Chapter 10 Blood and Immunity

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 10
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1

myel/o

bone marrow

Ex. Myelogenous
originating in bone marrow

2

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

Ex. Hemopathy
any disorder of blood

3

erythr/o, erythrocyt/o

red blood cell

Ex. Erythroblast
immature red blood cell

4

leuk/o, leukocyt/o

white blood cell

Ex. Leukocytosis
increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood

5

lymph/o, lymphocyt/o

lymphocyte

Ex. Lymphocytic
pertaining to lymphocytes

6

thromb/o

blood clot

Ex. Thrombolytic
pertaining to lymphocytes

7

thrombocyt/o

platelet, thrombocyte

Ex. Thrombocytopoiesis
formation of platelets

8

immun/o

immunity, immune system

Ex. Immunization
production of immunity

9

azot/o

nitrogenous compounds

Ex. Azoturia
increased nitrogenous compounds in the urine (-uria)

10

calc/I

calcium (symbol Ca)

Ex. Calcification
deposition of calcium salts

11

ferr/o, ferr/I

iron (symbol Fe)

Ex. Ferrous
pertaining to or containing iron

12

sider/o

iron

Ex. Sideroderma
deposition of iron into the skin

13

Kali

potassium (symbol K)

Ex. Hyperkalemia
excess of potassium in the blood

14

Natri

sodium (symbol Na)

Ex. Natriuresis
excretion of sodium in the urine (ur/o)

15

ox/y

oxygen (symbol O)

Ex. Hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen in the tissues

16

-emia,-hemia

condition of blood

Ex. Polycythemia
increase in cells (cyt) in the blood

17

-penia

decrease in, deficiency of

Ex. Cytopenia
deficiency of cells in the blood

18

-poiesis

formation, production

Ex. Hemopoiesis
production of blood cells

19

agranulocytes

A white blood cell that does not have visible granules in its cytoplasm. Agranulocytes include lymphocytes and monocytes

20

albumin

A simple protein found in blood plasma

21

antibody

A protein produced in response to and interacting specifically with an antigen

22

antigen

A substance that induces the formation of an antibody

23

B cell

A lymphocyte that matures in lymphoid tissue and is active in producing antibodies; B lymphocyte (LIM-fō-sīt)

24

band cell

An immature neutrophil with a nucleus in the shape of a band; also called a stab cell. Band cell counts are used to trace infections and other diseases

25

basophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with basic dyes; active in allergic reactions

26

blood

The fluid that circulates in the cardiovascular system (root: hem/o, hemat/o)

27

coagulation

Blood clotting

28

cross-matching

Testing the compatibility of donor and recipient blood in preparation for a transfusion. Donor red cells are mixed with recipient serum, and red cells of the recipient are mixed with donor serum to look for an immunologic reaction. Similar tests are done on tissues before transplantation

29

electrolyte

A substance that separates into charged particles (ions) in solution; a salt. Term also applied to ions in body fluids

30

eosinophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic dyes; active in allergic reactions and defense against parasites

31

erythrocyte

A red blood cell (root: erythr/o, erythrocyt/o)

32

erythropoietin (EPO)

A hormone produced in the kidneys that stimulates red blood cell production in the bone marrow. This hormone is now made by genetic engineering for clinical use

33

fibrin

The protein that forms a clot in the process of blood coagulation

34

fibrinogen

The inactive precursor of fibrin

35

formed elements

The cellular components of blood

36

gamma globulin

The fraction of the blood plasma that contains antibodies; given for passive transfer of immunity

37

granulocytes

A white blood cell that has visible granules in its cytoplasm. Granulocytes include neutrophils, basophils, and eosinophils

38

hemoglobin (Hb, Hgb)

The iron-containing pigment in red blood cells that transports oxygen

39

hemostasis

The stoppage of bleeding

40

immunity

The state of being protected against a specific disease (root: immun/o)

41

immunoglobulin (Ig)

An antibody. Immunoglobulins fall into five classes, each abbreviated with a capital letter: IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, IgE

42

leukocyte

A white blood cell (root: leuk/o, leukocyt/o)

43

lymphocyte

An agranular leukocyte active in immunity (T cells and B cells); found in both the blood and in lymphoid tissue (root: lymph/o, lymphocyt/o)

44

megakaryocyte

A large bone marrow cell that fragments to release platelets

45

macrophage

A phagocytic cell derived from a monocyte; usually located within the tissues. Macrophages process antigens for T cells

46

monocyte

An agranular phagocytic leukocyte

47

neutrophil

A granular leukocyte that stains with acidic or basic dyes. The most numerous of the white blood cells. A type of phagocyte

