Key Terms - All Chapter 3

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1

adenoids

Lymphoid tissue located in the nasopharynx; the pharyngeal tonsils

2

alveoli

The tiny air sacs in the lungs through which gases are exchanged between the atmosphere and the blood in respiration (singular: alveolus). An alveolus, in general, is a small hollow or cavity; the term is also used to describe the bony socket for a tooth

3

bronchiole

One of the smaller subdivisions of the bronchial tubes (root: bronchiol)

4

bronchus

One of the larger air passageways in the lungs. The bronchi begin as two branches of the trachea and then subdivide within the lungs (plural: bronchi) (root: bronch)

5

carbon dioxide (CO2)

A gas produced by energy metabolism in cells and eliminated through the lungs

6

carbonic acid

An acid formed by carbon dioxide when it dissolves in water; H2CO3

7

compliance

A measure of how easily the lungs expand under pressure. Compliance is reduced in many types of respiratory disorders

8

diaphragm

The dome-shaped muscle under the lungs that flattens during inspiration (root: phren/o)

9

epiglottis

A leaf-shaped cartilage that covers the larynx during swallowing to prevent food from entering the trachea

10

expectoration

The act of coughing up material from the respiratory tract; also the material thus released; sputum

11

expiration

The act of breathing out or expelling air from the lungs; exhalation

12

glottis

The opening between the vocal cords

13

hemoglobin

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

14

inspiration

The act of drawing air into the lungs; inhalation

15

larynx

The enlarged upper end of the trachea that contains the vocal cords (root: laryng/o)

16

lung

A cone-shaped spongy organ of respiration contained within the thorax (roots: pneum, pulm)

17

mediastinum

The space between the lungs together with the organs contained in this space

18

nose

The organ of the face used for breathing and for housing receptors for the sense of smell; includes an external portion and an internal nasal cavity (roots: nas/o, rhin/o)

19

oxygen (O2)

The gas needed by cells to release energy from food during metabolism

20

palatine tonsils

The paired masses of lymphoid tissue located on either side of the oropharynx; usually meant when the term tonsils is used alone

21

pharynx

The throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx (root: pharyng/o)

22

phrenic nerve

The nerve that activates the diaphragm (root: phrenic/o)

23

pleura

A double-layered membrane that lines the thoracic cavity (parietal pleura) and covers the lungs (visceral pleura) (root: pleur/o)

24

pleural space

The thin, fluid-filled space between the two layers of the pleura; pleural cavity

25

pulmonary ventilation

The movement of air into and out of the lungs

26

sinus

A cavity or channel; the paranasal sinuses are located near the nose and drain into the nasal cavity

27

sputum

The substance released by coughing or clearing the throat; expectoration. It may contain a variety of material from the respiratory tract

28

surfactant

A substance that decreases surface tension within the alveoli and eases lung expansion.

29

trachea

The air passageway that extends from the larynx to the bronchi (root: trache/o)

30

turbinate bones

The bony projections in the nasal cavity that contain receptors for the sense of smell. Also called conchae (KON-kē)

31

vocal cords

Membranous folds on either side of the larynx that are important in speech production. Also called vocal folds

32

acidosis

Abnormal acidity of body fluids. Respiratory acidosis is caused by abnormally high levels of carbon dioxide in the body

33

acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS)

Pulmonary edema that can lead rapidly to fatal respiratory failure; causes include trauma, aspiration into the lungs, viral pneumonia, and drug reactions; shock lung

34

acute rhinitis

Inflammation of the nasal mucosa with sneezing, tearing, and profuse secretion of watery mucus, as seen in the common cold

35

alkalosis

Abnormal alkalinity of body fluids. Respiratory alkalosis is caused by abnormally low levels of carbon dioxide in the body

36

aspiration

The accidental inhalation of food or other foreign material into the lungs. Also means the withdrawal of fluid from a cavity by suction

37

asthma

A disease characterized by dyspnea and wheezing caused by spasm of the bronchial tubes or swelling of their mucous membranes

38

atelectasis

Incomplete expansion of a lung or part of a lung; lung collapse. May be present at birth (as in respiratory distress syndrome) or be caused by bronchial obstruction or compression of lung tissue (prefix atel/o means “imperfect”)

39

bronchiectasis

Chronic dilatation of a bronchus or bronchi

40

bronchitis

Inflammation of a bronchus

41

chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD)

