Chapter 09 Circulation: The Cardiovascular and Lymphatic Systems

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1

cardi/o

heart

Ex. Cardiomyopathy
any disease of the heart muscle

2

atri/o

atrium

Ex. Atriotomy
surgical incision of an atrium

3

ventricul/o

cavity, ventricle

Ex. Supraventricular
above a ventricle

4

valv/o, valvul/o

valve

Ex. Valvulotome
instrument for incising a valve

5

angi/o

vessel

Ex. Angiography
x-ray imaging of a vessel

6

vas/o, vascul/o

vessel, duct

Ex. Vasospasm
sudden contraction of a blood vessel

7

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

Ex. Endarterial
within an artery

8

arteriol/o

arteriole

Ex. Arteriolar
pertaining to an arteriole

9

aort/o

aorta

Ex. Aortoptosis
downward displacement of an aorta

10

ven/o, ven/i

vein

Ex. Venous
pertaining to a vein

11

phleb/o

vein

Ex. Phlebotomy
incision of a vein to withdraw blood

12

aorta

The largest artery. It receives blood from the left ventricle and branches to all parts of the body (root: aort/o)

13

aortic valve

The valve at the entrance to the aorta

14

apex

The point of a cone-shaped structure (adjective, apical). The apex of the heart is formed by the left ventricle and is pointed toward the inferior and left

15

artery

A vessel that carries blood away from the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical arteries carry oxygenated blood (root: arteri/o)

16

arteriole

A small vessel that carries blood from the arteries into the capillaries (root: arteriol/o)

17

atrioventricular (AV) node

A small mass in the lower septum of the right atrium that passes impulses from the sinoatrial (SA) node toward the ventricles

18

AV bundle

A band of fibers that transmits impulses from the atrioventricular (AV) node to the top of the interventricular septum. It divides into the right and left bundle branches, which descend along the two sides of the septum; the bundle of His

19

atrioventricular (AV) valve

A valve between the atrium and ventricle on the right and left sides of the heart. The right AV valve is the tricuspid valve; the left is the mitral valve

20

atrium

An entrance chamber, one of the two upper receiving chambers of the heart (root atri/o)

21

blood pressure

The force exerted by blood against the wall of a vessel

22

bundle branches

Branches of the AV bundle that divide to the right and left sides of the interventricular septum

23

capillary

A microscopic blood vessel through which materials are exchanged between the blood and the tissues

24

cardiovascular system

The part of the circulatory system that consists of the heart and the blood vessels

25

depolarization

A change in electrical charge from the resting state in nerves or muscles

26

diastole

The relaxation phase of the heartbeat cycle; adjective, diastolic

27

electrocardiography (ECG)

Study of the electrical activity of the heart as detected by electrodes (leads) placed on the surface of the body. Also abbreviated EKG from the German electrokardiography

28

endocardium

The thin membrane that lines the chambers of the heart and covers the valves

29

epicardium

The thin outermost layer of the heart wall

30

functional murmur

Any sound produced as the heart functions normally

31

heart

The muscular organ with four chambers that contracts rhythmically to propel blood through vessels to all parts of the body (root: cardi/o)

32

heart rate

The number of times the heart contracts per minute; recorded as beats per minute (BPM)

33

heart sounds

Sounds produced as the heart functions. The two loudest sounds are produced by alternate closing of the valves and are designated S1 and S2

34

inferior vena cava

The large inferior vein that brings blood back to the right atrium of the heart from the lower body

35

left AV valve

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the mitral valve or bicuspid valve

36

mitral valve

The valve between the left atrium and the left ventricle; the left AV valve or bicuspid valve

37

pericardium

The fibrous sac that surrounds the heart

38

pulmonary artery

The vessel that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs

39

pulmonary circuit

The system of vessels that carries blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs to be oxygenated and then back to the left side of the heart

40

pulmonary veins

The vessels that carry blood from the lungs to the left side of the heart

41

pulmonary valve

The valve at the entrance to the pulmonary artery

42

pulse

The wave of increased pressure produced in the vessels each time the ventricles contract

43

Purkinje fibers

The terminal fibers of the conducting system of the heart. They carry impulses through the walls of the ventricles.

