Chapter 16: The Endocrine System

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 16
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1

endocrin/o

endocrine glands or system

Ex. Endocrinopathy
any disease of the endocrine glands

2

pituitar/i

pituitary gland, hypophysis

Ex. Pituitarism
condition caused by any disorder of pituitary function

3

hypophysi/o

pituitary gland, hypophysis

Ex. Hypophysial
pertaining to the pituitary gland

4

thyr/o, thyroid/o

thyroid gland

Ex. Thyrolytic
destroying the thyroid gland

5

parathyr/o, parathyroid/o

parathyroid gland

Ex. Hyperparathyroidism
overactivity of a parathyroid gland

6

adren/o, adrenal/o

adrenal gland, epinephrine

Ex. Adrenergic
activated (erg) by or related to epinephrine (adrenaline)

7

adrenocortic/o

adrenal cortex

Ex. Adrenocorticotropic
acting on the adrenal cortex

8

insul/o

pancreatic islets

Ex. Insular
pertaining to islet cells

9

adrenal gland

A gland on the superior surface of the kidney. The outer region (cortex) secretes steroid hormones; the inner region (medulla) secretes epinephrine (adrenaline) (root: adren/o)

10

endocrine

Pertaining to a ductless gland that secretes directly into the blood

11

hormone

A secretion of an endocrine gland. A substance that travels in the blood and has a regulatory effect on tissues, organs, or glands

12

hypophysis

The pituitary gland (root: hypophys); named from hypo, meaning “below,” and physis, meaning “growing,” because the gland grows below the hypothalamus

13

hypothalamus

A portion of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and is active in maintaining homeostasis

14

pancreatic islets

Clusters of endocrine cells in the pancreas that secrete hormones to regulate sugar metabolism; also called islets of Langerhans or islet cells (root insul/o means “island”)

15

parathyroid glands

Small endocrine glands on the posterior thyroid that act to increase blood calcium levels; there are usually four to six parathyroid glands (root: parathyr/o, parathyroid/o); the name literally means “near the thyroid”

16

pineal gland

A small gland in the brain. Appears to regulate mood, daily rhythms, and sexual development in response to environmental light. Secretes the hormone melatonin

17

pituitary gland

A small endocrine gland at the base of the brain. The anterior lobe secretes growth hormone and hormones that stimulate other glands; the posterior lobe releases ADH and oxytocin manufactured in the hypothalamus

18

prostaglandins

A group of hormones produced throughout the body that have a variety of effects, including stimulation of uterine contractions and regulation of blood pressure, blood clotting, and inflammation

19

receptor

A site on the cell membrane or within the cell to which a substance, such as a hormone, attaches

20

steroid hormone

A hormone made from lipids and including the sex hormones and the hormones of the adrenal cortex

21

target tissue

The specific tissue on which a hormone acts; may also be called the target organ

22

thyroid gland

An endocrine gland on either side of the larynx and upper trachea. It secretes hormones that affect metabolism and growth and a hormone (calcitonin) that regulates calcium balance (root: thyr/o, thyroid/o).

23

acromegaly

Overgrowth of bone and soft tissue, especially in the hands, feet, and face, caused by an excess of growth hormone in an adult. The name comes from acro meaning “extremity” and megal/o meaning “enlargement”

24

Addison disease

A disease resulting from deficiency of adrenocortical hormones. It is marked by darkening of the skin, weakness, and alterations in salt and water balance

25

adenoma

A neoplasm of a gland

26

adult hypothyroidism

A condition caused by hypothyroidism in an adult. There is dry, waxy swelling, most notable in the face; formerly called myxedema

27

Cushing disease

Overactivity of the adrenal cortex resulting from excess production of ACTH by the pituitary

28

Cushing syndrome

A condition resulting from an excess of hormones from the adrenal cortex. It is associated with obesity, weakness, hyperglycemia, hypertension, and hirsutism (excess hair growth)

29

diabetes insipidus

A disorder caused by insufficient release of ADH from the posterior pituitary. It results in excessive thirst and production of large amounts of very dilute urine. The word insipidus means “tasteless,” referring to the dilution of the urine

30

diabetes mellitus

A disorder of glucose metabolism caused by deficiency of insulin production or failure of the tissues to respond to insulin. Type 1 results from autoimmune destruction of pancreatic islet cells; it generally appears in children and requires insulin administration. Type 2 generally occurs in obese adults; it is treated with diet, exercise, drugs to improve insulin production or activity, and sometimes insulin. The word mellitus comes from the Latin root for honey, referring to the sugar content of the urine

31

exophthalmos

Protrusion of the eyeballs, as seen in Graves disease

32

gigantism

Overgrowth caused by an excess of growth hormone from the pituitary during childhood; also called giantism

33

glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) test

A test that measures the binding of glucose to hemoglobin during the lifespan of a red blood cell. It reflects the average blood glucose level over two to three months and is useful in evaluating long-term therapy for diabetes mellitus. Also called A1c test

34

glycosuria

Excess sugar in the urine

35

goiter

Enlargement of the thyroid gland. May be toxic or nontoxic. Simple (nontoxic) goiter is caused by iodine deficiency

36

Graves disease

An autoimmune disease resulting in hyperthyroidism. A prominent symptom is exophthalmos (protrusion of the eyeballs). Also called diffuse toxic goiter

37

hyperglycemia

Excess glucose in the blood

38

hypoglycemia

Abnormally low level of glucose in the blood

39

insulin shock

A condition resulting from an overdose of insulin, causing hypoglycemia

40

infantile hypothyroidism

A condition caused by congenital lack of thyroid secretion and marked by arrested physical and mental development; also called congenital hypothyroidism