Any of a group of chronic, progressive, and debilitating respiratory diseases, which includes emphysema, asthma, bronchitis, and bronchiectasis

42

cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen in the blood (adjective: cyanotic)

43

cystic fibrosis (CF)

An inherited disease that affects the pancreas, respiratory system, and sweat glands. Characterized by mucus accumulation in the bronchi causing obstruction and leading to infection

44

diphtheria

Acute infectious disease, usually limited to the upper respiratory tract, characterized by the formation of a surface pseudomembrane composed of cells and coagulated material

45

dyspnea

Difficult or labored breathing, sometimes with pain; “air hunger”

46

emphysema

A chronic pulmonary disease characterized by enlargement and destruction of the alveoli

47

empyema

Accumulation of pus in a body cavity, especially the pleural space; pyothorax

48

hemoptysis

The spitting of blood from the mouth or respiratory tract (ptysis means “spitting”)

49

hemothorax

Presence of blood in the pleural space

50

hydrothorax

Presence of fluid in the pleural space

51

hyperventilation

Increased rate and depth of breathing; increase in the amount of air entering the alveoli

52

influenza

An acute, contagious respiratory infection causing fever, chills, headache, and muscle pain; “flu”

53

pertussis

An acute, infectious disease characterized by a cough ending in a whooping inspiration; whooping cough

54

pleural effusion

Accumulation of fluid in the pleural space. The fluid may contain blood (hemothorax) or pus (pyothorax or empyema)

55

pleurisy

Inflammation of the pleura; pleuritis. A symptom of pleurisy is sharp pain on breathing

56

pneumoconiosis

Disease of the respiratory tract caused by inhalation of dust particles. Named more specifically by the type of dust inhaled, such as silicosis, anthracosis, asbestosis

57

pneumonia

Inflammation of the lungs generally caused by infection. May involve the bronchioles and alveoli (bronchopneumonia) or one or more lobes of the lung (lobar pneumonia)

58

pneumonitis

Inflammation of the lungs; may follow infection or be caused by asthma, allergy, or inhalation of irritants

59

pneumothorax

Accumulation of air or gas in the pleural space. May result from injury or disease or may be produced artificially to collapse a lung

60

pyothorax

Accumulation of pus in the pleural space; empyema

61

respiratory distress syndrome (RDS)

A respiratory disorder that affects premature infants born without enough surfactant in the lungs. It is treated with respiratory support and surfactant administration

62

sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS)

The sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant; crib death

63

tuberculosis

An infectious disease caused by the tubercle bacillus, Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Often involves the lungs but may involve other parts of the body as well. Miliary (MIL-ē-ar-ē) tuberculosis is an acute generalized form of the disease with formation of minute tubercles that resemble millet seeds

64

arterial blood gases (ABGs)

The concentrations of gases, specifically oxygen and carbon dioxide, in arterial blood. Reported as the partial pressure (P) of the gas in arterial (a) blood, such as PaO2 or PaCO2. These measurements are important in measuring acid-base balance

65

bronchoscope

An endoscope used to examine the tracheobronchial passageways. Also allows access for biopsy of tissue to removal of a foreign object

66

lung scan

Study based on the accumulation of radioactive isotope in lung tissue. A ventilation scan measures ventilation after inhalation of radioactive material. A perfusion scan measures blood supply to the lungs after injection of radioactive material. Also called a pulmonary scintiscan

67

pulse oximetry

Determination of the oxygen saturation of arterial blood by means of a photoelectric apparatus (oximeter), usually placed on the finger or the ear; reported as SpO2 in percent

68

pulmonary function tests

Tests done to assess breathing, usually by spirometry

69

spirometer

An apparatus used to measure breathing volumes and capacities; record of test is a spirogram

70

thoracentesis

Surgical puncture of the chest for removal of air or fluids, such as may accumulate after surgery or as a result of injury, infection, or cardiovascular problems. Also called thoracocentesis

71

tuberculin test

A skin test for tuberculosis. Tuberculin (PPD), the test material made from products of the tuberculosis organism, is injected below the skin. A hard, raised lump appearing with 48 to 72 hours indicates an active or inactive TB infection. Also called the Mantoux (man-TOO) test

72

carina

A projection of the lowest tracheal cartilage that forms a ridge between the two bronchi. Used as a landmark for endoscopy. Any ridge or ridgelike structure (from a Latin word that means “keel”)

