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1

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A hormone released from the pituitary gland that causes water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus concentrating the urine

2

angiotensin

A substance that increases blood pressure; activated in the blood by renin, an enzyme produced by the kidneys

3

calyx

A cuplike cavity in the pelvis of the kidney; also calix (plural: calices) (root: cali, calic)

4

diuresis

Increased excretion of urine

5

diuretic

A substance that increases the excretion of urine; pertaining to diuresis

6

erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow

7

glomerular capsule

The cup-shaped structure at the beginning of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and receives material filtered out of the blood; Bowman (BŌ-man) capsule

8

glomerular filtrate

The fluid and dissolved materials that filter out of the blood and enter the nephron through the glomerular capsule

9

glomerulus

The cluster of capillaries within the glomerular capsule (plural: glomeruli) (root: glomerul/o)

10

kidney

An organ of excretion (root: ren/o, nephr/o); the two kidneys filter the blood and form urine, which contains metabolic waste products and other substances as needed to regulate the water and electrolyte balance and the pH of body fluids

11

micturition

The voiding of urine; urination

12

nephron

A microscopic functional unit of the kidney; working with blood vessels, the nephron filters the blood and balances the composition of urine

13

renal cortex

The kidney’s outer portion; contains portions of the nephrons

14

renal medulla

The kidney’s inner portion; contains portions of the nephrons and ducts that transport urine toward the renal pelvis

15

renal pelvis

The expanded upper end of the ureter that receives urine from the kidney; Greek root pyel/o means “basin”

16

renal pyramid

A triangular structure in the renal medulla; composed of the nephrons loops and collecting ducts

17

renin

An enzyme produced by the kidneys that activates angiotensin in the blood

18

trigone

A triangle at the base of the bladder formed by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra

19

tubular reabsorption

The return of substances from the glomerular filtrate to the blood through the peritubular capillaries

20

urea

The main nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) waste product in the urine

21

ureter

The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (root: ureter/o)

22

urethra

The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (root: urethr/o)

23

urinary bladder

The organ that stores and eliminates urine excreted by the kidneys (root: cyst/o, vesic/o)

24

urination

The voiding of urine; micturition

25

urine

The fluid excreted by the kidneys. It consists of water, electrolytes, urea, other metabolic wastes, and pigments. A variety of other substances may appear in urine in cases of disease (root: ur/o)

26

acidosis

Excessive acidity of body fluids

27

bacteriuria

Presence of bacteria in the urine

28

cast

A solid mold of a renal tubule found in the urine

29

cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually as a result of infection

30

dysuria

Painful or difficult urination

31

glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney primarily involving the glomeruli. The acute form usually occurs after an infection elsewhere in the body; the chronic form varies in cause and usually leads to renal failure

32

hematuria

Presence of blood in the urine

33

hydronephrosis

Collection of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction; causes distention and renal atrophy

34

hypokalemia

Deficiency of potassium in the blood

35

hyponatremia

Deficiency of sodium in the blood

36

hypoproteinemia

Decreased amount of protein in the blood; may be caused by kidney damage resulting from protein loss

37

hyperkalemia

Excess amount of potassium in the blood

38

hypernatremia

Excess amount of sodium in the blood

39

nephrotic syndrome

Condition that results from glomerular damage leading to loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria). There is low plasma protein (hypoproteinemia), edema, and increased blood lipids as the liver releases lipoproteins. Also called nephrosis

40

oliguria

Elimination of small amounts of urine

41

proteinuria

Presence of protein, mainly albumin, in the urine

42

pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney, usually as a result of infection

43

pyuria

Presence of pus in the urine

44

renal colic

Radiating pain in the region of the kidney associated with the passage of a stone

45

uremia

Presence of toxic levels of urea and other nitrogenous substances in the blood as a result of renal insufficiency

46

urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra, usually due to infection

47

urinary stasis

Stoppage of urine flow; urinary stagnation

48

catheterization

Introduction of a tube into a passage, such as through the urethra into the bladder for withdrawal of urine

