Chapter 12 The Digestive System

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 12
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1

bucc/o

cheek

Ex. Buccoversion
turning toward the cheek

2

dent/o, dent/I

tooth, teeth

Ex. Edentulous
without teeth

3

odont/o

tooth, teeth

Ex. Periodontics
dental specialty that deals with the study and treatment of the tissues around the teeth

4

gingiv/o

gum (gingiva)

Ex. Gingivectomy
excision of gum tissue

5

gloss/o

tongue

Ex. Glossoplegia
paralysis (-plegia) of the tongue

6

lingu/o

tongue

Ex. Orolingual
pertaining to the mouth and tongue

7

gnath/o

jaw prognathous
having a projecting jaw

8

labi/o

lip

Ex. Labium
lip or liplike structure

9

or/o

mouth

Ex. Circumoral
around the mouth

10

stoma, stomat/o

mouth

Ex. Xerostomia
dryness (xero-) of the mouth

11

palat/o

palate

Ex. Palatine
pertaining to the palate (also palatal)

12

sial/o

saliva, salivary gland, salivary duct

Ex. Sialogram
radiograph of the salivary glands and ducts

13

uvul/o

uvula

Ex. Uvulotome
instrument (-tome) for incising the uvula

14

esophag/o

esophagus

Ex. Esophageal
pertaining to the esophagus

15

gastr/o

stomach

Ex. Gastroparesis
partial paralysis (paresis) of the stomach

16

pylor/o

pylorus

Ex. Pyloroplasty
plastic repair of the pylorus

17

enter/o

intestine

Ex. Dysentery
infectious disease of the intestine

18

duoden/o

duodenum

Ex. Duodenostomy
surgical creation of an opening into the duodenum

19

jejun/o

jejunum

Ex. Jejunectomy
excision of the jejunum

20

ile/o

ileum

Ex. Ileitis
inflammation of the ileum

21

cec/o

cecum

Ex. Cecoptosis
downward displacement of the cecum

22

col/o, colon/o

colon

Ex. Coloclysis
irrigation (-clysis) of the colon

23

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon
sigmoidoscope an endoscope for examining the sigmoid colon

24

rect/o

rectum

Ex. Rectocele
hernia of the rectum

25

proct/o

rectum

Ex. Proctopexy
surgical fixation of the rectum

26

an/o

anus

Ex. Perianal
around the anus

27

hepat/o

liver

Ex. Hepatocyte
a liver cell

28

bili

bile

Ex. Biliary
pertaining to the bile or bile ducts

29

chol/e, chol/o

bile, gall

Ex. Cholestasis
stoppage of bile flow

30

cholecyst/o

gallbladder

Ex. Cholecystogram
radiograph of the gallbladder

31

cholangi/o

bile duct

Ex. Cholangioma
cancer of the bile ducts

32

choledoch/o

common bile duct

Ex. Choledochal
pertaining to the common bile duct

33

pancreat/o

pancreas

Ex. Pancreatotropic
acting on the pancreas

34

anus

The distal opening of the digestive tract (root: an/o)

35

appendix

An appendage; usually means the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum, the vermiform (wormlike) appendix

36

bile

The fluid secreted by the liver that emulsified fats and aids in their absorption (roots: chol/e, bili)

37

cecum

A blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine (root: cec/o)

38

colon

The major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by ascending, transverse, and descending portions (root: col/o, colon/o)

39

common bile duct

The duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct (root: choledoch/o)

40

duodenum

The first portion of the small intestine (root: duoden/o)

41

enzyme

An organic catalyst; speeds the rate of chemical reactions

42

esophagus

The muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach.

43

feces

The waste material eliminated from the intestine (adjective: fecal); stool

44

gallbladder

A sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile (root: cholecyst/o)

45

hepatic portal system

A special pathway of the circulation that brings blood directly from the abdominal organs to the liver for processing (also called simply the portal system). The vessel that enters the liver is the hepatic portal vein (portal vein).