44

repolarization

A return of electrical charge to the resting state in nerves or muscles

45

right AV valve

The valve between the right atrium and right ventricle; the tricuspid valve

46

septum

A wall dividing two cavities, such as the chambers of the heart

47

sinus rhythm

Normal heart rhythm

48

sinoatrial (SA) node

A small mass in the upper part of the right atrium that initiates the impulse for each heartbeat; the pacemaker

49

sphygmomanometer

An instrument for determining arterial blood pressure (root sphygm/o means “pulse”); blood pressure apparatus or cuff

50

superior vena cava

The large superior vein that brings deoxygenated blood back to the right atrium from the upper body

51

systemic circuit

The system of vessels that carries oxygenated blood from the left side of the heart to all tissues except the lungs and returns deoxygenated blood to the right side of the heart

52

systole

The contraction phase of the heartbeat cycle; adjective: systolic

53

valve

A structure that keeps fluid flowing in a forward direction (root: valv/o, valvul/o)

54

vein

A vessel that carries blood back to the heart. All except the pulmonary and umbilical veins carry blood low in oxygen (root: ven/o, phleb/o)

55

ventricle

A small cavity. One of the two lower pumping chambers of the heart (root: ventricul/o)

56

venule

A small vessel that carries blood from the capillaries to the veins

57

vessel

A tube or duct to transport fluid (root: angi/o, vas/o, vascul/o)

58

aneurysm

A localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel, usually an artery, caused by weakness of the vessel wall; may eventually burst

59

angina pectoris

A feeling of constriction around the heart or pain that may radiate to the left arm or shoulder, usually brought on by exertion; caused by insufficient blood supply to the heart

60

arrhythmia

Any abnormality in the rate or rhythm of the heartbeat (literally “without rhythm;” note doubled r). Also called dysrhythmia

61

arteriosclerosis

Hardening (sclerosis) of the arteries, with loss of capacity and loss of elasticity, as from fatty deposits (plaque), deposit of calcium salts, or formation of scar tissue

62

atherosclerosis

The development of fatty, fibrous patches (plaques) in the lining of arteries, causing narrowing of the lumen and hardening of the vessel wall. The most common form of arteriosclerosis (hardening of the arteries). The root ather/o means “porridge” or “gruel”

63

bradycardia

A slow heart rate of less than 60 bpm

64

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of blood flow. Causes include atherosclerosis, embolism, thrombosis, or hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke

65

clubbing

Enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes caused by growth of the soft tissue around the nails. Seen in a variety of diseases in which there is poor peripheral circulation.

66

coarctation of the aorta

Localized narrowing on the aorta with restriction of blood flow

67

C-reactive protein

Protein produced during systemic inflammation, which may contribute to atherosclerosis; high CRP levels can indicate cardiovascular disease and its prognosis

68

cyanosis

Bluish discoloration of the skin caused by lack of oxygen

69

deep vein thrombosis (DVT)

Thrombophlebitis involving the deep veins

70

diaphoresis

Profuse sweating

71

dissecting aneurysm

An aneurysm in which blood enters the arterial wall and separates the layers. Usually involves the aorta

72

dyslipidemia

Disorder in serum lipid levels, which is an important factor in development of atherosclerosis. Includes hyperlipidemia (high lipids), hypercholesterolemia (high cholesterol), and hypertriglyceridemia (high triglycerides)

73

dyspnea

Difficult or labored breathing (-pnea)

74

edema

Swelling of body tissues caused by the presence of excess fluid (see Fig. 6-4). Causes include cardiovascular disturbances, kidney failure, inflammation, and malnutrition

75

embolism

Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other matter carried in the circulation

76

embolus

A mass carried in the circulation. Usually a blood clot, but also may be air, fat, bacteria, or other solid matter from within or from outside the body

77

fibrillation

Spontaneous, quivering, and ineffectual contraction of muscle fibers, as in the atria or the ventricles

78

heart block

An interference in the conduction system of the heart resulting in arrhythmia

79

heart failure

A condition caused by the inability of the heart to maintain adequate circulation of blood

80

hemorrhoid

A varicose vein in the rectum

81

hypertension

A condition of higher-than-normal blood pressure. Essential (primary, idiopathic) hypertension has no known cause

82

infarct

An area of localized necrosis (death) of tissue resulting from a blockage or a narrowing of the artery that supplies the area