73

hilum

An anatomical depression in an organ where vessels and nerves enter

74

nares

The external openings of the nose; the nostrils (singular, naris)

75

nasal septum

The partition that divides the nasal cavity into two parts (root sept/o means “septum”)

76

Term

Meaning

77

anoxia

Lack or absence of oxygen in the tissues; often used incorrectly to mean hypoxia

78

asphyxia

Condition caused by inadequate intake of oxygen; suffocation (literally “lack of pulse”)

79

Biot respirations

Deep, fast breathing interrupted by sudden pauses; seen in spinal meningitis and other disorders of the central nervous system

80

bronchospasm

Narrowing of the bronchi caused by smooth muscle spasms; common in cases of asthma and bronchitis

81

Cheyne-Stokes respiration

A repeating cycle of gradually increased and then decreased respiration followed by a period of apnea; caused by depression of the breathing centers in the brain stem; seen in cases of coma and in terminally ill patients

82

cor pulmonale

Enlargement of the heart's right ventricle caused by disease of the lungs or pulmonary blood vessels

83

coryza

Acute inflammation of the nasal passages with profuse nasal discharge; acute rhinitis

84

croup

A childhood disease usually caused by a viral infection that involves inflammation and obstruction of the upper airway. Croup is characterized by a barking cough, difficulty breathing, and laryngeal spasm

85

deviated septum

A shifted nasal septum; may require surgical correction

86

epiglottitis

Inflammation of the epiglottis that may lead to obstruction of the upper airway. Commonly seen in cases of croup (also spelled epiglottiditis)

87

epistaxis

Hemorrhage from the nose; nosebleed (Greek -staxis means “dripping”)

88

fremitus

A vibration, especially as felt through the chest wall on palpation

89

Kussmaul respiration

Rapid and deep gasping respiration without pause; characteristic of severe acidosis

90

pleural friction rub

A sound heard on auscultation that is produced by the rubbing together of the two pleural layers; a common sign of pleurisy

91

rales

Abnormal chest sounds heard when air enters small airways or alveoli containing fluid; usually heard during inspiration (singular:rale [rahl]). Also called crackles

92

rhonchi

Abnormal chest sounds produced in airways with accumulated fluids; more noticeable during expiration (singular: rhonchus)

93

stridor

A harsh, high-pitched sound caused by obstruction of an upper air passageway

94

tussis

A cough. An antitussive drug is one that relieves or prevents coughing

95

wheeze

A whistling or sighing sound caused by narrowing of a respiratory passageway

96

byssinosis

Obstructive airway disease caused by reaction to the dust in unprocessed plant fibers

97

sleep apnea

Intermittent periods of breathing cessation during sleep. Central sleep apnea arises from failure of the brain stem to stimulate breathing. Obstructive sleep apnea results from airway obstruction during deep sleep, as from obesity or enlarged tonsils

98

small cell carcinoma

A highly malignant type of bronchial tumor involving small, undifferentiated cells; “oat cell” carcinoma

99

mediastinoscopy

Examination of the mediastinum by means of an endoscope inserted through an incision above the sternum

100

plethysmograph

An instrument that measures changes in gas volume and pressure during respiration

101

pneumotachometer

A device for measuring air flow

102

thoracoscopy

Examination of the pleural cavity through an endoscope; pleuroscopy

103

aerosol therapy

Treatment by inhalation of a drug or water in spray form

104

continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP)

Use of a mechanical respirator to maintain pressure throughout the respiratory cycle in a patient who is breathing spontaneously

105

extubation

Removal of a previously inserted tube

106

intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB)

Use of a ventilator to inflate the lungs at intervals under positive pressure during inhalation

107

intermittent positive pressure ventilation (IPPV)

Use of a mechanical ventilator to force air into the lungs while allowing for passive exhalation

108

nasal cannula

A two-pronged plastic device inserted into the nostrils for delivery of oxygen

109

orthopneic position

An upright or semi-upright position that aids breathing

110

positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP)

Use of a mechanical ventilator to increase the volume of gas in the lungs at the end of exhalation, thus improving gas exchange

111

postural drainage

Use of body position to drain secretions from the lungs by gravity. The patient is placed so that secretions will move passively into the larger airways for elimination

112

thoracic gas volume (TGV, VTG)

The volume of gas in the thoracic cavity calculated from measurements made with a body plethysmograph