46

ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine (root: ile/o)

47

intestine

The portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus. It consists of the small intestine and large intestine. It functions in digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste (root: enter/o). The bowel (BOW-el)

48

jejunum

The middle portion of the small intestine (root: jejun/o)

49

lacteal

A lymphatic capillary in a villus of the small intestine. Lacteals absorb digested fats into the lymph

50

large intestine

The terminal portion of the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. It stores and eliminates undigested waste material (feces)

51

liver

The large gland in the upper right part of the abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile needed for digestion and absorption of fats (root: hepat/o)

52

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

Muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus (gastroesophageal junction) that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus. Also called the cardiac sphincter

53

mastication

Chewing

54

mouth

The oral cavity; contains the tongue and teeth. Used to take in and chew food, mix it with saliva, and move it toward the throat to be swallowed

55

palate

The roof of the mouth; the partition between the mouth and nasal cavity; consists of an anterior portion formed by bone, the hard palate, and a posterior portion formed of tissue, the soft palate (root: palat/o)

56

pancreas

A large, elongated gland behind the stomach. It produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes (root: pancreat/o)

57

peristalsis

Wavelike contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct

58

peritoneum

The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs

59

pharynx

The throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx (root: pharyng/o)

60

pylorus

The stomach's distal opening into the duodenum. The opening is controlled by a ring of muscle, the pyloric sphincter (root: pylor/o)

61

rectum

The distal portion of the large intestine. It stores and eliminates undigested waste (root: rect/o, proct/o)

62

saliva

The clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch-digesting enzyme (root: sial/o). Saliva is produced by three pairs of glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands

63

sigmoid colon

Distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum

64

small intestine

The portion of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine; comprised of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Accessory organs secrete into the small intestine, and almost all digestion and absorption occur there

65

stomach

A muscular saclike organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes juices that digest proteins (root: gastr/o)

66

uvula

The fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production (literally “little grape”) (root: uvul/o)

67

villi

Tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods into the circulation (singular: villus)

68

appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

69

ascites

Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a form of edema. May be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis, or changes in plasma composition

70

Barrett syndrome

Lower esophageal ulcer resulting from chronic esophagitis, often with constriction caused by mucosal changes; may be premalignant. Also called Barrett esophagus

71

biliary colic

Acute abdominal pain caused by gallstones in the bile ducts

72

bilirubin

A pigment released in the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells; mainly excreted by the liver in bile

73

caries

Tooth decay

74

celiac disease

Inability to absorb foods containing gluten, a protein found in wheat and some other grains; caused by an excess immune response to gluten

75

cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

76

cholelithiasis

The condition of having stones in the gallbladder; also used to refer to stones in the common bile duct

77

cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease with degeneration of liver tissue

78

Crohn disease

A chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ileum and colon

79

diarrhea

The frequent passage of watery bowel movements

80

diverticulitis

Inflammation of diverticula (small pouches) in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon

81

diverticulosis

The presence of diverticula, especially in the colon

82

dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing

83

emesis

Vomiting

84

fistula

An abnormal passageway between two organs or from an organ to the body surface, such as between the rectum and anus (anorectal fistula)

85

gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and intestine

86

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation, and possible damage to the esophagus; caused by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

87

heartburn

A warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward. Commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Medical name is pyrosis (pyr/o means “heat”)

88

hemorrhoids

Varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding, and sometimes prolapse of the rectum

89

hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver; commonly caused by a viral infection

90

hepatomegaly

Enlargement of the liver

91

hiatal hernia

A protrusion of the stomach through the opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes

92

icterus

Jaundice

93

ileus

Intestinal obstruction. May be caused by lack of peristalsis (adynamic, paralytic ileus) or by contraction (dynamic ileus). Intestinal matter and gas may be relieved by insertion of a drainage tube

94

intussusception

Slipping of one part of the intestine into another part below it. Occurs mainly in male infants in the ileocecal region). May be fatal if untreated for more than one day

95

jaundice

A yellowish color of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood (from French jaune meaning “yellow”). The main pigment is bilirubin, a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction

96

leukoplakia

White patches on mucous membranes, as on the tongue or cheeks, often resulting from smoking or other irritants; may be precancerous

97

nausea

An unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen that often precedes vomiting. Typically occurs in digestive upset, motion sickness, and sometimes early pregnancy

98

occult blood

Blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically; in the feces, a sign of intestinal bleeding (occult means “hidden”)

99

pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

100

peptic ulcer

A lesion in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum caused by the action of gastric juice

101

peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. May result from perforation of an ulcer, rupture of the appendix, or infection of the reproductive tract, among other causes.