83

ischemia

Local deficiency of blood supply caused by obstruction of the circulation (root: hem/o)

84

murmur

An abnormal heart sound

85

myocardial infarction (MI)

Localized necrosis (death) of cardiac muscle tissue resulting from blockage or narrowing of the coronary artery that supplies that area. Myocardial infarction is usually caused by formation of a thrombus (clot) in a vessel

86

occlusion

A closing off or obstruction, as of a vessel

87

patent ductus arteriosus

Persistence of the ductus arteriosus after birth. The ductus arteriosus is a vessel that connects the pulmonary artery to the descending aorta in the fetus to bypass the lungs

88

phlebitis

Inflammation of a vein

89

plaque

A patch. With regard to the cardiovascular system, a deposit of fatty material and other substances on a vessel wall that impedes blood flow and may block the vessel. Atheromatous plaque

90

rheumatic heart disease

Damage to heart valves after infection with a type of streptococcus (group A hemolytic streptococcus). The antibodies produced in response to the infection produce valvular scarring, usually involving the mitral valve

91

septal defect

An opening in the septum between the atria or ventricles; a common cause is persistence of the foramen ovale (for-Ā-men ō-VAL-ē), an opening between the atria that bypasses the lungs in fetal circulation

92

shock

Circulatory failure resulting in an inadequate supply of blood to the tissues. Cardiogenic shock is caused by heart failure; hypovolemic shock is caused by a loss of blood volume; septic shock is caused by bacterial infection

93

sinus rhythm

A normal heart rhythm originating from the sinoatrial (SA) node

94

stenosis

Constriction or narrowing of an opening

95

stroke

See cerebrovascular accident

96

syncope

A temporary loss of consciousness caused by inadequate blood flow to the brain; fainting

97

tachycardia

An abnormally rapid heart rate, usually over 100 bpm

98

thrombophlebitis

Inflammation of a vein associated with formation of a blood clot

99

thrombosis

Development of a blood clot within a vessel

100

thrombus

A blood clot that forms within a blood vessel (root: thromb/o)

101

varicose vein

A twisted and swollen vein resulting from breakdown of the valves, pooling of blood, and chronic dilatation of the vessel (root: varic/o); also called varix (VAR-iks) or varicosity (var-i-KOS-i-tē)

102

angioplasty

A procedure that reopens a narrowed vessel and restores blood flow. Commonly accomplished by surgically removing plaque, inflating a balloon within the vessel, or installing a device (stent) to keep the vessel open

103

artificial pacemaker

A battery-operated device that generates electrical impulses to regulate the beating of the heart. It may be external or implanted, may be designed to respond to need, and may have the capacity to prevent tachycardia

104

cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR)

Restoration of cardiac output and pulmonary ventilation after cardiac arrest using artificial respiration and chest compression or cardiac massage

105

cardioversion

Correction of an abnormal cardiac rhythm. May be accomplished pharmacologically, with antiarrhythmic drugs, or by application of electric current (see defibrillation)

106

coronary angiography

Radiographic study of the coronary arteries after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

107

coronary artery bypass graft (CABG)

Surgical creation of a shunt to bypass a blocked coronary artery. The aorta is connected to a point past the obstruction with another vessel or a piece of another vessel, usually the left internal mammary artery or part of the leg's saphenous vein

108

creatine kinase MB (CK-MB)

Enzyme released in increased amounts from cardiac muscle cells following myocardial infarction (MI). Serum assays help diagnose MI and determine the extent of muscle damage

109

defibrillation

Use of an electronic device (defibrillator) to stop fibrillation by delivering a brief electric shock to the heart. The shock may be delivered to the surface of the chest, as by an automated external defibrillator (AED), or directly into the heart through wire leads, using an implantable cardioverter defibrillator (ICD)

110

echocardiography (ECG)

A noninvasive method that uses ultrasound to visualize internal cardiac structures

111

lipoprotein

A compound of protein with lipid. Lipoproteins are classified according to density as very low density (VLDL), low density (LDL), and high density (HDL). Relatively higher levels of HDLs have been correlated with health of the cardiovascular system

112

percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty (PTCA)

Dilatation of a sclerotic blood vessel by means of a balloon catheter inserted into the vessel and then inflated to flatten plaque against the artery wall

113

stent

A small metal device in the shape of a coil or slotted tube that is placed inside an artery to keep the vessel open after balloon angioplasty

