagina, and ducts of the greater vestibular glands

87

cystocele

Herniation of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina

88

dyspareunia

Pain during sexual intercourse

89

fibrocystic disease of the breast

A condition in which there are palpable lumps in the breasts, usually associated with pain and tenderness. These lumps or “thickenings” change with the menstrual cycle and must be distinguished from malignant tumors by diagnostic methods

90

hirsutism

Excess growth of hair

91

cystocele

Herniation of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina

92

dyspareunia

Pain during sexual intercourse

93

fibrocystic disease of the breast

A condition in which there are palpable lumps in the breasts, usually associated with pain and tenderness. These lumps or “thickenings” change with the menstrual cycle and must be distinguished from malignant tumors by diagnostic methods

94

hirsutism

Excess growth of hair

95

culdocentesis

Puncture of the vaginal wall to sample fluid from the rectouterine space for diagnosis

96

episiorrhaphy

Suture of the vulva or suture of the perineum cut in an episiotomy (incision to ease childbirth)

97

laparoscopy

Endoscopic examination of the abdomen; may include surgical procedures, such as tubal ligation

98

myomectomy

Surgical removal of a uterine leiomyoma (fibroid, myoma)

99

speculum

An instrument used to enlarge the opening of a passage or cavity to allow examination

100

teletherapy

Delivery of radiation to a tumor from an external beam source, as compared to implantation of radioactive material (brachytherapy) or systemic administration of radionuclide

101

aromatase inhibitor (AI)

Agent that inhibits estrogen production; used for postmenopausal treatment of breast cancers that respond to estrogen. Examples are exemestane (Aromasin), anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara)

102

bisphosphonate

Agent used to prevent and treat osteoporosis; increases bone mass by decreasing bone turnover. Examples are alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel)

103

HER2 inhibitor

Drug used to treat breast cancers that show excess receptors (HER2) for human epidermal growth factor. Example is trastuzumab (Herceptin)

104

paclitaxel

Antineoplastic agent derived from yew trees used mainly in treatment of breast and ovarian cancer; Taxol

105

selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

Drug that acts on estrogen receptors. Examples are tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista), which is also used to prevent bone loss after menopause

106

amniotic sac

The membranous sac filled with fluid that holds the fetus; also called amnion (root: amnio)

107

Apgar score

A system of rating an infant’s physical condition immediately after birth. Five features are rated as 0, 1, or 2 at one and five minutes after delivery and sometimes thereafter

108

chorion

The outermost layer of the embryo that, with the endometrium, forms the placenta (adjective: chorionic)

109

colostrum

Breast fluid that is secreted in the first few days after giving birth, before milk is produced

110

ductus arteriosus

A fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta, thus allowing blood to bypass the lungs

111

embryo

The stage in development between the zygote and the fetus, extending from the second through the eighth week of growth in the uterus (root: embry/o); adjective: embryonic

112

fertilization

The union of an ovum and a spermatozoon

113

fetus

The developing child in the uterus from the third month to birth (root: fet/o); adjective: fetal

114

foramen ovale

A small hole in the intraatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to pass directly from the right to the left side of the heart

115

gestation

The period of development from conception to birth

116

gravida

Pregnant woman

117

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone secreted by the embryo early in pregnancy that maintains the corpus luteum so that it will continue to secrete hormones

118

lactation

The secretion of milk from the mammary glands

119

oxytocin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates contractions of the uterus. It also stimulates release (“letdown”) of milk from the breasts

120

para

Woman who has produced a viable infant. Multiple births are considered as single pregnancies

121

parturition

Childbirth (root: nat/i); labor (root: toc/o)

122

placenta

The organ, composed of fetal and maternal tissues, that nourishes and maintains the developing fetus

123

prostaglandins

A group of hormones with varied effects, including the stimulation of uterine contractions

124

umbilical cord

The structure that connects the fetus to the placenta. It contains vessels that carry blood between the mother and the fetus

125

zygote

The fertilized ovum

126

abortion

Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus, usually at 20 wk or 500 g. May be spontaneous or induced. A spontaneous abortion is commonly called a miscarriage

127

anencephaly

Congenital absence of a brain

128

atresia

Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening

129

carrier

An individual who has an unexpressed genetic defect that can be passed to his or her children

130

cleft lip

A congenital separation of the upper lip

131

cleft palate

A congenital split in the roof of the mouth

132

congenital disorder

A disorder that is present at birth. May be developmental or hereditary (familial)