102

polyp

A tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily

103

portal hypertension

An abnormal pressure increase in the hepatic portal system. May be caused by cirrhosis, infection, thrombosis, or tumors

104

pyloric stenosis

Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum; pylorostenosis

105

regurgitation

A backward flowing, such as the backflow of undigested food

106

splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

107

ulcerative colitis

Chronic ulceration of the rectum and colon; the cause is unknown, but may involve autoimmunity

108

volvulus

Twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction. Usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly. May be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body, or adhesion. Failure to treat immediately may result in death

109

anastomosis

A passage or communication between two vessels or organs. May be normal or pathologic, or may be created surgically

110

barium study

Use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopic or radiographic study of the digestive tract. Can show obstruction, tumors, ulcers, hiatal hernia, and motility disorders, among other things

111

cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder

112

Dukes classification

A system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of penetration of the bowel wall and lymph node involvement; severity is graded from A to C

113

endoscopy

Use of a fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination. GI studies include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy (rectum and distal colon), and colonoscopy (all regions of the colon)

114

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. Contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum and radiographs are taken

115

ostomy

An opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste. Also refers to the operation done to create such an opening (see stoma)

116

stoma

A surgically created opening to the body surface or between two organs (literally “mouth”)

117

bolus

A mass, such as the rounded mass of food that is swallowed

118

cardia

The part of the stomach near the esophagus, named for its closeness to the heart

119

chyme

The semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine

120

defecation

The evacuation of feces from the rectum

121

deglutition

Swallowing

122

duodenal bulb

The part of the duodenum near the pylorus; the first bend (flexure) of the duodenum

123

duodenal papilla

The raised area where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the duodenum; papilla of Vater (FA-ter)

124

greater omentum

A fold of the peritoneum that extends from the stomach over the abdominal organs

125

hepatic flexure

The right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon

126

ileocecal valve

A valve-like structure between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine

127

mesentery

The portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the intestine

128

mesocolon

The portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the colon

129

papilla of Vater

See duodenal papilla

130

rugae

The large folds in the lining of the stomach seen when the stomach is empty

131

sphincter of Oddi

The ring of muscle at the opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum

132

splenic flexure

The left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon

133

achalasia

Failure of a smooth muscle to relax, especially the lower esophageal sphincter, so that food is retained in the esophagus

134

achlorhydria

Lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach; opposite is hyperchlorhydria

135

anorexia

Loss of appetite. Anorexia nervosa is a psychologically induced refusal or inability to eat (adjectives: anorectic, anorexic)

136

aphagia

Refusal or inability to eat; inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing

137

aphthous ulcer

An ulcer in a mucous membrane, as in the mouth

138

bruxism

Clenching and grinding of the teeth, usually during sleep

139

bulimia

Excessive, insatiable appetite. A disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea, or fasting

140

cachexia

Profound ill health, malnutrition, and wasting

141

cheilosis

Cracking at the corners of the mouth, often caused by B vitamin deficiency (root cheil/o means “lip”)

142

cholestasis

Stoppage of bile flow

143

constipation

Infrequency or difficulty in defecation and the passage of hard, dry feces

144

dyspepsia

Poor or painful digestion

145

eructation

Belching

146

familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP)

A heredity condition in which multiple polyps form in the colon and rectum, predisposing to colorectal cancer

147

flatulence

Condition of having gas or air in the GI tract

148

flatus

Gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract; gas or air expelled through the anus