49

cystoscope

An instrument for examining the inside of the urinary bladder. Also used for removing foreign objects, for surgery, and for other forms of treatment

50

dialysis

Separation of substances by passage through a semipermeable membrane. Dialysis is used to rid the body of unwanted substances when the kidneys are impaired or missing. The two forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

51

hemodialysis

Removal of unwanted substances from the blood by passage through a semipermeable membrane

52

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

See intravenous urography

53

intravenous urography (IVU)

Radiographic visualization of the urinary tract after intravenous administration of a contrast medium that is excreted in the urine; also called excretory urography or intravenous pyelography, although the latter is less accurate because the procedure shows more than just the renal pelvis

54

lithotripsy

Crushing of a stone

55

peritoneal dialysis

Removal of unwanted substances from the body by introduction of a dialyzing fluid into the peritoneal cavity followed by removal of the fluid

56

retrograde pyelography

Pyelography in which the contrast medium is injected into the kidneys from below, by way of the ureters

57

specific gravity (SG)

The weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. The specific gravity of normal urine ranges from 1.015 to 1.025. This value may increase or decrease in disease

58

urinalysis (UA)

Laboratory study of the urine. Physical and chemical properties and microscopic appearance are included

59

cystectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

60

ileal conduit

Diversion of urine by connection of the ureters to an isolated segment of the ileum. One end of the segment is sealed, and the other drains through an opening in the abdominal wall. A procedure used when the bladder is removed or nonfunctional. Also called ileal bladder

61

lithotomy

Incision of an organ to remove a stone (calculus)

62

renal transplantation

Surgical implantation of a donor kidney into a patient

63

aldosterone

A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that regulates electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

64

clearance

The volume of plasma that can be cleared of a substance by the kidneys per unit of time; renal plasma clearance

65

creatinine

A nitrogenous byproduct of muscle metabolism. An increase in blood creatinine is a sign of renal failure

66

detrusor muscle

The muscle in the bladder wall

67

glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

The amount of filtrate formed per minute by the nephrons of both kidneys

68

maximal transport capacity (Tm)

The maximum rate at which a given substance can be transported across the renal tubule; tubular maximum

69

renal corpuscle

The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus considered as a unit; the filtration device of the kidney

70

anuresis

Lack of urination

71

anuria

Lack of urine formation

72

azotemia

Presence of an increased nitrogenous waste, especially urea, in the blood

73

azoturia

Presence of an increased nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, in the urine

74

cystocele

Herniation of the bladder into the vagina; vesicocele

75

dehydration

Excessive loss of body fluids

76

diabetes insipidus

A condition caused by inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone, resulting in excessive excretion of dilute urine and extreme thirst

77

enuresis

Involuntary urination, usually at night; bed-wetting

78

epispadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis as a groove or cleft; anaspadias

79

glycosuria

Presence of glucose in the urine, as in cases of diabetes mellitus

80

horseshoe kidney

A congenital union of the lower poles of the kidneys, resulting in a horseshoe-shaped organ

81

hydroureter

Distention of the ureter with urine caused by obstruction

82

hypospadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis or into the vagina

83

hypovolemia

A decrease in blood volume

84

neurogenic bladder

Any bladder dysfunction that results from a central nervous system lesion

85

nocturia

Excessive urination at night (noct/o means “night”)

86

polycystic kidney disease

A hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts

87

polydipsia

Excessive thirst

88

polyuria

Elimination of large amounts of urine, as in diabetes mellitus

89

retention of urine

Accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate

90

staghorn calculus

A kidney stone that fills the renal pelvis and calices to give a “staghorn” appearance

91

ureterocele

A cyst-like dilation of the ureter near its opening into the bladder. Usually results from a congenital narrowing of the ureteral opening

92

urinary frequency

A need to urinate often without an increase in average output

93

urinary incontinence

Inability to retain urine; may originate with a neurologic disorder, trauma to the spinal cord, weakness of the pelvic muscles, urinary retention, or impaired bladder function

94

urinary urgency

Sudden need to urinate

95

water intoxication

Excess intake or retention of water with decrease in sodium concentration. May result from excess drinking, excess ADH, or replacement of a large amount of body fluid with pure water. Causes an imbalance in the cellular environment, with edema and other disturbances