41

ketoacidosis

Acidosis (increased acidity of body fluids) caused by an excess of ketone bodies, as in diabetes mellitus; diabetic acidosis

42

metabolic syndrome

A state of hyperglycemia caused by cellular resistance to insulin, as seen in type 2 diabetes, in association with other metabolic disorders; syndrome X or insulin resistance syndrome

43

panhypopituitarism

Underactivity of the entire pituitary gland

44

tetany

Irritability and spasms of muscles; may be caused by low blood calcium and other factors

45

sella turcica

A saddle-shaped depression in the sphenoid bone that contains the pituitary gland (literally means “Turkish saddle”)

46

sphenoid bone

A bone at the base of the skull that houses the pituitary gland

47

adrenogenital syndrome

Condition caused by overproduction of androgens from the adrenal cortex, resulting in masculinization; may be congenital or acquired, usually as a result of an adrenal tumor

48

Conn syndrome

Hyperaldosteronism caused by an adrenal tumor

49

craniopharyngioma

A tumor of the pituitary gland

50

Hashimoto disease

A chronic thyroiditis of autoimmune origin

51

impaired glucose tolerance (IGT)

High blood glucose levels after glucose intake that may signal borderline diabetes mellitus

52

ketosis

Accumulation of ketone bodies, such as acetone, in the body. Usually results from deficiency or faulty metabolism of carbohydrates, as in cases of diabetes mellitus and starvation

53

multiple endocrine neoplasia (MEN)

A hereditary disorder that causes tumors in several endocrine glands; classified according to the combination of glands involved

54

pheochromocytoma

A usually benign tumor of the adrenal medulla or other structures containing chromaffin cells (cells that stain with chromium salts); phe/o means “brown” or “dusky.” The adrenal tumor causes increased production of epinephrine.

55

pituitary apoplexy

Sudden massive hemorrhage and degeneration of the pituitary gland associated with a pituitary tumor. Common symptoms include severe headache, visual problems, and loss of consciousness

56

seasonal affective disorder (SAD)

A mood disorder with lethargy, depression, excessive need for sleep, and overeating that generally occurs in winter. Thought to be related to melatonin levels as influenced by environmental light

57

Simmonds disease

Hypofunction of the anterior pituitary (panhypopituitarism), usually because of an infarction; pituitary cachexia (ka-KEK-sē-a)

58

thyroid storm

A sudden onset of the symptoms of thyrotoxicosis occurring in patients with hyperthyroidism who are untreated or poorly treated. May be brought on by illness or trauma. Also called thyroid crisis

59

thyrotoxicosis

Condition resulting from overactivity of the thyroid gland. Symptoms include anxiety, irritability, weight loss, and sweating. The main example of thyrotoxicosis is Graves disease

60

von Recklinghausen disease

Degeneration of bone caused by excess production of parathyroid hormone. Also called Recklinghausen disease of bone

61

fasting plasma glucose (FPG)

Measurement of glucose in the blood after a fast of at least eight hours. A reading greater than or equal to126 mg/dL indicates diabetes. Also called fasting blood glucose (FBG) or fasting blood sugar (FBS)

62

free thyroxine index (FTI, T7)

Calculation based on the amount of T4 present and T3 uptake, used to diagnose thyroid dysfunction

63

oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT)

Measurement of glucose levels in blood plasma after administration of a challenge dose of glucose to a fasting patient. Used to measure patient's ability to metabolize glucose. A value greater than or equal to 200 mg/dL in the two-hour sample indicates diabetes

64

radioactive iodine uptake test (RAIU)

A test that measures thyroid uptake of radioactive iodine as an evaluation of thyroid function

65

radioimmunoassay (RIA)

A method of measuring very small amounts of a substance, especially hormones, in blood plasma using radioactively labeled hormones and specific antibodies

66

thyroid scan

Visualization of the thyroid gland after administration of radioactive iodine

67

thyroxine

binding globulin (TBG) test - Test that measures the main protein that binds T4 in the blood

68

transsphenoidal adenomectomy

Removal of a pituitary tumor through the sphenoid sinus (space in the sphenoid bone)

69

A1c

Glycated hemoglobin (test)

70

ACTH

Adrenocorticotropic hormone

71

ADH

Antidiuretic hormone

72

BS

Blood sugar

73

CSII

Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion

74

DM

Diabetes mellitus

75

FBG

Fasting blood glucose

76

FBS

Fasting blood sugar

77

FPG

Fasting plasma glucose

78

FSH

Follicle-stimulating hormone

79

FTI

Free thyroxine index

80

GDM

Gestational diabetes mellitus

81

GH

Growth hormone

82

HbA1c

Hemoglobin A1c; glycated hemoglobin

83

131I

Iodine-131 (radioactive iodine)

84

IFG

Impaired fasting blood glucose

85

IGT

Impaired glucose tolerance

86

LH

Luteinizing hormone

87

MEN

Multiple endocrine neoplasia

88

NPH

Neutral protamine Hagedorn (insulin)

89

OGTT

Oral glucose tolerance test

90

PRL

Prolactin

91

PTH

Parathyroid hormone

92

RAIU

Radioactive iodine uptake

93

RIA

Radioimmunoassay

94

SIADH

Syndrome of inappropriate antidiuretic hormone (secretion)

95

T1DM

Type 1 diabetes mellitus

96

T2DM

Type 2 diabetes mellitus

97

T3

Triiodothyronine

98

T4

Thyroxine; tetraiodothyronine

99

T7

Free thyroxine index

100

TBG

Thyroxine-binding globulin

101

TSH

Thyroid-stimulating hormone