113

adenoidectomy

Surgical removal of the adenoids

114

intubation

Insertion of a tube into a hollow organ, such as into the larynx or trachea for entrance of air. Patients may be intubated during surgery for administration of anesthesia or to maintain an airway. Endotracheal intubation may be used as an emergency measure when airways are blocked

115

lobectomy

Surgical removal of a lobe of the lung or of another organ

116

pneumoplasty

Plastic surgery of the lung. In reduction pneumoplasty, nonfunctional portions of the lung are removed, as in cases of advanced emphysema

117

tracheotomy

Incision of the trachea through the neck, usually to establish an airway in cases of tracheal obstruction

118

tracheostomy

Surgical creation of an opening into the trachea to form an airway or to prepare for the insertion of a tube for ventilation, also the opening thus created

119

antihistamine

Agent that prevents responses mediated by histamine, such as allergic and inflammatory reactions

120

antitussive

Drug that prevents or relieves coughing

121

asthma maintenance drug

Agent used to prevent asthma attacks and for chronic treatment of asthma

122

bronchodilator

Drug that relieves bronchial spasm and widens the bronchi

123

corticosteroid

Hormone from the adrenal cortex; used to reduce inflammation

124

decongestant

Agent that reduces congestion or swelling

125

expectorant

Agent that aids in removal of bronchopulmonary secretions

126

isoniazid (INH)

Drug used to treat tuberculosis

127

leukotriene antagonist

Drug that prevents or reduces inflammation by inhibiting leukotrienes, substances made in white blood cells that promote inflammation; they also constrict the bronchi and increase mucus production; used in asthma treatment

128

mucolytic

Agent that loosens mucus to aid in its removal

129

rifampin

Drug used to treat tuberculosis

130

Anus

The distal opening of the digestive tract (root: an/o)

131

appendix

An appendage; usually means the narrow tube of lymphatic tissue attached to the cecum, the vermiform (wormlike) appendix

132

bile

The fluid secreted by the liver that emulsified fats and aids in their absorption (roots: chol/e, bili)

133

cecum

A blind pouch at the beginning of the large intestine (root: cec/o)

134

colon

The major portion of the large intestine; extends from the cecum to the rectum and is formed by ascending, transverse, and descending portions (root: col/o, colon/o)

135

common bile duct

The duct that carries bile into the duodenum; formed by the union of the cystic duct and the common hepatic duct (root: choledoch/o)

136

duodenum

The first portion of the small intestine (root: duoden/o)

137

enzyme

An organic catalyst; speeds the rate of chemical reactions

138

esophagus

The muscular tube that carries food from the pharynx to the stomach.

139

feces

The waste material eliminated from the intestine (adjective: fecal); stool

140

gallbladder

A sac on the undersurface of the liver that stores bile (root: cholecyst/o)

141

hepatic portal system

A special pathway of the circulation that brings blood directly from the abdominal organs to the liver for processing (also called simply the portal system). The vessel that enters the liver is the hepatic portal vein (portal vein).

142

ileum

The terminal portion of the small intestine (root: ile/o)

143

intestine

The portion of the digestive tract between the stomach and the anus. It consists of the small intestine and large intestine. It functions in digestion, absorption, and elimination of waste (root: enter/o). The bowel (BOW-el)

144

jejunum

The middle portion of the small intestine (root: jejun/o)

145

lacteal

A lymphatic capillary in a villus of the small intestine. Lacteals absorb digested fats into the lymph

146

large intestine

The terminal portion of the digestive tract, consisting of the cecum, colon, rectum, and anus. It stores and eliminates undigested waste material (feces)

147

liver

The large gland in the upper right part of the abdomen. In addition to many other functions, it secretes bile needed for digestion and absorption of fats (root: hepat/o)

148

lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

Muscle tissue at the distal end of the esophagus (gastroesophageal junction) that prevents stomach contents from refluxing into the esophagus. Also called the cardiac sphincter

149

mastication

Chewing

150

mouth

The oral cavity; contains the tongue and teeth. Used to take in and chew food, mix it with saliva, and move it toward the throat to be swallowed

151

palate

The roof of the mouth; the partition between the mouth and nasal cavity; consists of an anterior portion formed by bone, the hard palate, and a posterior portion formed of tissue, the soft palate (root: palat/o)

152

pancreas

A large, elongated gland behind the stomach. It produces hormones that regulate sugar metabolism and also produces digestive enzymes (root: pancreat/o)