96

Wilms tumor

A malignant tumor of the kidney that usually appears in children before the age of 5 years

97

anion gap

A measure of electrolyte imbalance

98

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea. An increase in BUN indicates an increase in nitrogenous waste products in the blood and renal failure

99

clean-catch specimen

A urine sample obtained after thorough cleansing of the urethral opening and collected in midstream to minimize the chance of contamination

100

cystometrography

A study of bladder function in which the bladder is filled with fluid or air and the pressure exerted by the bladder muscle at varying degrees of filling is measured. The tracing recorded is a cystometrogram

101

protein electrophoresis (PEP)

Laboratory study of urinary proteins; used to diagnose multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and lymphoid tumor

102

urinometer

Device for measuring the specific gravity of urine

103

indwelling Foley catheter

A urinary tract catheter with a balloon at one end that prevents the catheter from leaving the bladder

104

lithotrite

Instrument for crushing a bladder stone

105

epididymis

A coiled tube on the surface of the testis that stores sperm until ejaculation (root: epididym/o)

106

erection

The stiffening or hardening of the penis or the clitoris, usually because of sexual excitement

107

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the male, FSH stimulates Sertoli cells and promotes sperm cell development

108

gamete

A mature reproductive cell, the spermatozoon in the male and the ovum in the female

109

glans penis

The bulbous end of the penis

110

gonad

A sex gland; testis or ovary

111

inguinal canal

The channel through which the testis descends into the scrotum in the male

112

androgen

Any hormone that produces male characteristics; root andr/o means “male”

113

bulbourethral gland

A small gland beside the urethra below the prostate that secretes part of the seminal fluid. Also called Cowper gland

114

circumcision

Surgical removal of the end of the prepuce (foreskin)

115

coitus

Sexual intercourse

116

ductus deferens

The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Also called vas deferens

117

ejaculation

Ejection of semen from the male urethra

118

ejaculatory duct

The duct formed by union of the ductus deferens and the duct of the seminal vesicle; it carries spermatozoa and seminal fluid into the urethra

119

interstitial cells

Cells located between the seminiferous tubules of the testes that produce hormones, mainly testosterone. Also called cells of Leydig (LI-dig).

120

luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads

121

meiosis

The type of cell division that forms the gametes; it results in cells with 23 chromosomes, half the number found in other body cells (from the Greek word meiosis meaning “diminution”)

122

penis

The male organ of copulation and urination (adjective: penile)

123

pituitary gland

An endocrine gland at the base of the brain

124

prepuce

The fold of skin over the glans penis; the foreskin

125

prostate gland

A gland that surrounds the urethra below the bladder in males and contributes secretions to the semen (root: prostat/o)

126

puberty

Period during which the ability for sexual reproduction is attained and secondary sex characteristics begin to develop

127

scrotum

A double pouch that contains the testes (root: osche/o)

128

semen

The thick secretion that transports spermatozoa (roots: semin, sperm/I, spermat/o)

129

seminal vesicle

A saclike gland behind the bladder that contributes secretions to the semen (root: vesicul/o)

130

Sertoli cells

Cells in the seminiferous tubules that aid in the development of spermatozoa; sustentacular (sus-ten-TAK-ū-lar) cells

131

spermatic cord

Cord attached to the testis that contains the ductus deferens, blood vessels, and nerves enclosed within a fibrous sheath

132

spermatozoon

Mature male sex cells (plural: spermatozoa) (root: sperm/i, spermat/o)

133

testis

The male reproductive gland (plural is also called testicles)

134

testosterone

The main male sex hormone

135

urethra

The duct that carries urine out of the body and also transports semen in the male

136

vas deferens

The duct that conveys spermatozoa from the epididymis to the ejaculatory duct. Also called ductus deferens

137

benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)

Nonmalignant enlargement of the prostate; frequently develops with age; also called benign prostatic hypertrophy

