Chapter 13 The Urinary System

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 13
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1

ren/o

kidney

Ex. Suprarenal
above the kidney

2

nephr/o

kidney

Ex. Nephrosis
any noninflammatory disease condition of the kidney

3

glomerul/o

glomerulus

Ex. Juxtaglomerular
near the glomerulus

4

pyel/o

renal pelvis

Ex. Pyelectasis
dilatation of the renal pelvis

5

cali/o-, calic/o-

calyx

Ex. Caliceal
pertaining to a renal calyx (note addition of e); also spelled calyceal

6

ur/o

urine, urinary tract

Ex. Urosepsis
generalized infection that originates in the urinary tract

7

urin/o

urine

Ex. Nocturia
urination during the night (noct/i)

8

ureter/o

ureter

Ex. Ureterostenosis
narrowing of the ureter

9

cyst/o

urinary bladder

Ex. Cystocele
hernia of the bladder

10

vesic/o

urinary bladder

Ex. Intravesical
within the urinary bladder

11

urethr/o

urethra

Ex. Urethrotome
instrument for incising the urethra

12

antidiuretic hormone (ADH)

A hormone released from the pituitary gland that causes water reabsorption in the kidneys, thus concentrating the urine

13

angiotensin

A substance that increases blood pressure; activated in the blood by renin, an enzyme produced by the kidneys

14

calyx

A cuplike cavity in the pelvis of the kidney; also calix (plural: calices) (root: cali, calic)

15

diuresis

Increased excretion of urine

16

diuretic

A substance that increases the excretion of urine; pertaining to diuresis

17

erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced by the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow

18

glomerular capsule

The cup-shaped structure at the beginning of the nephron that surrounds the glomerulus and receives material filtered out of the blood; Bowman (BŌ-man) capsule

19

glomerular filtrate

The fluid and dissolved materials that filter out of the blood and enter the nephron through the glomerular capsule

20

glomerulus

The cluster of capillaries within the glomerular capsule (plural: glomeruli) (root: glomerul/o)

21

kidney

An organ of excretion (root: ren/o, nephr/o); the two kidneys filter the blood and form urine, which contains metabolic waste products and other substances as needed to regulate the water and electrolyte balance and the pH of body fluids

22

micturition

The voiding of urine; urination

23

nephron

A microscopic functional unit of the kidney; working with blood vessels, the nephron filters the blood and balances the composition of urine

24

renal cortex

The kidney’s outer portion; contains portions of the nephrons

25

renal medulla

The kidney’s inner portion; contains portions of the nephrons and ducts that transport urine toward the renal pelvis

26

renal pelvis

The expanded upper end of the ureter that receives urine from the kidney; Greek root pyel/o means “basin”

27

renal pyramid

A triangular structure in the renal medulla; composed of the nephrons loops and collecting ducts

28

renin

An enzyme produced by the kidneys that activates angiotensin in the blood

29

trigone

A triangle at the base of the bladder formed by the openings of the two ureters and the urethra

30

tubular reabsorption

The return of substances from the glomerular filtrate to the blood through the peritubular capillaries

31

urea

The main nitrogenous (nitrogen-containing) waste product in the urine

32

ureter

The tube that carries urine from the kidney to the bladder (root: ureter/o)

33

urethra

The tube that carries urine from the bladder to the outside of the body (root: urethr/o)

34

urinary bladder

The organ that stores and eliminates urine excreted by the kidneys (root: cyst/o, vesic/o)

35

urination

The voiding of urine; micturition

36

urine

The fluid excreted by the kidneys. It consists of water, electrolytes, urea, other metabolic wastes, and pigments. A variety of other substances may appear in urine in cases of disease (root: ur/o)

37

acidosis

Excessive acidity of body fluids

38

bacteriuria

Presence of bacteria in the urine

39

cast

A solid mold of a renal tubule found in the urine

40

cystitis

Inflammation of the urinary bladder, usually as a result of infection

41

dysuria

Painful or difficult urination

42

glomerulonephritis

Inflammation of the kidney primarily involving the glomeruli. The acute form usually occurs after an infection elsewhere in the body; the chronic form varies in cause and usually leads to renal failure