153

peristalsis

Wavelike contractions of an organ's walls; moves material through an organ or duct

154

peritoneum

The serous membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and supports the abdominal organs

155

pharynx

The throat; a common passageway for food entering the esophagus and air entering the larynx (root: pharyng/o)

156

pylorus

The stomach's distal opening into the duodenum. The opening is controlled by a ring of muscle, the pyloric sphincter (root: pylor/o)

157

rectum

The distal portion of the large intestine. It stores and eliminates undigested waste (root: rect/o, proct/o)

158

saliva

The clear secretion released into the mouth that moistens food and contains a starch-digesting enzyme (root: sial/o). Saliva is produced by three pairs of glands: the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands

159

sigmoid colon

Distal S-shaped portion of the large intestine located between the descending colon and the rectum

160

small intestine

The portion of the intestine between the stomach and the large intestine; comprised of the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Accessory organs secrete into the small intestine, and almost all digestion and absorption occur there

161

stomach

A muscular saclike organ below the diaphragm that stores food and secretes juices that digest proteins (root: gastr/o)

162

uvula

The fleshy mass that hangs from the soft palate; aids in speech production (literally “little grape”) (root: uvul/o)

163

villi

Tiny projections in the lining of the small intestine that absorb digested foods into the circulation (singular: villus)

164

appendicitis

Inflammation of the appendix

165

ascites

Accumulation of fluid in the abdominal cavity; a form of edema. May be caused by heart disease, lymphatic or venous obstruction, cirrhosis, or changes in plasma composition

166

Barrett syndrome

Lower esophageal ulcer resulting from chronic esophagitis, often with constriction caused by mucosal changes; may be premalignant. Also called Barrett esophagus

167

biliary colic

Acute abdominal pain caused by gallstones in the bile ducts

168

bilirubin

A pigment released in the breakdown of hemoglobin from red blood cells; mainly excreted by the liver in bile

169

caries

Tooth decay

170

celiac disease

Inability to absorb foods containing gluten, a protein found in wheat and some other grains; caused by an excess immune response to gluten

171

cholecystitis

Inflammation of the gallbladder

172

cholelithiasis

The condition of having stones in the gallbladder; also used to refer to stones in the common bile duct

173

cirrhosis

Chronic liver disease with degeneration of liver tissue

174

Crohn disease

A chronic inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract usually involving the ileum and colon

175

diarrhea

The frequent passage of watery bowel movements

176

diverticulitis

Inflammation of diverticula (small pouches) in the wall of the digestive tract, especially in the colon

177

diverticulosis

The presence of diverticula, especially in the colon

178

dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing

179

emesis

Vomiting

180

fistula

An abnormal passageway between two organs or from an organ to the body surface, such as between the rectum and anus (anorectal fistula)

181

gastroenteritis

Inflammation of the stomach and intestine

182

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

Condition caused by reflux of gastric juices into the esophagus resulting in heartburn, regurgitation, inflammation, and possible damage to the esophagus; caused by weakness of the lower esophageal sphincter (LES)

183

heartburn

A warm or burning sensation felt behind the sternum and radiating upward. Commonly associated with gastroesophageal reflux. Medical name is pyrosis (pyr/o means “heat”)

184

hemorrhoids

Varicose veins in the rectum associated with pain, bleeding, and sometimes prolapse of the rectum

185

hepatitis

Inflammation of the liver; commonly caused by a viral infection

186

hepatomegaly

Enlargement of the liver

187

hiatal hernia

A protrusion of the stomach through the opening (hiatus) in the diaphragm through which the esophagus passes

188

icterus

Jaundice

189

ileus

Intestinal obstruction. May be caused by lack of peristalsis (adynamic, paralytic ileus) or by contraction (dynamic ileus). Intestinal matter and gas may be relieved by insertion of a drainage tube

190

intussusception

Slipping of one part of the intestine into another part below it. Occurs mainly in male infants in the ileocecal region). May be fatal if untreated for more than one day

191

jaundice

A yellowish color of the skin, mucous membranes, and whites of the eye caused by bile pigments in the blood (from French jaune meaning “yellow”). The main pigment is bilirubin, a byproduct of erythrocyte destruction

192

leukoplakia

White patches on mucous membranes, as on the tongue or cheeks, often resulting from smoking or other irritants; may be precancerous