138

cryptorchidism

Failure of the testis to descend into the scrotum

139

epididymitis

Inflammation of the epididymis. Common causes are UTIs and STIs

140

erectile dysfunction

A lack of ability to perform intercourse in males because of failure to initiate or maintain an erection until ejaculation; impotence

141

impotence

Erectile dysfunction

142

infertility

Decreased capacity to produce offspring

143

inguinal hernia

Protrusion of the intestine or other abdominal organ through the inguinal canal or through the wall of the abdomen into the scrotum

144

orchitis

Inflammation of a testis. May be caused by injury, mumps virus, or other infections

145

prostatitis

Inflammation of the prostate gland. Often appears with UTI, STI, and a variety of other stresses

146

sexually transmitted infection (STI)

Infection spread through sexual activity; also called sexually transmitted disease (STD) and formerly venereal (ve-NĒR-ē-al) disease (VD) (from Venus, the goddess of love)

147

sterility

Complete inability to produce offspring

148

urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra; often caused by gonorrhea and chlamydia infections

149

herniorrhaphy

Surgical repair of a hernia

150

prostatectomy

Surgical removal of the prostate

151

vasectomy

Excision of the vas deferens. Usually done bilaterally to produce sterility. May be accomplished through the urethra (transurethral resection)

152

emission

The discharge of semen

153

genitalia

The organs concerned with reproduction, divided into internal and external components

154

insemination

Introduction of semen into a woman's vagina

155

orgasm

A state of physical and emotional excitement, especially that which occurs at the climax of sexual intercourse

156

phallus

The penis

157

balanitis

Inflammation of the glans penis and mucous membrane beneath it (root balan/o means “glans penis”)

158

bladder neck obstruction (BNO)

Blockage of urine flow at the outlet of the bladder. The common cause is benign prostatic hyperplasia

159

hydrocele

The accumulation of fluid in a saclike cavity, especially within the covering of the testis or spermatic cord

160

phimosis

Narrowing of the prepuce’s opening so that the foreskin cannot be pushed back over the glans penis

161

priapism

Abnormal, painful, continuous erection of the penis, as may be caused by drugs or specific damage to the spinal cord

162

seminoma

A tumor of the testis

163

spermatocele

An epididymal cyst containing spermatozoa

164

varicocele

Enlargement of the veins of the spermatic cord

165

brachytherapy

Radiation therapy by placement of encapsulated radiation sources, such as seeds, directly into a tumor or nearby tissue (from Greek brachy-, meaning “short”)

166

castration

Surgical removal of the testes or ovaries. Hormones and drugs can inhibit the gonads, to produce functional castration

167

Gleason tumor grade

A system for assessing the severity of cancerous changes in the prostate; reported as a Gleason score

168

rectoscope

Endoscopic instrument for transurethral removal of tissue from the bladder, prostate, uterus, or urethra

169

Whitmore-Jewett staging

A method for staging prostatic tumors; and alternate to TNM staging

170

cervix

Neck. Usually means the lower narrow portion (neck) of the uterus (root: cervic/o); cervix uteri (U-ter-ī)

171

clitoris

A small erectile body anterior to the urethral opening that is similar in origin to the penis (root: clitor/o, clitorid/o)

172

contraception

The prevention of pregnancy

173

corpus luteum

The small yellow structure that develops from the graafian follicle after ovulation and secretes progesterone and estrogen

174

cul de sac

A blind pouch, such as the recess between the rectum and the uterus; the rectouterine pouch or pouch of Douglas

175

endometrium

The inner lining of the uterus

176

estrogen

A group of hormones that produce female characteristics and prepare the uterus for the fertilized egg. The most active of these is estradiol

177

fallopian tube

See uterine tube

178

fimbriae

The long fingerlike extensions of the oviduct that wave to capture the released ovum (singular: fimbria)

179

follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the female, it stimulates ripening of the ova in the ovary

180

fornix

An archlike space, such as the space between the uppermost wall of the vagina and the cervix; from Latin meaning “arch”

181

labia majora

The two large folds of skin that form the sides of the vulva (root labi/o means “lip”) (singular: labium majus)

182

labia minora

The two small folds of skin within the labia majora (singular: labium minus)