133

eclampsia

Convulsions and coma occurring during pregnancy or after delivery and associated with the conditions of pregnancy-induced hypertension (see below) (adjective: eclamptic)

134

ectopic pregnancy

Development of the fertilized ovum outside the body of the uterus. Usually occurs in the oviduct (tubal pregnancy) but may occur in other parts of the reproductive tract or abdominal cavity

135

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Disease that results from Rh incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to Rh-positive fetal red cells that enter her circulation. These antibodies can destroy Rh-positive fetal red cells in a later pregnancy unless the mother is treated with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen. Formerly called erythroblastosis fetalis

136

mastitis

Inflammation of the breast, usually associated with the early weeks of breastfeeding

137

mutation

A change in the genetic material of the cell. Most mutations are harmful. If the change appears in the sex cells, it can be passed to future generations

138

placental abruption

Premature separation of the placenta; abruptio placentae

139

placenta previa

A placenta that is attached in the lower portion of the uterus instead of the upper portion, as is normal. May result in hemorrhage late in pregnancy

140

pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

A toxic condition of late pregnancy associated with hypertension, edema, and proteinuria that, if untreated, may lead to eclampsia. Also called preeclampsia (prē-e-KLAMP-sē-a) and toxemia of pregnancy

141

spina bifida

A congenital defect in the closure of the spinal column through which the spinal cord and its membranes may project

142

teratogen

A factor that causes developmental abnormalities in the fetus (root terat/o means “malformed fetus”); adjective: teratogenic

143

amniocentesis

Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid for testing. Tests on the cells and fluid obtained can reveal congenital abnormalities, blood incompatibility, and sex of the fetus

144

chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Removal of chorionic cells through the cervix for prenatal testing. Can be done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis

145

dilatation and evacuation (D&E)

Widening of the cervix and removal of conception products by suction

146

karyotype

A picture of the chromosomes of a cell arranged in order of decreasing size; can reveal abnormalities in the chromosomes themselves or in their number or arrangement (root kary/o means “nucleus”)

147

ultrasonography

The use of high-frequency sound waves to produce a photograph of an organ or tissue. Used in obstetrics to diagnose pregnancy, multiple births, and abnormalities and also to study and measure the fetus. The picture obtained is a sonogram or ultrasonogram

148

afterbirth

The placenta and membranes delivered after birth of a child

149

antepartum

Before childbirth, with reference to the mother

150

Braxton–Hicks contractions

Light uterine contractions that occur during pregnancy and increase in frequency and intensity during the third trimester. They strengthen the uterus for delivery

151

chloasma

Brownish pigmentation that appears on the face during pregnancy; melasma

152

fontanel

A membrane-covered space between cranial bones in the fetus that later becomes ossified; a soft spot. Also spelled fontanelle

153

intrapartum

Occurring during childbirth

154

linea nigra

A dark line on the abdomen from the umbilicus to the pubic region that may appear late in pregnancy

155

lochia

The mixture of blood, mucus, and tissue discharged from the uterus after childbirth

156

meconium

The first feces of the newborn

157

peripartum

Occurring during the end of pregnancy or the first few months after delivery, with reference to the mother

158

postpartum

After childbirth, with reference to the mother

159

premature

Describing an infant born before the organ systems are fully developed; immature

160

preterm

Occurring before the 37th week of gestation; describing an infant born before the 37th week of gestation

161

puerperium

The first 42 days after childbirth, during which the mother's reproductive organs usually return to normal (root: puer means “child”)

162

striae atrophicae

Pinkish or gray lines that appear where skin has been stretched, as in pregnancy; stretch marks, striae gravidarum

163

umbilicus

The scar in the middle of the abdomen that marks the attachment point of the umbilical cord to the fetus; the navel

164

vernix caseosa

The cheeselike deposit that covers and protects the fetus (literally “cheesy varnish”)

165

cephalopelvic disproportion

The condition in which the head of the fetus is larger than the pelvic outlet; also called fetopelvic disproportion

166

choriocarcinoma

A rare malignant neoplasm composed of placental tissue

167

galactorrhea

Excessive secretion of milk or continuation of milk production after breastfeeding has ceased. Often results from excess prolactin secretion and may signal a pituitary tumor.

168

hydatidiform mole

A benign overgrowth of placental tissue. The placenta dilates and resembles grapelike cysts. The neoplasm may invade the wall of the uterus, causing rupture. Also called hydatid mole.