48

phagocytosis

The engulfing of foreign material by white blood cells

49

plasma

The liquid portion of the blood

50

plasma cell

A mature form of a B cell that produces antibodies

51

platelet

A formed element of the blood that is active in hemostasis; a thrombocyte (root: thrombocyt/o)

52

serum

The fraction of the plasma that remains after blood coagulation; it is the equivalent of plasma without its clotting factors (plural: sera, serums)

53

T cell

A lymphocyte that matures in the thymus gland and attacks foreign cells directly; T lymphocyte

54

thrombocyte

A blood platelet (root: thrombocyt/o)

55

AIDS (acquired immunodeficiency syndrome)

Failure of the immune system caused by infection with HIV (human immunodeficiency virus). The virus infects certain T cells and thus interferes with immunity

56

allergen

A substance that causes an allergic response

57

allergy

Hypersensitivity

58

anaphylactic reaction

An exaggerated allergic reaction to a foreign substance (root phylaxis means. “protection”). It may lead to death caused by circulatory collapse, and respiratory distress if untreated. Also called anaphylaxis

59

anemia

A deficiency in the amount of hemoglobin in the blood; may result from blood loss, malnutrition, a hereditary defect, environmental factors, and other causes

60

angioedema

A localized edema with large hives (wheals) similar to urticaria but involving deeper layers of the skin and subcutaneous tissue

61

aplastic anemia

Anemia caused by bone marrow failure resulting in deficient blood cell production, especially of red cells; pancytopenia

62

autoimmune disease

A condition in which the immune system produces antibodies against an individual's own tissues (prefix auto means “self”)

63

Cooley anemia

A form of thalassemia (hereditary anemia) which affects production of the β (beta) hemoglobin chain; thalassemia major

64

delayed hypersensitivity reaction

An allergic reaction involving T cells that takes at least 12 hours to develop. Examples are various types of contact dermatitis, such as poison ivy or poison oak; the tuberculin reaction (test for TB); and rejections of transplanted tissue

65

disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC)

Widespread formation of clots in the microscopic vessels; may be followed by bleeding caused by depletion of clotting factors

66

ecchymosis

A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels (root chym means “juice”)

67

hemolysis

The rupture of red blood cells and the release of hemoglobin (adjective: hemolytic)

68

hemophilia

A hereditary blood disease caused by lack of a clotting factor and resulting in abnormal bleeding

69

HIV (human immunodeficiency virus)

The virus that causes AIDS

70

Hodgkin disease

A neoplastic disease of unknown cause that involves the lymph nodes, spleen, liver, and other tissues; characterized by the presence of giant Reed-Sternberg cells

71

hypersensitivity

An immunologic reaction to a substance that is harmless to most people; allergy

72

immunodeficiency

A congenital or acquired failure of the immune system to protect against disease

73

intrinsic factor

A substance produced in the stomach that aids in the absorption of vitamin B12, necessary for the manufacture of red blood cells. Lack of intrinsic factor causes pernicious anemia

74

Kaposi sarcoma

Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues, seen most often in patients with AIDS

75

leukemia

Malignant overgrowth of immature white blood cells; may be chronic or acute; may affect bone marrow (myelogenous leukemia) or lymphoid tissue (lymphocytic leukemia)

76

lymphadenopathy

Any disease of the lymph nodes

77

multiple myeloma

A tumor of the blood-forming tissue in bone marrow

78

non-Hodgkin lymphoma (NHL)

A widespread malignant disease of lymph nodes that involves lymphocytes. It differs from Hodgkin disease in that giant Reed-Sternberg cells are absent.

79

Philadelphia chromosome (Ph)

An abnormal chromosome found in the cells of most individuals with chronic granulocytic (myelogenous) leukemia

80

pernicious anemia

Anemia caused by failure of the stomach to produce intrinsic factor, a substance needed for the absorption of vitamin B12. This vitamin is required for the formation of erythrocytes.

81

petechiae

Pinpoint, flat, purplish-red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular: petechia)

82

purpura

A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin, mucous membranes, internal organs, and other tissues (from Greek word meaning “purple”). Thrombocytopenic purpura is caused by a deficiency of platelets

83

sideroblastic anemia

Anemia caused by inability to use available iron to manufacture hemoglobin. The excess iron precipitates in normoblasts (developing red blood cells)

84

Sjögren syndrome

An autoimmune disease involving dysfunction of the exocrine glands and affecting secretion of tears, saliva, and other body fluids. Deficiency leads to dry mouth, tooth decay, corneal damage, eye infections, and difficulty in swallowing