43

hematuria

Presence of blood in the urine

44

hydronephrosis

Collection of urine in the renal pelvis caused by obstruction; causes distention and renal atrophy

45

hypokalemia

Deficiency of potassium in the blood

46

hyponatremia

Deficiency of sodium in the blood

47

hypoproteinemia

Decreased amount of protein in the blood; may be caused by kidney damage resulting from protein loss

48

hyperkalemia

Excess amount of potassium in the blood

49

hypernatremia

Excess amount of sodium in the blood

50

nephrotic syndrome

Condition that results from glomerular damage leading to loss of protein in the urine (proteinuria). There is low plasma protein (hypoproteinemia), edema, and increased blood lipids as the liver releases lipoproteins. Also called nephrosis

51

oliguria

Elimination of small amounts of urine

52

proteinuria

Presence of protein, mainly albumin, in the urine

53

pyelonephritis

Inflammation of the renal pelvis and kidney, usually as a result of infection

54

pyuria

Presence of pus in the urine

55

renal colic

Radiating pain in the region of the kidney associated with the passage of a stone

56

uremia

Presence of toxic levels of urea and other nitrogenous substances in the blood as a result of renal insufficiency

57

urethritis

Inflammation of the urethra, usually due to infection

58

urinary stasis

Stoppage of urine flow; urinary stagnation

59

catheterization

Introduction of a tube into a passage, such as through the urethra into the bladder for withdrawal of urine

60

cystoscope

An instrument for examining the inside of the urinary bladder. Also used for removing foreign objects, for surgery, and for other forms of treatment

61

dialysis

Separation of substances by passage through a semipermeable membrane. Dialysis is used to rid the body of unwanted substances when the kidneys are impaired or missing. The two forms of dialysis are hemodialysis and peritoneal dialysis

62

hemodialysis

Removal of unwanted substances from the blood by passage through a semipermeable membrane

63

intravenous pyelography (IVP)

See intravenous urography

64

intravenous urography (IVU)

Radiographic visualization of the urinary tract after intravenous administration of a contrast medium that is excreted in the urine; also called excretory urography or intravenous pyelography, although the latter is less accurate because the procedure shows more than just the renal pelvis

65

lithotripsy

Crushing of a stone

66

peritoneal dialysis

Removal of unwanted substances from the body by introduction of a dialyzing fluid into the peritoneal cavity followed by removal of the fluid

67

retrograde pyelography

Pyelography in which the contrast medium is injected into the kidneys from below, by way of the ureters

68

specific gravity (SG)

The weight of a substance compared with the weight of an equal volume of water. The specific gravity of normal urine ranges from 1.015 to 1.025. This value may increase or decrease in disease

69

urinalysis (UA)

Laboratory study of the urine. Physical and chemical properties and microscopic appearance are included

70

cystectomy

Surgical removal of all or part of the urinary bladder

71

ileal conduit

Diversion of urine by connection of the ureters to an isolated segment of the ileum. One end of the segment is sealed, and the other drains through an opening in the abdominal wall. A procedure used when the bladder is removed or nonfunctional. Also called ileal bladder

72

lithotomy

Incision of an organ to remove a stone (calculus)

73

renal transplantation

Surgical implantation of a donor kidney into a patient

74

aldosterone

A hormone secreted by the adrenal gland that regulates electrolyte excretion by the kidneys

75

clearance

The volume of plasma that can be cleared of a substance by the kidneys per unit of time; renal plasma clearance

76

creatinine

A nitrogenous byproduct of muscle metabolism. An increase in blood creatinine is a sign of renal failure

77

detrusor muscle

The muscle in the bladder wall

78

glomerular filtration rate (GFR)

The amount of filtrate formed per minute by the nephrons of both kidneys

79

maximal transport capacity (Tm)

The maximum rate at which a given substance can be transported across the renal tubule; tubular maximum

80

renal corpuscle

The glomerular capsule and the glomerulus considered as a unit; the filtration device of the kidney