169

hydramnios

An excess of amniotic fluid; also called polyhydramnios

170

oligohydramnios

A deficiency of amniotic fluid

171

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth so that blood continues to shunt from the pulmonary artery to the aorta

172

puerperal infection

Infection of the genital tract after delivery

173

abortifacient

Agent that induces abortion

174

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

A fetal protein that may be elevated in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in cases of certain fetal disorders

175

artificial insemination (AI)

Placement of active semen into the vagina or cervix for the purpose of impregnation. The semen can be from a husband, partner, or donor

176

cesarean section

Incision of the abdominal wall and uterus for delivery of a fetus

177

culdocentesis

Puncture of the vaginal wall to sample fluid from the rectouterine space for diagnosis

178

endometrial ablation

Selective destruction of the endometrium for therapeutic purpose; done to relieve excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)

179

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

A technique for pulmonary bypass in which deoxygenated blood is removed, passed through a circuit that oxygenates the blood, and then returned. Used for selected newborn and pediatric patients in respiratory failure with an otherwise good prognosis

180

in vitro fertilization (IVF)

Clinical procedure for achieving fertilization when it cannot be accomplished naturally. An oocyte (immature ovum) is removed, fertilized in the laboratory, and placed as a zygote into the uterus or fallopian tube (ZIFT, zygote intrafallopian transfer). Alternatively, an ovum can be removed and placed along with sperm cells into the fallopian tube (GIFT, gamete intrafallopian transfer)

181

obstetrics

The branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium. Usually combined with the practice of gynecology

182

pediatrics

The branch of medicine that treats children and diseases of children (root: ped/o means “child”)

183

pelvimetry

Measurement of the pelvis by manual examination or radiographic study to determine whether delivery of a fetus through the vagina will be possible

184

Pitocin

Trade name for oxytocin; used to induce and hasten labor

185

presentation

Term describing the part of the fetus that can be felt by vaginal or rectal examination. Normally the head presents first (vertex presentation), but sometimes the buttocks (breech presentation), face, or other part presents first

186

Rho-GAM

Trade name for a preparation of antibody to the Rh(D) antigen; used to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn in cases of Rh incompatibility

187

AI

Aromatase inhibitor

188

BRCA1

Breast cancer gene 1

189

BRCA2

Breast cancer gene 2

190

BSE

Breast self-examination

191

BSO

Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy

192

BV

Bacterial vaginosis

193

CIN

Cervical intraepithelial neoplasia

194

D&C

Dilation and curettage

195

DCIS

Ductal carcinoma in situ

196

DES

Diethylstilbestrol

197

DUB

Dysfunctional uterine bleeding

198

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

199

GC

Gonococcus (cause of gonorrhea)

200

GYN

Gynecology

201

HPV

Human papillomavirus

202

HRT

Hormone replacement therapy

203

IUD

Intrauterine device

204

LH

Luteinizing hormone

205

NGU

Nongonococcal urethritis

206

PCOS

Polycystic ovarian syndrome

207

PID

Pelvic inflammatory disease

208

PMS

Premenstrual syndrome

209

SERM

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

210

STD

Sexually transmitted disease

211

STI

Sexually transmitted infection

212

TAH

Total abdominal hysterectomy

213

TSS

Toxic shock syndrome

214

UFE

Uterine fibroid embolization

215

VD

Venereal disease (sexually transmitted disease)

216

AB

Abortion

217

AFP

Alpha-fetoprotein

218

AGA

Appropriate for gestational age

219

AI

Artificial insemination

220

ART

Assisted reproductive technology

221

C

section - Cesarean section

222

CPD

Cephalopelvic disproportion

223

CVS

Chorionic villus sampling

224

D&E

Dilatation and evacuation

225

ECMO

Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation

226

EDC

Estimated date of confinement

227

FHR

Fetal heart rate

228

FHT

Fetal heart tone

229

FTND

Full-term normal delivery

230

FTP

Full-term pregnancy

231

GA

Gestational age

232

GIFT

Gamete intrafallopian transfer

233

hCG

Human chorionic gonadotropin

234

HDN

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

235

IVF

In vitro fertilization

236

LMP

Last menstrual period

237

NB

Newborn

238

NICU

Neonatal intensive care unit

239

OB

Obstetrics, obstetrician

240

PDA

Patent ductus arteriosus

241

PIH

Pregnancy-induced hypertension

242

PKU

Phenylketonuria

243

SVD

Spontaneous vaginal delivery

244

UC

Uterine contractions

245

UTP

Uterine term pregnancy

246

VBAC

Vaginal birth after cesarean section

247

ZIFT

Zygote intrafallopian transfer