85

sickle cell anemia

A hereditary anemia caused by the presence of abnormal hemoglobin. Red blood cells become sickle shaped and interfere with normal blood flow to the tissues. Most common in black populations of West African descent

86

splenomegaly

Enlargement of the spleen

87

systemic lupus erythematosus

Inflammatory connective tissue disease affecting the skin and multiple organs. Patients are sensitive to light and may have a red butterfly-shaped rash over the nose and cheeks

88

systemic sclerosis

A diffuse disease of connective tissue that may involve any system causing inflammation, degeneration, and fibrosis. Also called scleroderma because it causes thickening of the skin

89

thalassemia

A group of hereditary anemias mostly found in populations of Mediterranean descent (the name comes from the Greek word for “sea”)

90

thrombocytopenia

A deficiency of thrombocytes (platelets) in the blood

91

urticaria

A skin reaction consisting of round, raised eruptions (wheals) with itching; hives

92

adrenaline

See epinephrine

93

CD4+ T lymphocyte count

A count of the T cells that have the CD4 receptors for the AIDS virus (HIV). A count of less than 200/µL of blood signifies severe immunodeficiency.

94

epinephrine

A powerful stimulant produced by the adrenal gland and sympathetic nervous system. Activates the cardiovascular, respiratory, and other systems needed to meet stress. Used as a drug to treat severe allergic reactions and shock. Also called adrenaline

95

reticulocyte counts

Blood counts of reticulocytes, a type of immature red blood cell; reticulocyte counts are useful in diagnosis to indicate the rate of erythrocyte formation

96

Reed-Sternberg cells

Giant cells that are characteristic of Hodgkin disease. They usually have two large nuclei and are surrounded by a halo

97

agglutination

The clumping of cells or particles in the presence of specific antibodies

98

bilirubin

A pigment derived from the breakdown of hemoglobin. It is eliminated by the liver in bile

99

complement

A group of plasma enzymes that interacts with antibodies

100

corpuscle

A small mass or body. A blood corpuscle is a blood cell

101

hemopoietic stem cell

A primitive bone marrow cell that gives rise to all varieties of blood cells

102

heparin

A substance found throughout the body that inhibits blood coagulation; an anticoagulant

103

plasmin

An enzyme that dissolves clots; also called fibrinolysin

104

thrombin

The enzyme derived from prothrombin that converts fibrinogen to fibrin

105

agranulocytosis

A condition involving a decrease in the number of granulocytes in the blood; also called granulocytopenia

106

erythrocytosis

Increase in the number of red cells in the blood; may be normal, such as to compensate for life at high altitudes, or abnormal, such as in cases of pulmonary or cardiac disease

107

Fanconi syndrome

Congenital aplastic anemia that appears between birth and 10 years of age; may be hereditary or caused by damage before birth, as by a virus

108

graft-versus-host reaction (GVHR)

An immunologic reaction of transplanted lymphocytes against tissues of the host; a common complication of bone marrow transplantation.

109

Hairy cell leukemia

A form of leukemia in which cells have filaments, making them look “hairy”

110

hematoma

A localized collection of blood, usually clotted, caused by a break in a blood vessel

111

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that, in later pregnancies, will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus. The problem is usually avoided by treating the mother with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen; erythroblastosis fetalis

112

hemosiderosis

A condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment (hemosiderin) mainly in the liver and the spleen. The pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells

113

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

A clotting disorder caused by destruction of platelets that usually follows a viral illness. Causes petechiae and hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes

114

infectious mononucleosis

An acute infectious disease caused by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Characterized by fever, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytes (resembling monocytes)

115

hemolytic disease of the newborn (HDN)

Disease that results from incompatibility between the blood of a mother and her fetus, usually involving Rh factor. An Rh-negative mother produces antibody to an Rh-positive fetus that, in later pregnancies, will destroy the red cells of an Rh-positive fetus. The problem is usually avoided by treating the mother with antibodies to remove the Rh antigen; erythroblastosis fetalis

116

hemosiderosis

A condition involving the deposition of an iron-containing pigment (hemosiderin) mainly in the liver and the spleen. The pigment comes from hemoglobin released from disintegrated red blood cells

117

idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura (ITP)

A clotting disorder caused by destruction of platelets that usually follows a viral illness. Causes petechiae and hemorrhages into the skin and mucous membranes

118

infectious mononucleosis

An acute infectious disease caused by Epstein–Barr virus (EBV). Characterized by fever, weakness, lymphadenopathy, hepatosplenomegaly, and atypical lymphocytes (resembling monocytes)

119

polycythemia vera

A condition in which overactive bone marrow produces too many red blood cells. These interfere with circulation and promote thrombosis and hemorrhage. Treated by blood removal. Also called erythremia, Vasquez–Osler disease