81

anuresis

Lack of urination

82

anuria

Lack of urine formation

83

azotemia

Presence of an increased nitrogenous waste, especially urea, in the blood

84

azoturia

Presence of an increased nitrogenous compounds, especially urea, in the urine

85

cystocele

Herniation of the bladder into the vagina; vesicocele

86

dehydration

Excessive loss of body fluids

87

diabetes insipidus

A condition caused by inadequate production of antidiuretic hormone, resulting in excessive excretion of dilute urine and extreme thirst

88

enuresis

Involuntary urination, usually at night; bed-wetting

89

epispadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the dorsal surface of the penis as a groove or cleft; anaspadias

90

glycosuria

Presence of glucose in the urine, as in cases of diabetes mellitus

91

horseshoe kidney

A congenital union of the lower poles of the kidneys, resulting in a horseshoe-shaped organ

92

hydroureter

Distention of the ureter with urine caused by obstruction

93

hypospadias

A congenital condition in which the urethra opens on the undersurface of the penis or into the vagina

94

hypovolemia

A decrease in blood volume

95

neurogenic bladder

Any bladder dysfunction that results from a central nervous system lesion

96

nocturia

Excessive urination at night (noct/o means “night”)

97

polycystic kidney disease

A hereditary condition in which the kidneys are enlarged and contain many cysts

98

polydipsia

Excessive thirst

99

polyuria

Elimination of large amounts of urine, as in diabetes mellitus

100

retention of urine

Accumulation of urine in the bladder because of an inability to urinate

101

staghorn calculus

A kidney stone that fills the renal pelvis and calices to give a “staghorn” appearance

102

ureterocele

A cyst-like dilation of the ureter near its opening into the bladder. Usually results from a congenital narrowing of the ureteral opening

103

urinary frequency

A need to urinate often without an increase in average output

104

urinary incontinence

Inability to retain urine; may originate with a neurologic disorder, trauma to the spinal cord, weakness of the pelvic muscles, urinary retention, or impaired bladder function

105

urinary urgency

Sudden need to urinate

106

water intoxication

Excess intake or retention of water with decrease in sodium concentration. May result from excess drinking, excess ADH, or replacement of a large amount of body fluid with pure water. Causes an imbalance in the cellular environment, with edema and other disturbances

107

Wilms tumor

A malignant tumor of the kidney that usually appears in children before the age of 5 years

108

anion gap

A measure of electrolyte imbalance

109

blood urea nitrogen (BUN)

Nitrogen in the blood in the form of urea. An increase in BUN indicates an increase in nitrogenous waste products in the blood and renal failure

110

clean-catch specimen

A urine sample obtained after thorough cleansing of the urethral opening and collected in midstream to minimize the chance of contamination

111

cystometrography

A study of bladder function in which the bladder is filled with fluid or air and the pressure exerted by the bladder muscle at varying degrees of filling is measured. The tracing recorded is a cystometrogram

112

protein electrophoresis (PEP)

Laboratory study of urinary proteins; used to diagnose multiple myeloma, systemic lupus erythematosus, and lymphoid tumor

113

urinometer

Device for measuring the specific gravity of urine

114

indwelling Foley catheter

A urinary tract catheter with a balloon at one end that prevents the catheter from leaving the bladder

115

lithotrite

Instrument for crushing a bladder stone

116

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

117

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

118

ARF

Acute renal failure

119

ATN

Acute tubular necrosis

120

BUN

Blood urea nitrogen

121

CAPD

Continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis

122

CCPD

Continuous cyclic peritoneal dialysis

123

CMG

Cystometrography; cystometrogram

124

CRF

Chronic renal failure

125

EPO

Erythropoietin

126

ESRD

End-stage renal disease

127

ESWL

Extracorporeal shock-wave lithotripsy

128

GFR

Glomerular filtration rate

129

GU

Genitourinary

130

IVP

Intravenous pyelography

131

IVU

Intravenous urography

132

K

Potassium

133

KUB

Kidney–ureter–bladder (radiography)

134

Na

Sodium

135

PEP

Protein electrophoresis

136

SG

Specific gravity

137

Tm

Maximal transport capacity

138

UA

Urinalysis

139

UTI

Urinary tract infection