183

luteinizing hormone (LH)

A hormone secreted by the anterior pituitary that acts on the gonads. In the female, it stimulates ovulation and formation of the corpus luteum

184

mammary gland

A specialized gland capable of secreting milk in the female; the breast (root: mamm/o, mast/o)

185

menarche

The first menstrual period, which normally occurs during puberty

186

menopause

Cessation of menstrual cycles in the female

187

menstruation

The cyclic discharge of blood and mucosal tissues from the lining of the nonpregnant uterus (root: men/o, mens); menstrual period, menses (MEN-sēz)

188

myometrium

The muscular wall of the uterus

189

ovarian follicle

The cluster of cells in which the ovum ripens in the ovary

190

ovary

A female gonad (root: ovari/o, oophor/o)

191

ovulation

The release of a mature ovum from the ovary (from ovule, meaning “little egg”)

192

ovum

The female gamete or reproductive cell (plural: ova) (root: oo, ov/o)

193

perineum

The region between the thighs from the external genitals to the anus (root: perine/o)

194

progesterone

A hormone produced by the corpus luteum and the placenta that maintains the endometrium for pregnancy

195

tubal ligation

Surgical constriction of the oviducts to produce sterilization

196

uterine tube

A tube extending from the upper lateral portion of the uterus that carries the ovum to the uterus (root: salping/o). Also called fallopian tube

197

uterus

The organ that receives the fertilized egg and maintains the developing offspring during pregnancy (root: uter/o, metr, hyster/o)

198

vagina

The muscular tube between the cervix and the vulva (root: vagin/o, colp/o)

199

vulva

The external female genital organs (root: vulv/o, episi/o)

200

candidiasis

Infection with the fungus Candida, a common cause of vaginitis

201

dysmenorrhea

Painful or difficult menstruation. A common disorder that may be caused by infection, use of an intrauterine device, endometriosis, overproduction of prostaglandins, or other factors

202

endometriosis

Growth of endometrial tissue outside the uterus, usually in the pelvic cavity

203

fibroid

Benign tumor of smooth muscle (see leiomyoma)

204

leiomyoma

Benign tumor of smooth muscle, usually in the uterine wall (myometrium). In the uterus, may cause bleeding and pressure on the bladder or rectum. Also called fibroid or myoma

205

pelvic inflammatory disease (PID)

Condition caused by the spread of infection from the reproductive tract into the pelvic cavity. Commonly caused by sexually transmitted gonorrhea and chlamydial infections

206

salpingitis

Inflammation of the oviduct; typically caused by urinary tract infection or sexually transmitted infection. Chronic salpingitis may lead to infertility or ectopic pregnancy (development of the fertilized egg outside of the uterus)

207

vaginitis

Inflammation of the vagina

208

colposcope

Instrument for examining the vagina and cervix

209

cone biopsy

Removal of a cone of tissue from the lining of the cervix for cytologic examination; also called conization

210

dilation and curettage (D&C)

Procedure in which the cervix is dilated (widened) and the uterine lining is scraped with a curette

211

hysterectomy

Surgical removal of the uterus. Most commonly done because of tumors. Often the oviducts and ovaries are removed as well

212

mammography

Radiographic study of the breast for the detection of breast cancer

213

mastectomy

Excision of the breast to eliminate malignancy

214

oophorectomy

Excision of an ovary

215

Pap smear

Study of cells collected from the cervix and vagina for early detection of cancer. Also called Papanicolaou smear or Pap test.

216

salpingectomy

Surgical removal of the oviduct

217

Sentinel node biopsy

Biopsy of the first lymph nodes to receive drainage from a tumor; used to determine spread of cancer in planning treatment

218

stereotactic biopsy

Needle biopsy using a computer-guided imaging system to locate suspicious tissue and remove samples for study

219

adnexa

Appendages, such as the adnexa uteri—the ovaries, oviducts, and uterine ligaments

220

areola

A pigmented ring, such as the dark area around the nipple of the breast

221

graafian follicle

Mature ovarian follicle

222

greater vestibular gland

A small mucus-secreting gland on the side of the vestibule (see below) near the vaginal opening. Also called Bartholin (BAR-tō-lin) gland

