Chapter 18 The Senses

Helpfulness: 0
Set Details Share
created 7 years ago by Annabelle
566 views
book cover
Medical Terminology
Chapter 18
show moreless
Page to share:
Embed this setcancel
COPY
code changes based on your size selection
Size:
X
Show:
1

audi/o

hearing

Ex. Audiology
the study of hearing

2

acous, acus, cus

sound, hearing

Ex. Acoustic
pertaining to sound or hearing

3

ot/o

ear

Ex. Ototoxic
poisonous or harmful to the ear

4

myring/o

tympanic membrane

Ex. Myringotome
knife used for surgery on the eardrum

5

tympan/o

tympanic cavity (middle ear), tympanic membrane

Ex. Tympanometry
measurement of transmission through the tympanic membrane and middle ear

6

salping/o

tube, auditory tube

Ex. Salpingoscopy
endoscopic examination of the auditory tube

7

staped/o, stapedi/o

stapes

Ex. Stapedoplasty
plastic repair of the stapes

8

labyrinth/o

labyrinth (inner ear)

Ex. Labyrinthitis
inflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth)

9

vestibul/o

vestibule, vestibular apparatus

Ex. Vestibulotomy
incision of the vestibule of the inner ear

10

cochle/o

cochlea of inner ear

Ex. Retrocochlear
behind the cochlea

11

blephar/o

eyelid

Ex. Symblepharon
adhesion of the eyelid to the eyeball (sym- means together)

12

palpebr/o

eyelid

Ex. Palpebral
pertaining to an eyelid

13

dacry/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

Ex. Dacryorrhea
discharge from the lacrimal apparatus

14

dacryocyst/o

lacrimal sac

Ex. Dacryocystocele
hernia of the lacrimal sac

15

lacrim/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

Ex. Lacrimation
secretion of tears

16

kerat/o

cornea

Ex. Keratoplasty
plastic repair of the cornea; corneal transplant

17

lent/I

lens

Ex. Lentiform
resembling a lens

18

phak/o, phac/o

lens

Ex. Aphakia
absence of a lens

19

uve/o

uvea

Ex. Uveal
pertaining to the uvea

20

chori/o, choroid/o

choroid

Ex. Subchoroidal
below the choroid

21

cycl/o

ciliary body, ciliary muscle

Ex. Cycloplegic
pertaining to or causing paralysis of the ciliary muscle

22

ir, irit/o, irid/o

iris

Ex. Iridoschisis
splitting of the iris

23

pupill/o

pupil

Ex. Iridopupillary
pertaining to the iris and the pupil

24

retin/o

retina

Ex. Retinoscopy
examination of the retina

25

opt/o

eye, vision

Ex. Optometer
instrument for measuring the refractive power of the eye

26

ocul/o

eye

Ex. Sinistrocular
pertaining to the left eye

27

ophthalm/o

eye

Ex. Exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeball

28

scler/o

sclera

Ex. Episcleritis
inflammation of the tissue on the surface of the sclera

29

corne/o

cornea

Ex. Circumcorneal
around the cornea

30

-esthesia

Sensation

Ex. Cryesthesia
sensitivity to cold

31

-algesia

Pain

Ex. Hypalgesia
decreased sensitivity to pain Prefix hyp/o

32

-osmia

sense of smell

Ex. Pseudosmia
false sense of smell

33

-geusia

sense of taste

Ex. Parageusia
abnormal (para-) sense of taste

34

-opsia

Vision

Ex. Heteropsia
unequal vision in the two eyes

35

-opia

eye, vision

Ex. Hemianopia
blindness in half the visual field

36

equilibrium

The sense of balance

37

gestation

The sense of taste; Latin geusis means “taste”

38

hearing

The sense or perception of sound

39

olfaction

The sense of smell; root osm/o means “smell”

40

proprioception

The awareness of posture, movement, and changes in equilibrium; receptors are located in muscles, tendons, and joints

41

sensory receptor

A sensory nerve ending or a specialized structure associated with a sensory nerve that responds to a stimulus

42

tactile

Pertaining to the sense of touch

43

vision

The sense by which the shape, size, and color of objects are perceived by means of the light they give off