114

stress test

Evaluation of physical fitness by continuous ECG monitoring during exercise. In a thallium stress test, a radioactive isotope of thallium is administered to trace blood flow through the heart during exercise

115

troponin (Tn)

A protein in muscle cells that regulates contraction. Increased serum levels, primarily in the forms TnT and TnI, indicate recent myocardial infarction (MI)

116

appendix

A small, fingerlike mass of lymphoid tissue attached to the first part of the large intestine

117

lymph

The thin plasmalike fluid that drains from the tissues and is transported in lymphatic vessels (root: lymph/o)

118

lymph node

A small mass of lymphoid tissue along the path of a lymphatic vessel that filters lymph (root: lymphaden/o)

119

lymphatic system

The system that drains fluid and proteins from the tissues and returns them to the bloodstream. This system also participates in immunity and aids in absorption of fats from the digestive tract

120

Peyer patches

Aggregates of lymphoid tissue in the lining of the intestine

121

right lymphatic duct

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper right side of the body

122

spleen

A large reddish-brown organ in the upper left region of the abdomen. It filters blood and destroys old red blood cells (root: splen/o)

123

thoracic duct

The lymphatic duct that drains fluid from the upper left side of the body and all of the lower body/ left lymphatic duct

124

thymus gland

A gland in the upper part of the chest beneath the sternum. It functions in immunity (root: thym/o).

125

tonsils

Small masses of lymphoid tissue located in regions of the throat (pharynx)

126

lymphadenitis

Inflammation and enlargement of lymph nodes, usually as a result of infection

127

lymphangiitis

Inflammation of lymphatic vessels as a result of bacterial infection. Appears as painful red streaks under the skin. (Also spelled lymphangitis)

128

lymphedema

Swelling of tissues with lymph caused by obstruction or excision of lymphatic vessels

129

lymphoma

Any neoplastic disease of lymphoid tissue

130

apical pulse

Pulse felt or heard over the apex of the heart. It is measured in the fifth left intercostal space (between the ribs) about 8 to 9 cm from the midline

131

cardiac output

The amount of blood pumped from the right or left ventricle per minute

132

Korotkoff sounds

Arterial sounds heard with a stethoscope during determination of blood pressure with a cuff

133

perfusion

The passage of fluid, such as blood, through an organ or tissue

134

precordium

The anterior region over the heart and the lower part of the thorax; adjective, precordial

135

pulse pressure

The difference between systolic and diastolic pressure

136

stroke volume

The amount of blood ejected by the left ventricle with each beat

137

Valsalva maneuver

Bearing down, as in childbirth or defecation, by attempting to exhale forcefully with the nose and throat closed. This action has an effect on the cardiovascular system

138

bruit

An abnormal sound heard in auscultation

139

cardiac tamponade

Pathologic accumulation of fluid in the pericardial sac. May result from pericarditis or injury to the heart or great vessels.

140

ectopic beat

A heartbeat that originates from some part of the heart other than the SA node

141

extrasystole

Premature contraction of the heart that occurs separately from the normal beat and originates from a part of the heart other than the SA node

142

flutter

Very rapid (200 to 300 bpm) but regular contractions, as in the atria or the ventricles

143

hypotension

A condition of lower-than-normal blood pressure

144

intermittent claudication

Pain in a muscle during exercise caused by inadequate blood supply. The pain disappears with rest

145

mitral valve prolapse

Movement of the cusps of the mitral valve into the left atrium when the ventricles contract

146

occlusive vascular disease

Arteriosclerotic disease of the vessels, usually peripheral vessels

147

palpitation

A sensation of abnormally rapid or irregular heartbeat

148

pitting edema

Edema that retains the impression of a finger pressed firmly into the skin

149

polyarteritis nodosa

Potentially fatal collagen disease causing inflammation of small visceral arteries. Symptoms depend on the organ affected

150

Raynaud disease

A disorder characterized by abnormal constriction of peripheral vessels in the arms and legs on exposure to cold

151

regurgitation

A backward flow, such as the backflow of blood through a defective valve

152

stasis

Stoppage of normal flow, as of blood or urine. Blood stasis may lead to dermatitis and ulcer formation

153

subacute bacterial endocarditis (SBE)