193

nausea

An unpleasant sensation in the upper abdomen that often precedes vomiting. Typically occurs in digestive upset, motion sickness, and sometimes early pregnancy

194

occult blood

Blood present in such small amounts that it can be detected only microscopically or chemically; in the feces, a sign of intestinal bleeding (occult means “hidden”)

195

pancreatitis

Inflammation of the pancreas

196

peptic ulcer

A lesion in the mucous membrane of the esophagus, stomach, or duodenum caused by the action of gastric juice

197

peritonitis

Inflammation of the peritoneum, the membrane that lines the abdominal cavity and covers the abdominal organs. May result from perforation of an ulcer, rupture of the appendix, or infection of the reproductive tract, among other causes.

198

polyp

A tumor that grows on a stalk and bleeds easily

199

portal hypertension

An abnormal pressure increase in the hepatic portal system. May be caused by cirrhosis, infection, thrombosis, or tumors

200

pyloric stenosis

Narrowing of the opening between the stomach and the duodenum; pylorostenosis

201

regurgitation

A backward flowing, such as the backflow of undigested food

202

splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

203

ulcerative colitis

Chronic ulceration of the rectum and colon; the cause is unknown, but may involve autoimmunity

204

volvulus

Twisting of the intestine resulting in obstruction. Usually involves the sigmoid colon and occurs most often in children and in the elderly. May be caused by congenital malformation, a foreign body, or adhesion. Failure to treat immediately may result in death

205

anastomosis

A passage or communication between two vessels or organs. May be normal or pathologic, or may be created surgically

206

barium study

Use of barium sulfate as a liquid contrast medium for fluoroscopic or radiographic study of the digestive tract. Can show obstruction, tumors, ulcers, hiatal hernia, and motility disorders, among other things

207

cholecystectomy

Surgical removal of the gallbladder

208

Dukes classification

A system for staging colorectal cancer based on degree of penetration of the bowel wall and lymph node involvement; severity is graded from A to C

209

endoscopy

Use of a fiberoptic endoscope for direct visual examination. GI studies include esophagogastroduodenoscopy, proctosigmoidoscopy (rectum and distal colon), and colonoscopy (all regions of the colon)

210

ERCP

Endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography; a technique for viewing the pancreatic and bile ducts and for performing certain techniques to relieve obstructions. Contrast medium is injected into the biliary system from the duodenum and radiographs are taken

211

ostomy

An opening into the body; generally refers to an opening created for elimination of body waste. Also refers to the operation done to create such an opening (see stoma)

212

stoma

A surgically created opening to the body surface or between two organs (literally “mouth”)

213

bolus

A mass, such as the rounded mass of food that is swallowed

214

cardia

The part of the stomach near the esophagus, named for its closeness to the heart

215

chyme

The semiliquid partially digested food that moves from the stomach into the small intestine

216

defecation

The evacuation of feces from the rectum

217

deglutition

Swallowing

218

duodenal bulb

The part of the duodenum near the pylorus; the first bend (flexure) of the duodenum

219

duodenal papilla

The raised area where the common bile duct and pancreatic duct enter the duodenum; papilla of Vater (FA-ter)

220

greater omentum

A fold of the peritoneum that extends from the stomach over the abdominal organs

221

hepatic flexure

The right bend of the colon, forming the junction between the ascending colon and the transverse colon

222

ileocecal valve

A valve-like structure between the ileum of the small intestine and the cecum of the large intestine

223

mesentery

The portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the intestine

224

mesocolon

The portion of the peritoneum that folds over and supports the colon

225

rugae

The large folds in the lining of the stomach seen when the stomach is empty

226

sphincter of Oddi

The ring of muscle at the opening of the common bile duct into the duodenum

227

splenic flexure

The left bend of the colon, forming the junction between the transverse colon and the descending colon

228

achalasia

Failure of a smooth muscle to relax, especially the lower esophageal sphincter, so that food is retained in the esophagus

229

achlorhydria

Lack of hydrochloric acid in the stomach; opposite is hyperchlorhydria

230

anorexia

Loss of appetite. Anorexia nervosa is a psychologically induced refusal or inability to eat (adjectives: anorectic, anorexic)

231

aphagia

Refusal or inability to eat; inability to swallow or difficulty in swallowing

232

aphthous ulcer

An ulcer in a mucous membrane, as in the mouth

233

bruxism

Clenching and grinding of the teeth, usually during sleep

234

bulimia

Excessive, insatiable appetite. A disorder characterized by overeating followed by induced vomiting, diarrhea, or fasting

