Chapter 14: The Male Reproductive System

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 14
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1

test/o

testis, testicle

Ex. Testosterone
hormone produced in the testis

2

orchi/o, orchid/o

testis

Ex. Anarchism
absence of a testis

3

osche/o

scrotum

Ex. Oscheal
pertaining to the scrotum

4

semin

semen

Ex. Inseminate
to introduce semen into a vagina

5

sperm/i, spermat/o

semen, spermatozoa

Ex. Polyspermia
secretion of excess semen

6

epididym/o

epididymis

Ex. Epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis

7

vas/o

vas deferens, ductus deferens; also vessel

Ex. Vasostomy
surgical creation of an opening in the ductus deferens

8

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

Ex. Vesiculogram
radiograph of a seminal vesicle

9

prostat/o

prostate

Ex. Prostatometer
instrument for measuring the prostate

10

epididymis

A coiled tube on the surface of the testis that stores sperm until ejaculation (root: epididym/o)

11

erection

The stiffening or hardening of the penis or the clitoris, usually because of sexual excitement

12

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the male, FSH stimulates Sertoli cells and promotes sperm cell development

13

gamete

A mature reproductive cell, the spermatozoon in the male and the ovum in the female

14

glans penis

The bulbous end of the penis

15

gonad

A sex gland; testis or ovary

16

inguinal canal

The channel through which the testis descends into the scrotum in the male

17

androgen

Any hormone that produces male characteristics; root andr/o means “male”

18

bulbourethral gland

A small gland beside the urethra below the prostate that secretes part of the seminal fluid. Also called Cowper gland

19

circumcision

Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce (foreskin)

20

coitus

Sexual intercourse

21

ductus deferens

The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Also called vas deferens

22

ejaculation

Ejection of semen from the male urethra

23

ejaculatory duct

The duct formed by union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle; it carries spermatozoa and seminal fluid into the urethra

24

interstitial cells

Cells located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce hormones, mainly testosterone. Also called cells of Leydig (LI-dig).

25

luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads

26

meiosis

The type of cell division that forms the gametes; it results in cells with 23 chromosomes, half the number found in other body cells (from the Greek word meiosis meaning “diminution”)

27

penis

The male organ of copulation and urination (adjective: penile)

28

pituitary gland

An endocrine gland at the base of the brain

29

prepuce

The fold of skin over the glans penis; the foreskin

30

prostate gland

A gland that surrounds the urethra below the bladder in males and contributes secretions to the semen (root: prostat/o)

31

puberty

Period during which the ability for sexual reproduction is attained and secondary sex characteristics begin to develop

32

scrotum

A double pouch that contains the testes (root: osche/o)

33

semen

The thick secretion that transports spermatozoa (roots: semin, sperm/I, spermat/o)

34

seminal vesicle

A saclike gland behind the bladder that contributes secretions to the semen (root: vesicul/o)

35

Sertoli cells

Cells in the seminiferous tubules that aid in the development of spermatozoa; sustentacular (sus-ten-TAK-ū-lar) cells

36

spermatic cord

Cord attached to the testis that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves enclosed within a fibrous sheath

37

spermatozoon

Mature male sex cells (plural: spermatozoa) (root: sperm/i, spermat/o)

38

testis

The male reproductive gland (plural is also called testicles)

39

testosterone

The main male sex hormone

40

urethra

The duct that carries urine out of the body and also transports semen in the male

41

vas deferens

The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Also called ductus deferens

42

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate; frequently develops with age; also called benign prostatic hypertrophy

43

cryptorchidism

Failure of the testis to descend into the scrotum

44

epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis. Common causes are UTIs and STIs

45

erectile dysfunction

A lack of ability to perform intercourse in males because of failure to initiate or maintain an erection until ejaculation; impotence

46

impotence

Erectile dysfunction

47

infertility

Decreased capacity to produce offspring

48

inguinal hernia

Protrusion of the intestine or other abdominal organ through the inguinal canal or through the wall of the abdomen into the scrotum

49

orchitis

Inflammation of a testis. May be caused by injury, mumps virus, or other infections

50

prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate gland. Often appears with UTI, STI, and a variety of other stresses

51

sexually transmitted infection (STI)

Infection spread through sexual activity; also called sexually transmitted disease (STD) and formerly venereal (ve-NĒR-ē-al) disease (VD) (from Venus, the goddess of love)

52

sterility

Complete inability to produce offspring

53

urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra; often caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia infections

54

herniorrhaphy

Surgical repair of a hernia

55

prostatectomy

Surgical removal of the prostate

56

vasectomy

Excision of the vas deferens. Usually done bilaterally to produce sterility. May be accomplished through the urethra (transurethral resection)

57

emission

The discharge of semen

58

genitalia

The organs concerned with reproduction, divided into internal and external components

59

insemination

Introduction of semen into a woman's vagina

60

orgasm

A state of physical and emotional excitement, especially that which occurs at the climax of sexual intercourse

61

phallus

The penis

62

balanitis

Inflammation of the glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it (root balan/o means “glans penis”)

63

bladder neck obstruction (BNO)

Blockage of urine flow at the outlet of the bladder. The common cause is benign prostatic hyperplasia

64

hydrocele

The accumulation of fluid in a saclike cavity, especially within the covering of the testis or spermatic cord

65

phimosis

Narrowing of the prepuce’s opening so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis

66

priapism

Abnormal, painful, continuous erection of the penis, as may be caused by drugs or specific damage to the spinal cord

67

seminoma

A tumor of the testis

68

spermatocele

An epididymal cyst containing spermatozoa

69

varicocele

Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord

70

brachytherapy

Radiation therapy by placement of encapsulated radiation sources, such as seeds, directly into a tumor or nearby tissue (from Greek brachy-, meaning “short”)

71

castration

Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries. Hormones and drugs can inhibit the gonads, to produce functional castration

72

Gleason tumor grade

A system for assessing the severity of cancerous changes in the prostate; reported as a Gleason score

73

rectoscope

Endoscopic instrument for transurethral removal of tissue from the bladder, prostate, uterus, or urethra

74

Whitmore-Jewett staging

A method for staging prostatic tumors; and alternate to TNM staging

75

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

76

BNO

Bladder neck obstruction

77

BPH

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (hypertrophy)

78

DRE

Digital rectal examination

79

ED

Erectile dysfunction

80

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

81

GC

Gonococcus

82

GU

Genitourinary

83

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

84

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

85

HSV

Herpes simplex virus

86

LH

Luteinizing hormone

87

NGU

Nongonococcal urethritis

88

PSA

Prostate-specific antigen

89

STD

Sexually transmitted disease

90

STI

Sexually transmitted infection

91

TPUR

Transperineal urethral resection

92

TSE

Testicular self-examination

93

TUIP

Transurethral incision of prostate

94

TURP

Transurethral resection of prostate

95

UG

Urogenital

96

UTI

Urinary tract infection

97

VD

Venereal disease (sexually transmitted infection)

98

VDRL

Venereal Disease Research Laboratory (test for syphilis)