223

hymen

A fold of mucous membrane that partially covers the entrance of the vagina

224

mons pubis

The rounded, fleshy elevation anterior to the pubic joint that is covered with hair after puberty

225

oocyte

An immature ovum

226

perimenopause

The period immediately before and after menopause; begins at the time of irregular menstrual cycles and ends one year after the last menstrual period; averages three to four years

227

vestibule

The space between the labia minora that contains the openings of the urethra, vagina, and ducts of the greater vestibular glands

228

cystocele

Herniation of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina

229

dyspareunia

Pain during sexual intercourse

230

fibrocystic disease of the breast

A condition in which there are palpable lumps in the breasts, usually associated with pain and tenderness. These lumps or “thickenings” change with the menstrual cycle and must be distinguished from malignant tumors by diagnostic methods

231

hirsutism

Excess growth of hair

232

cystocele

Herniation of the urinary bladder into the wall of the vagina

233

dyspareunia

Pain during sexual intercourse

234

fibrocystic disease of the breast

A condition in which there are palpable lumps in the breasts, usually associated with pain and tenderness. These lumps or “thickenings” change with the menstrual cycle and must be distinguished from malignant tumors by diagnostic methods

235

hirsutism

Excess growth of hair

236

culdocentesis

Puncture of the vaginal wall to sample fluid from the rectouterine space for diagnosis

237

episiorrhaphy

Suture of the vulva or suture of the perineum cut in an episiotomy (incision to ease childbirth)

238

laparoscopy

Endoscopic examination of the abdomen; may include surgical procedures, such as tubal ligation

239

myomectomy

Surgical removal of a uterine leiomyoma (fibroid, myoma)

240

speculum

An instrument used to enlarge the opening of a passage or cavity to allow examination

241

teletherapy

Delivery of radiation to a tumor from an external beam source, as compared to implantation of radioactive material (brachytherapy) or systemic administration of radionuclide

242

aromatase inhibitor (AI)

Agent that inhibits estrogen production; used for postmenopausal treatment of breast cancers that respond to estrogen. Examples are exemestane (Aromasin), anastrozole (Arimidex), letrozole (Femara)

243

bisphosphonate

Agent used to prevent and treat osteoporosis; increases bone mass by decreasing bone turnover. Examples are alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel)

244

HER2 inhibitor

Drug used to treat breast cancers that show excess receptors (HER2) for human epidermal growth factor. Example is trastuzumab (Herceptin)

245

paclitaxel

Antineoplastic agent derived from yew trees used mainly in treatment of breast and ovarian cancer; Taxol

246

selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

Drug that acts on estrogen receptors. Examples are tamoxifen (Nolvadex) and raloxifene (Evista), which is also used to prevent bone loss after menopause

247

amniotic sac

The membranous sac filled with fluid that holds the fetus; also called amnion (root: amnio)

248

Apgar score

A system of rating an infant’s physical condition immediately after birth. Five features are rated as 0, 1, or 2 at one and five minutes after delivery and sometimes thereafter

249

chorion

The outermost layer of the embryo that, with the endometrium, forms the placenta (adjective: chorionic)

250

colostrum

Breast fluid that is secreted in the first few days after giving birth, before milk is produced

251

ductus arteriosus

A fetal blood vessel that connects the pulmonary artery with the descending aorta, thus allowing blood to bypass the lungs

252

embryo

The stage in development between the zygote and the fetus, extending from the second through the eighth week of growth in the uterus (root: embry/o); adjective: embryonic

253

fertilization

The union of an ovum and a spermatozoon

254

fetus

The developing child in the uterus from the third month to birth (root: fet/o); adjective: fetal

255

foramen ovale

A small hole in the intraatrial septum in the fetal heart that allows blood to pass directly from the right to the left side of the heart

256

gestation

The period of development from conception to birth

257

gravida

Pregnant woman

258

human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG)

A hormone secreted by the embryo early in pregnancy that maintains the corpus luteum so that it will continue to secrete hormones