Growth of bacteria in a heart or valves previously damaged by rheumatic fever

154

tetralogy of Fallot

A combination of four congenital heart abnormalities: pulmonary artery stenosis, interventricular septal defect, displacement of the aorta to the right, and right ventricular hypertrophy

155

thromboangiitis obliterans

Inflammation and thrombus formation resulting in occlusion of small vessels, especially in the legs. Most common in young men and correlated with heavy smoking. Thrombotic occlusion of leg vessels may lead to gangrene of the feet. Patients show a hypersensitivity to tobacco. Also called Buerger disease

156

vegetation

Irregular outgrowths of bacteria on the heart valves; associated with rheumatic fever

157

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome (WPW)

A cardiac arrhythmia consisting of tachycardia and a premature ventricular beat caused by an alternative conduction pathway

158

cardiac catheterization

Passage of a catheter into the heart through a vessel to inject a contrast medium for imaging, diagnosing abnormalities, obtaining samples, or measuring pressure

159

central venous pressure (CVP)

Pressure in the superior vena cava

160

cineangiocardiography

The photographic recording of fluoroscopic images of the heart and large vessels using motion picture techniques

161

computed tomography angiography (CTA)

Method for imaging the interior of arteries using computed tomography; uses less dye and is less invasive than standard angiography

162

Doppler echocardiography

An imaging method used to study the rate and pattern of blood flow

163

heart scan

Imaging of the heart after injection of a radioactive isotope. The PYP (pyrophosphate) scan using technetium-99m (99mTc) is used to test for myocardial infarction because the isotope is taken up by damaged tissue. The MUGA (multigated acquisition) scan gives information on heart function

164

Holter monitor

A portable device that can record up to 24 hours of an individual's ECG readings during normal activity

165

homocysteine

An amino acid in the blood that at higher-than-normal levels is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease

166

phlebotomist

Technician who specializes in drawing blood

167

phonocardiography

Electronic recording of heart sounds

168

plethysmography

Measurement of changes in the size of a part based on the amount of blood contained in or passing through it. Impedance plethysmography measures changes in electrical resistance and is used in the diagnosis of deep vein thrombosis

169

pulmonary capillary wedge pressure (PCWP)

Pressure measured by a catheter in a branch of the pulmonary artery. It is an indirect measure of pressure in the left atrium

170

Swan–Ganz catheter

A cardiac catheter with a balloon at the tip that is used to measure pulmonary arterial pressure. It is flow-guided through a vein into the right side of the heart and then into the pulmonary artery transesophageal

171

echocardiography (TEE)

Use of an ultrasound transducer placed endoscopically into the esophagus to obtain images of the heart

172

triglycerides

Simple fats that circulate in the bloodstream

173

ventriculography

X-ray study of the ventricles of the heart after introduction of an opaque dye by means of a catheter

174

atherectomy

Removal of atheromatous plaque from the lining of a vessel. May be done by open surgery or through the lumen of the vessel

175

commissurotomy

Surgical incision of a scarred mitral valve to increase the size of the valve opening

176

embolectomy

Surgical removal of an embolus

177

intraaortic balloon pump (IABP)

A mechanical assist device that consists of an inflatable balloon pump inserted through the femoral artery into the thoracic aorta. It inflates during diastole to improve coronary circulation and deflates before systole to allow blood ejection from the heart

178

left ventricular assist device (LVAD)

A pump that takes over the function of the left ventricle in delivering blood into the systemic circuit. These devices are used to assist patients awaiting heart transplantation or those who are recovering from heart failure

179

angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor

A drug that lowers blood pressure by blocking the formation in the blood of angiotensin II, a substance that normally acts to increase blood pressure

180

angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB)

A drug that blocks tissue receptors for angiotensin II; angiotensin II receptor antagonist

181

antiarrhythmic agent

A drug that regulates the rate and rhythm of the heartbeat

182

beta-adrenergic blocking agent

Drug that decreases the rate and strength of heart contractions; beta-blocker

183

calcium-channel blocker

Drug that controls the rate and force of heart contraction by regulating calcium entrance into the cells

184

digitalis

A drug that slows and strengthens heart muscle contractions

185

diuretic

Drug that eliminates fluid by increasing the kidneys’ output of urine. Lowered blood volume decreases the heart’s workload

186

hypolipidemic agent

Drug that lowers serum cholesterol

187

lidocaine

A local anesthetic that is used intravenously to treat cardiac arrhythmias

188

loop diuretic

Drug that increases urine output by inhibiting electrolyte reabsorption in the kidney nephrons (loops)

189

nitroglycerin

A drug used in the treatment of angina pectoris to dilate coronary vessels

190

statins

Drugs that act to lower lipids in the blood. The drug names end with -statin, such as lovastatin, pravastatin, atorvastatin.