235

cachexia

Profound ill health, malnutrition, and wasting

236

cheilosis

Cracking at the corners of the mouth, often caused by B vitamin deficiency (root cheil/o means “lip”)

237

cholestasis

Stoppage of bile flow

238

constipation

Infrequency or difficulty in defecation and the passage of hard, dry feces

239

dyspepsia

Poor or painful digestion

240

eructation

Belching

241

familial

adenomatous polyposis (FAP) A heredity condition in which multiple polyps form in the colon and rectum, predisposing to colorectal cancer

242

flatulence

Condition of having gas or air in the GI tract

243

flatus

Gas or air in the gastrointestinal tract; gas or air expelled through the anus

244

hematemesis

Vomiting of blood

245

irritable bowel syndrome (IBS)

A chronic stress-related disease characterized by diarrhea, constipation, and pain associated with rhythmic contractions of the intestine. Mucous colitis; spastic colon

246

megacolon

An extremely dilated colon. Usually congenital but may occur in acute ulcerative colitis

247

melena

Black tarry feces resulting from blood in the intestines. Common in newborns. May also be a sign of gastrointestinal bleeding

248

obstipation

Extreme constipation

249

pernicious anemia

A form of anemia caused by the stomach’s failure to secrete intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12

250

pilonidal cyst

A dermal cyst in the sacral region, usually at the top of the cleft between the buttocks. May become infected and begin to drain.

251

thrush

Fungal infection of the mouth and/or throat caused by Candida; appears as mucosal white patches or ulcers

252

Vincent disease

Severe gingivitis with necrosis associated with the bacterium Treponema vincentii; necrotizing ulcerative gingivitis; trench mouth

253

appendectomy

Surgical removal of the appendix

254

bariatrics

The branch of medicine concerned with prevention and control of obesity and associated diseases (from Greek baros, meaning “weight”)

255

bariatric surgery

Surgery to reduce the size of the stomach and reduce nutrient absorption in the treatment of morbid obesity.

256

Billroth operations

Gastrectomy with anastomosis of the stomach to the duodenum (Billroth I) or to the jejunum (Billroth II)

257

gastric bypass surgery

Division of the stomach and anastomosis of its upper part to the small intestine (jejunum) to reduce nutrient absorption; used to treat morbid obesity. Other surgical methods are used for this purpose, including partition of the stomach with rows of staples (gastric stapling)

258

gavage

Process of feeding through a nasogastric tube into the stomach

259

lavage

Washing out of a cavity; irrigation

260

manometry

Measurement of pressure; pertaining to the GI tract, measurement of pressure in the portal system as a sign of obstruction

261

Murphy sign

Inability to take a deep breath when fingers are pressed firmly below the right arch of the ribs (below the liver). Signifies gallbladder disease

262

nasogastric (NG) tube

Tube that is passed through the nose into the stomach. May be used for emptying the stomach, administering medication, giving liquids, or sampling stomach contents.

263

parenteral hyperalimentation

Complete intravenous feeding for one who cannot take in food. Total parenteral nutrition (TPN)

264

percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube

Tube inserted into the stomach for long-term feeding

265

vagotomy

Interruption of impulses from the vagus nerve to reduce stomach secretions in the treatment of gastric ulcer. Originally done surgically but may also be done with drugs

266

antacid

Agent that counteracts acidity, usually gastric acidity

267

antidiarrheal

Treats or prevents diarrhea by reducing intestinal motility or absorbing irritants and soothing the intestinal lining

268

antiemetic

Agent that relieves or prevents nausea and vomiting

269

antiflatulent

Agent that prevents or relieves flatulence

270

antispasmodic

Agent that relieves spasm, usually of smooth muscle

271

emetic

An agent that causes vomiting

272

histamine H2 antagonist

Drug that decreases secretion of stomach acid by interfering with the action of histamine at H2 receptors. Used to treat ulcers and other gastrointestinal problems. H2-receptor-blocking agent

273

laxative Promotes elimination from the large intestine. Types include stimulants, substances that retain water (hyperosmotics), stool softeners, and bulk

forming agents

274

proton

pump inhibitor (PPI) - Agent that inhibits secretion of stomach acid by blocking the transport of hydrogen ions (protons) into the stomach