120

septicemia

Presence of microorganisms in the blood

121

spherocytic anemia

Hereditary anemia in which red blood cells are round instead of disk-shaped and rupture (hemolyze) excessively

122

thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP)

An often fatal disorder in which multiple clots form in blood vessels

123

von Willebrand disease

A hereditary bleeding disease caused by lack of von Willebrand factor, a substance necessary for blood clotting

124

Bence Jones protein

A protein that appears in the urine of patients with multiple myeloma

125

Coombs test

A test for detection of antibodies to red blood cells such as appear in cases of autoimmune hemolytic anemias

126

electrophoresis

Separation of particles in a liquid by application of an electrical field; used to separate components of blood.

127

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. A highly sensitive immunologic test used to diagnose HIV infection, hepatitis, and Lyme disease, among others

128

monoclonal antibody

A pure antibody produced in the laboratory; used for diagnosis and treatment

129

pH

A scale that measures the relative acidity or alkalinity of a solution. Represents the amount of hydrogen ion in the solution

130

Schilling test

Test used to determine absorption of vitamin B12 by measuring excretion of radioactive B12 in the urine. Used to distinguish pernicious from nutritional anemia

131

seroconversion

The appearance of antibodies in the serum in response to a disease or an immunization

132

Western blot assay

A very sensitive test used to detect small amounts of antibodies in the blood

133

Wright stain

A commonly used blood stain

134

anticoagulant

An agent that prevents or delays blood coagulation

135

antihistamine

A drug that counteracts the effects of histamine and is used to treat allergic reactions

136

apheresis

A procedure in which blood is withdrawn, a portion is separated and retained, and the remainder is returned to the donor. Apheresis may be used as a suffix with a root meaning the fraction retained, such as plasmapheresis, leukapheresis

137

autologous blood

A person's own blood. May be donated in advance of surgery and transfused if needed

138

cryoprecipitate

A sediment obtained by cooling. The fraction obtained by freezing blood plasma contains clotting factors

139

desensitization

Treatment of allergy by small injections of the offending allergen. This causes an increase of antibody to destroy the antigen rapidly on contact

140

homologous blood

Blood from animals of the same species, such as human blood used for transfusion from one person to another. Blood used for transfusions must be compatible with the blood of the recipient

141

immunosuppression

Depression of the immune response. May be correlated with disease but also may be induced therapeutically to prevent rejection in cases of tissue transplantation

142

protease inhibitor

An anti-HIV drug that acts by inhibiting an enzyme the virus needs to multiply

143

Ab

Antibody

144

Ag

Antigen

145

AIDS

Acquired immunodeficiency syndrome

146

ALL

Acute lymphoblastic (lymphocytic) leukemia

147

AML

Acute myeloblastic (myelogenous) leukemia

148

APTT

Activated partial thromboplastin time

149

BT

Bleeding time

150

CBC

Complete blood count

151

CGL

Chronic granulocytic leukemia

152

CLL

Chronic lymphocytic leukemia

153

CML

Chronic myelogenous leukemia

154

crit

Hematocrit

155

DIC

Disseminated intravascular coagulation

156

diff

Differential count

157

EBV

Epstein–Barr virus

158

ELISA

Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

159

EPO, EP

Erythropoietin

160

ESR

Erythrocyte sedimentation rate

161

FFP

Fresh frozen plasma

162

Hb, Hgb

Hemoglobin

163

Hct, Ht

Hematocrit

164

HDN

Hemolytic disease of the newborn

165

HIV

Human immunodeficiency virus

166

IF

Intrinsic factor

167

Ig

Immunoglobulin

168

ITP

Idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura

169

lytes

Electrolytes

170

MCH

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin

171

MCHC

Mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration

172

mcL

Microliter

173

MCV

Mean corpuscular volume

174

MDS

Myelodysplastic syndrome

175

mEq

Milliequivalent

176

NHL

Non-Hodgkin lymphoma

177

PCV

Packed cell volume

178

pH

Scale for measuring hydrogen ion concentration (acidity or alkalinity)

179

Ph

Philadelphia chromosome

180

PMN

Polymorphonuclear (neutrophil)

181

poly

Neutrophil

182

polymorph

Neutrophil

183

PT

Pro time; prothrombin time

184

PTT

Partial thromboplastin time

185

RBC

Red blood cell; red blood cell count

186

seg

Neutrophil

187

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

188

T(C)T

Thrombin (clotting) time

189

TTP

Thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura

190

vWF

von Willebrand factor

191

WBC

White blood cell; white blood (cell) count