44

auditory tube

The tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and serves to equalize pressure between the outer and middle ear (root: salping/o); pharyngotympanic tube; originally called the eustachian tube

45

cerumen

The brownish, waxlike secretion formed in the external ear canal to protect the ear and prevent infection; adjective: ceruminous

46

cochlea

The coiled portion of the inner ear that contains the receptors for hearing (root: cochle/o)

47

eustachian tube

The tube that connects the middle ear with the nasopharynx and serves to equalize pressure between the outer and middle ear (root: salping/o); auditory tube

48

external auditory canal

Tube that extends from the pinna of the ear to the tympanic membrane; external auditory meatus

49

incus

The middle ossicle of the ear

50

labyrinth

The inner ear, named for its complex structure, which resembles a maze

51

malleus

The ossicle of the middle ear that is in contact with the tympanic membrane and the incus

52

ossicles

The small bones of the middle ear, the malleus, incus, and stapes

53

pinna

The projecting part of the outer ear; auricle

54

semicircular canals

The three curved channels of the inner ear that hold receptors for equilibrium

55

spiral organ

The hearing receptor, which is located in the cochlea of the inner ear; organ of Corti

56

stapes

The ossicle that is in contact with the inner ear (root: staped, stapedi/o)

57

tympanic membrane

The membrane between the external auditory canal and the middle ear (tympanic cavity); the eardrum. It serves to transmit sound waves to the ossicles of the middle ear (root: myring/o, tympan/o)

58

vestibular apparatus

The portion of the inner ear that is concerned with the sense of equilibrium; consists of the vestibule and the semicircular canals (root: vestibul/o)

59

vestibule

The chamber in the inner ear that holds some of the receptors for equilibrium

60

vestibulocochlear nerve

The nerve that transmits impulses for hearing and equilibrium from the ear to the brain; eighth cranial nerve; auditory or acoustic nerve

61

acoustic neuroma

A tumor of the eighth cranial nerve sheath; although benign, it can press on surrounding tissue and produce symptoms; also called a schwannoma or neurilemoma

62

conductive hearing loss

Hearing impairment that results from blockage of sound transmission to the inner ear

63

Ménière disease

A disease associated with increased fluid pressure in the inner ear and characterized by hearing loss, vertigo, and tinnitus

64

otitis externa

Inflammation of the external auditory canal; swimmer's ear

65

otitis media

Inflammation of the middle ear with accumulation of serous (watery) or mucoid fluid

66

otosclerosis

Formation of abnormal and sometimes hardened bony tissue in the ear. It usually occurs around the oval window and the footplate (base) of the stapes, causing immobilization of the stapes and progressive loss of hearing

67

sensorineural hearing loss

Hearing impairment that results from damage to the inner ear, eighth cranial nerve, or auditory pathways in the brain

68

tinnitus

A sensation of noises, such as ringing or tinkling, in the ear

69

vertigo

An illusion of movement, as of the body moving in space or the environment moving about the body; usually caused by disturbances in the vestibular apparatus. Used loosely to mean dizziness or lightheadedness

70

myringotomy

Surgical incision of the tympanic membrane; performed to drain the middle ear cavity or to insert a tube into the tympanic membrane for drainage

71

stapedectomy

Surgical removal of the stapes; it may be combined with insertion of a prosthesis to correct otosclerosis

72

aural

Pertaining to or perceived by the ear

73

decibel (dB)

A unit for measuring the relative intensity of sound

74

hertz (Hz)

A unit for measuring the frequency (pitch) of sound

75

mastoid process

A small projection of the temporal bone behind the external auditory canal; it consists of loosely arranged bony material and small, air-filled cavities

76

stapedius

A small muscle attached to the stapes. It contracts in the presence of a loud sound, producing the acoustic reflex

77

cholesteatoma

A cystlike mass containing cholesterol that is most common in the middle ear and mastoid region; a possible complication of chronic middle ear infection

78

labyrinthitis

Inflammation of the labyrinth of the ear (inner ear); otitis interna

79

mastoiditis

Inflammation of the air cells of the mastoid process

80

presbycusis

Loss of hearing caused by aging; also presbyacusis

81

audiometry

Measurement of hearing

82

electronystagmography (ENG)