259

lactation

The secretion of milk from the mammary glands

260

oxytocin

A pituitary hormone that stimulates contractions of the uterus. It also stimulates release (“letdown”) of milk from the breasts

261

para

Woman who has produced a viable infant. Multiple births are considered as single pregnancies

262

parturition

Childbirth (root: nat/i); labor (root: toc/o)

263

placenta

The organ, composed of fetal and maternal tissues, that nourishes and maintains the developing fetus

264

prostaglandins

A group of hormones with varied effects, including the stimulation of uterine contractions

265

umbilical cord

The structure that connects the fetus to the placenta. It contains vessels that carry blood between the mother and the fetus

266

zygote

The fertilized ovum

267

abortion

Termination of a pregnancy before the fetus is capable of surviving outside the uterus, usually at 20 wk or 500 g. May be spontaneous or induced. A spontaneous abortion is commonly called a miscarriage

268

anencephaly

Congenital absence of a brain

269

atresia

Congenital absence or closure of a normal body opening

270

carrier

An individual who has an unexpressed genetic defect that can be passed to his or her children

271

cleft lip

A congenital separation of the upper lip

272

cleft palate

A congenital split in the roof of the mouth

273

congenital disorder

A disorder that is present at birth. May be developmental or hereditary (familial)

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eclampsia

Convulsions and coma occurring during pregnancy or after delivery and associated with the conditions of pregnancy-induced hypertension (see below) (adjective: eclamptic)

275

ectopic pregnancy

Development of the fertilized ovum outside the body of the uterus. Usually occurs in the oviduct (tubal pregnancy) but may occur in other parts of the reproductive tract or abdominal cavity

276

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Disease that results from Rh incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to Rh-positive fetal red cells that enter her circulation. These antibodies can destroy Rh-positive fetal red cells in a later pregnancy unless the mother is treated with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen. Formerly called erythroblastosis fetalis

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mastitis

Inflammation of the breast, usually associated with the early weeks of breastfeeding

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mutation

A change in the genetic material of the cell. Most mutations are harmful. If the change appears in the sex cells, it can be passed to future generations

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placental abruption

Premature separation of the placenta; abruptio placentae

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placenta previa

A placenta that is attached in the lower portion of the uterus instead of the upper portion, as is normal. May result in hemorrhage late in pregnancy

281

pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH)

A toxic condition of late pregnancy associated with hypertension, edema, and proteinuria that, if untreated, may lead to eclampsia. Also called preeclampsia (prē-e-KLAMP-sē-a) and toxemia of pregnancy

282

spina bifida

A congenital defect in the closure of the spinal column through which the spinal cord and its membranes may project

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teratogen

A factor that causes developmental abnormalities in the fetus (root terat/o means “malformed fetus”); adjective: teratogenic

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amniocentesis

Transabdominal puncture of the amniotic sac to remove amniotic fluid for testing. Tests on the cells and fluid obtained can reveal congenital abnormalities, blood incompatibility, and sex of the fetus

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chorionic villus sampling (CVS)

Removal of chorionic cells through the cervix for prenatal testing. Can be done earlier in pregnancy than amniocentesis

286

dilatation and evacuation (D&E)

Widening of the cervix and removal of conception products by suction

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karyotype

A picture of the chromosomes of a cell arranged in order of decreasing size; can reveal abnormalities in the chromosomes themselves or in their number or arrangement (root kary/o means “nucleus”)

288

ultrasonography

The use of high-frequency sound waves to produce a photograph of an organ or tissue. Used in obstetrics to diagnose pregnancy, multiple births, and abnormalities and also to study and measure the fetus. The picture obtained is a sonogram or ultrasonogram

289

afterbirth

The placenta and membranes delivered after birth of a child

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antepartum

Before childbirth, with reference to the mother

291

Braxton–Hicks contractions

Light uterine contractions that occur during pregnancy and increase in frequency and intensity during the third trimester. They strengthen the uterus for delivery

292

chloasma

Brownish pigmentation that appears on the face during pregnancy; melasma

293

fontanel

A membrane-covered space between cranial bones in the fetus that later becomes ossified; a soft spot. Also spelled fontanelle