191

streptokinase (SK)

An enzyme used to dissolve blood clots

192

tissue plasminogen activator (tPA)

A drug used to dissolve blood clots. It activates production of a substance (plasmin) in the blood that normally dissolves clots

193

vasodilator

A drug that widens blood vessels and improves blood flow

194

ACE

Angiotensin-converting enzyme

195

AED

Automated external defibrillator

196

AF

Atrial fibrillation

197

AMI

Acute myocardial infarction

198

APC

Atrial premature complex

199

AR

Aortic regurgitation

200

ARB

Angiotensin receptor blocker

201

AS

Aortic stenosis; arteriosclerosis

202

ASCVD

Arteriosclerotic cardiovascular disease

203

ASD

Atrial septal defect

204

ASHD

Arteriosclerotic heart disease

205

AT

Atrial tachycardia

206

AV

Atrioventricular

207

BBB

Bundle branch block (left or right)

208

BP

Blood pressure

209

bpm

Beats per minute

210

CABG

Coronary artery bypass graft

211

CAD

Coronary artery disease

212

CCU

Coronary/cardiac care unit

213

CHD

Coronary heart disease

214

CHF

Congestive heart failure

215

CK-MB

Creatine kinase MB

216

CPR

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation

217

CRP

C-reactive protein

218

CTA

Computed tomography angiography

219

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident

220

CVD

Cardiovascular disease

221

CVI

Chronic venous insufficiency

222

CVP

Central venous pressure

223

DOE

Dyspnea on exertion

224

DVT

Deep vein thrombosis

225

ECG (EKG)

Electrocardiogram, electrocardiography

226

HDL

High-density lipoprotein

227

hs-CRP

High-sensitivity C-reactive protein (test)

228

HTN

Hypertension

229

IABP

Intraaortic balloon pump

230

ICD

Implantable cardioverter–defibrillator

231

IVCD

Intraventricular conduction delay

232

JVP

Jugular venous pulse

233

LAD

Left anterior descending (coronary artery)

234

LAHB

Left anterior hemiblock

235

LDL

Low-density lipoprotein

236

LV

Left ventricle

237

LVAD

Left ventricular assist device

238

LVEDP

Left ventricular end-diastolic pressure

239

LVH

Left ventricular hypertrophy

240

MI

Myocardial infarction

241

mm Hg

Millimeters of mercury

242

MR

Mitral regurgitation, reflux

243

MS

Mitral stenosis

244

MUGA

Multigated acquisition (scan)

245

MVP

Mitral valve prolapse

246

MVR

Mitral valve replacement

247

NSR

Normal sinus rhythm

248

P

Pulse

249

PAC

Premature atrial contraction

250

PAP

Pulmonary arterial pressure

251

PCI

Percutaneous coronary intervention

252

PCWP

Pulmonary capillary wedge pressure

253

PMI

Point of maximal impulse

254

PSVT

Paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia

255

PTCA

Percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty

256

PVC

Premature ventricular contraction

257

PVD

Peripheral vascular disease

258

PYP

Pyrophosphate (scan)

259

S1

First heart sound

260

S2

Second heart sound

261

SA

Sinoatrial

262

SBE

Subacute bacterial endocarditis

263

SK

Streptokinase

264

SVT

Supraventricular tachycardia

265

99mTc

Technetium-99m

266

TEE

Transesophageal echocardiography

267

Tn

Troponin

268

tPA

Tissue plasminogen activator

269

VAD

Ventricular assist device

270

VF, v fib

Ventricular fibrillation

271

VLDL

Very-low-density lipoprotein

272

VPC

Ventricular premature complex

273

VSD

Ventricular septal defect

274

VT

Ventricular tachycardia

275

VTE

Venous thromboembolism

276

WPW

Wolff–Parkinson–White syndrome