A method for recording eye movements by means of electrical responses; such movements may reflect vestibular dysfunction

83

otorhinolaryngology (ORL)

The branch of medicine that deals with diseases of the ear(s), nose, and throat (ENT); also called otolaryngology (OL)

84

otoscope

Instrument for examining the ear

85

Rinne test

Test that measures hearing by comparing results of bone conduction and air conduction

86

spondee

A two-syllable word with equal stress on each syllable; used in hearing tests; examples are toothbrush, baseball, cowboy, pancake

87

Weber test

Test for hearing loss that uses a vibrating tuning fork placed at the center of the head

88

accommodation

Adjustment of the lens’s curvature to allow for vision at various distances

89

aqueous humor

Fluid that fills the eye anterior to the lens

90

choroid

The dark, vascular, middle layer of the eye (roots: chori/o, choroid/o); part of the uvea (see below)

91

ciliary body

The muscular portion of the uvea that surrounds the lens and adjusts its shape for near and far vision (root: cycl/o)

92

cone

A specialized cell in the retina that responds to light; cones have high visual acuity, function in bright light, and respond to colors

93

conjunctiva

The mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and covers the eyeball’s anterior surface

94

convergence

Coordinated movement of the eyes toward fixation on the same point

95

cornea

The clear, anterior portion of the sclera (root: corne/o, kerat/o)

96

eye

The organ of vision (root: opt/o, ocul/o, ophthalm/o)

97

fovea

The tiny depression in the retina that is the point of sharpest vision; fovea centralis, central fovea

98

iris

The muscular colored ring between the lens and the cornea; regulates the amount of light that enters the eye by altering the size of the pupil at its center (roots: ir, irid/o, irit/o) plural: irides

99

lacrimal glands

Pertaining to tears (roots: lacrim/o, dacry/o)

100

lens

The transparent, biconvex structure in the anterior portion of the eye that refracts light and functions in accommodation (roots: lent/i, phak/o)

101

macula

A small spot or colored area; used alone to mean the yellowish spot in the retina that contains the fovea

102

optic disk

The point where the optic nerve joins the retina; at this point there are no rods or cones; also called the blind spot or optic papilla

103

orbit

The bony cavity that contains the eyeball

104

palpebra

An eyelid; a protective fold (upper or lower) that closes over the anterior surface of the eye (root: palpebr/o, blephar/o; adjective” palpebral; plural: palpebrae)

105

pupil

The opening at the center of the iris (root: pupill/o)

106

refraction

The bending of light rays as they pass through the eye to focus on a specific point on the retina; also the determination and correction of ocular refractive errors

107

retina

The innermost, light-sensitive layer of the eye; contains the rods and cones, the specialized receptor cells for vision (root: retin/o)

108

rod

A specialized cell in the retina of the eye that responds to light; rods have low visual acuity, function in dim light, and do not discriminate color

109

sclera

The tough, white, fibrous outermost layer of the eye; the white of the eye (root: scler/o)

110

uvea

The middle, vascular layer of the eye (root: uve/o); consists of the choroid, ciliary body, and iris

111

visual acuity

Sharpness of vision

112

vitreous body

The transparent jellylike mass that fills the main cavity of the eyeball; also called vitreous humor

113

age-related macular degeneration (AMD)

Deterioration of the macula associated with aging; macular degeneration impairs central vision

114

astigmatism

An error of refraction caused by irregularity in the curvature of the cornea or lens

115

cataract

Opacity of the lens of the eye

116

conjunctivitis

Inflammation of the conjunctiva; pinkeye

117

diabetic retinopathy

Degenerative changes in the retina associated with diabetes mellitus

118

glaucoma

A disease of the eye caused by increased intraocular pressure that damages the optic disk and causes loss of vision. Usually results from faulty fluid drainage from the anterior portion of the eye

119

hyperopia

An error of refraction in which light rays focus behind the retina and objects can be seen clearly only when far from the eye; farsightedness; also called hypermetropia

120

myopia

An error of refraction in which light rays focus in front of the retina and objects can be seen clearly only when very close to the eye; nearsightedness