294

intrapartum

Occurring during childbirth

295

linea nigra

A dark line on the abdomen from the umbilicus to the pubic region that may appear late in pregnancy

296

lochia

The mixture of blood, mucus, and tissue discharged from the uterus after childbirth

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meconium

The first feces of the newborn

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peripartum

Occurring during the end of pregnancy or the first few months after delivery, with reference to the mother

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postpartum

After childbirth, with reference to the mother

300

premature

Describing an infant born before the organ systems are fully developed; immature

301

preterm

Occurring before the 37th week of gestation; describing an infant born before the 37th week of gestation

302

puerperium

The first 42 days after childbirth, during which the mother's reproductive organs usually return to normal (root: puer means “child”)

303

striae atrophicae

Pinkish or gray lines that appear where skin has been stretched, as in pregnancy; stretch marks, striae gravidarum

304

umbilicus

The scar in the middle of the abdomen that marks the attachment point of the umbilical cord to the fetus; the navel

305

vernix caseosa

The cheeselike deposit that covers and protects the fetus (literally “cheesy varnish”)

306

cephalopelvic disproportion

The condition in which the head of the fetus is larger than the pelvic outlet; also called fetopelvic disproportion

307

choriocarcinoma

A rare malignant neoplasm composed of placental tissue

308

galactorrhea

Excessive secretion of milk or continuation of milk production after breastfeeding has ceased. Often results from excess prolactin secretion and may signal a pituitary tumor.

309

hydatidiform mole

A benign overgrowth of placental tissue. The placenta dilates and resembles grapelike cysts. The neoplasm may invade the wall of the uterus, causing rupture. Also called hydatid mole.

310

hydramnios

An excess of amniotic fluid; also called polyhydramnios

311

oligohydramnios

A deficiency of amniotic fluid

312

patent ductus arteriosus (PDA)

Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth so that blood continues to shunt from the pulmonary artery to the aorta

313

puerperal infection

Infection of the genital tract after delivery

314

abortifacient

Agent that induces abortion

315

alpha-fetoprotein (AFP)

A fetal protein that may be elevated in amniotic fluid and maternal serum in cases of certain fetal disorders

316

artificial insemination (AI)

Placement of active semen into the vagina or cervix for the purpose of impregnation. The semen can be from a husband, partner, or donor

317

cesarean section

Incision of the abdominal wall and uterus for delivery of a fetus

318

culdocentesis

Puncture of the vaginal wall to sample fluid from the rectouterine space for diagnosis

319

endometrial ablation

Selective destruction of the endometrium for therapeutic purpose; done to relieve excessive menstrual bleeding (menorrhagia)

320

extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO)

A technique for pulmonary bypass in which deoxygenated blood is removed, passed through a circuit that oxygenates the blood, and then returned. Used for selected newborn and pediatric patients in respiratory failure with an otherwise good prognosis

321

in vitro fertilization (IVF)

Clinical procedure for achieving fertilization when it cannot be accomplished naturally. An oocyte (immature ovum) is removed, fertilized in the laboratory, and placed as a zygote into the uterus or fallopian tube (ZIFT, zygote intrafallopian transfer). Alternatively, an ovum can be removed and placed along with sperm cells into the fallopian tube (GIFT, gamete intrafallopian transfer)

322

obstetrics

The branch of medicine that treats women during pregnancy, childbirth, and the puerperium. Usually combined with the practice of gynecology

323

pediatrics

The branch of medicine that treats children and diseases of children (root: ped/o means “child”)

324

pelvimetry

Measurement of the pelvis by manual examination or radiographic study to determine whether delivery of a fetus through the vagina will be possible

325

Pitocin

Trade name for oxytocin; used to induce and hasten labor

326

presentation

Term describing the part of the fetus that can be felt by vaginal or rectal examination. Normally the head presents first (vertex presentation), but sometimes the buttocks (breech presentation), face, or other part presents first

327

Rho-GAM

Trade name for a preparation of antibody to the Rh(D) antigen; used to prevent hemolytic disease of the newborn in cases of Rh incompatibility