149

hematemesis

Vomiting of blood

150

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

A chronic stress-related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation, and pain associated with rhythmic contractions of the intestine. Mucous colitis; spastic colon

151

megacolon

An extremely dilated colon. Usually congenital but may occur in acute ulcerative colitis

152

melena

Black tarry feces resulting from blood in the intestines. Common in newborns. May also be a sign of gastrointestinal bleeding

153

obstipation

Extreme constipation

154

pernicious anemia

A form of anemia caused by the stomach’s failure to secrete intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12

155

pilonidal cyst

A dermal cyst in the sacral region, usually at the top of the cleft between the buttocks. May become infected and begin to drain.

156

thrush

Fungal infection of the mouth and/or throat caused by Candida; appears as mucosal white patches or ulcers

157

Vincent disease

Severe gingivitis with necrosis associated with the bacterium Treponema vincentii; necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis; trench mouth

158

appendectomy

Surgical removal of the appendix

159

bariatrics

The branch of medicine concerned with prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases (from Greek baros, meaning “weight”)

160

bariatric surgery

Surgery to reduce the size of the stomach and reduce nutrient absorption in the treatment of morbid obesity.

161

Billroth operations

Gastrectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the duodenum (Billroth I) or to the jejunum (Billroth II)

162

gastric bypass surgery

Division of the stomach and anastomosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum) to reduce nutrient absorption; used to treat morbid obesity. Other surgical methods are used for this purpose, including partition of the stomach with rows of staples (gastric stapling)

163

gavage

Process of feeding through a nasogastric tube into the stomach

164

lavage

Washing out of a cavity; irrigation

165

manometry

Measurement of pressure; pertaining to the GI tract, measurement of pressure in the portal system as a sign of obstruction

166

Murphy sign

Inability to take a deep breath when fingers are pressed firmly below the right arch of the ribs (below the liver). Signifies gallbladder disease

167

nasogastric (NG) tube

Tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach. May be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids, or sampling stomach contents.

168

parenteral hyperalimentation

Complete intravenous feeding for one who cannot take in food. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

169

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube

Tube inserted into the stomach for long-term feeding

170

vagotomy

Interruption of impulses from the vagus nerve to reduce stomach secretions in the treatment of gastric ulcer. Originally done surgically but may also be done with drugs

171

antacid

Agent that counteracts acidity, usually gastric acidity

172

antidiarrheal

Treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining

173

antiemetic

Agent that relieves or prevents nausea and vomiting

174

antiflatulent

Agent that prevents or relieves flatulence

175

antispasmodic

Agent that relieves spasm, usually of smooth muscle

176

emetic

An agent that causes vomiting

177

histamine H2 antagonist

Drug that decreases secretion of stomach acid by interfering with the action of histamine at H2 receptors. Used to treat ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems. H2-receptor-blocking agent

178

laxative

Promotes elimination from the large intestine. Types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners, and bulk-forming agents

179

proton-pump inhibitor (PPI)

Agent that inhibits secretion of stomach acid by blocking the transport of hydrogen ions (protons) into the stomach

180

BE

Barium enema (for radiographic study of the colon)

181

BM

Bowel movement

182

CBD

Common bile duct

183

EGD

Esophagogastroduodenoscopy

184

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography

185

FAP

Familial adenomatous polyposis

186

GERD

Gastroesophageal reflux disease

187

GI

Gastrointestinal

188

HAV

Hepatitis A virus

189

HBV

Hepatitis B virus

190

HCV

Hepatitis C virus

191

HDV

Hepatitis D virus

192

HEV

Hepatitis E virus

193

HCl

Hydrochloric acid

194

IBD

Inflammatory bowel disease

195

IBS

Irritable bowel syndrome

196

LES

Lower esophageal sphincter

197

NG

Nasogastric (tube)

198

N & V

Nausea and vomiting

199

N/V/D

Nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea

200

PONV

Postoperative nausea and vomiting

201

PPI

Proton pump inhibitor

202

TPN

Total parenteral nutrition

203

UGI

Upper gastrointestinal (radiograph series)