121

ophthalmia neonatorum

Severe conjunctivitis usually caused by infection with gonococcus during birth

122

phacoemulsification

Removal of a cataract by ultrasonic destruction and extraction of the lens

123

presbyopia

Changes in the eye that occur with age; the lens loses elasticity and the ability to accommodate for near vision

124

retinal detachment

Separation of the retina from the underlying layer of the eye

125

trachoma

An infection caused by Chlamydia trachomatis leading to inflammation and scarring of the cornea and conjunctiva; a common cause of blindness in underdeveloped countries

126

canthus

The angle at either end of the slit between the eyelids

127

diopter

A measurement unit for the refractive power of a lens

128

emmetropia

The normal condition of the eye in refraction, in which parallel light rays focus exactly on the retina

129

fundus

A bottom or base; the region farthest from the opening of a structure. The fundus of the eye is the back portion of the inside of the eyeball as seen with an ophthalmoscope

130

meibomian gland

A sebaceous gland in the eyelid

131

tarsus

The framework of dense connective tissue that gives shape to the eyelid; tarsal plate

132

zonule

A system of fibers that holds the lens in place; also called suspensory ligaments

133

amblyopia

A condition that occurs when visual acuity is not the same in the two eyes in children (prefix ambly means “dim”). Disuse of the poorer eye will result in blindness if not corrected. Also called “lazy eye”

134

anisocoria

Condition in which the two pupils (root: cor/o) are not of equal size

135

blepharoptosis

Drooping of the eyelid

136

chalazion

A small mass on the eyelid resulting from inflammation and blockage of a meibomian gland

137

drusen

Small growths that appear as tiny yellowish spots beneath the retina of the eye; typically occur with age but also occur in certain abnormal conditions

138

floater

A small moving object in the field of vision that originates in the vitreous body. Floaters appear as spots or threads and are caused by benign degenerative or embryonic deposits in the vitreous body that cast a shadow on the retina

139

hordeolum

Inflammation of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid; a sty

140

keratoconus

Conical protrusion of the corneal center

141

miosis

Abnormal contraction of the pupils (from Greek, meaning “diminution”)

142

mydriasis

Pronounced or abnormal dilation of the pupil

143

nyctalopia

Night blindness. Inability to see well in dim light or at night (root: nyct/o); often due to lack of vitamin A, which is used to make the pigment needed for vision in dim light

144

nystagmus

Rapid, involuntary, rhythmic movements of the eyeball; may occur in neurologic diseases or disorders of the inner ear's vestibular apparatus

145

papilledema

Swelling of the optic disk (papilla); choked disk

146

phlyctenule

A small blister or nodule on the cornea or conjunctiva

147

pseudophakia

A condition in which a cataractous lens has been removed and replaced with a plastic lens implant

148

retinitis

Inflammation of the retina; causes include systemic disease, infection, hemorrhage, exposure to light

149

retinitis pigmentosa

A hereditary chronic degenerative disease of the retina that begins in early childhood. There is atrophy of the optic nerve and clumping of pigment in the retina.

150

retinoblastoma

A malignant glioma of the retina; usually appears in early childhood and is sometimes hereditary; fatal if untreated, but current cure rates are high

151

scotoma

An area of diminished vision within the visual field

152

strabismus

A deviation of the eye in which the visual lines of each eye are not directed to the same object at the same time. Also called heterotropia or squint. The various forms are referred to as -tropias, with the direction of turning indicated by a prefix, such as esotropia (inward), exotropia (outward), hypertropia (upward), and hypotropia (downward). The suffix -phoria is also used, as in esophoria

153

synechia

Adhesion of parts, especially adhesion of the iris to the lens and cornea (plural: synechiae)

154

xanthoma

A soft, slightly raised, yellowish patch or nodule usually on the eyelids; occurs in the elderly; also called xanthelasma

155

canthotomy

Surgical division of a canthus

156

cystitome

Instrument for incising the lens capsule

157

electroretinography (ERG)

Study of the electrical response of the retina to light stimulation

158

enucleation

Surgical removal of the eyeball

159

gonioscopy

Examination of the angle between the cornea and the iris (anterior chamber angle) in which fluids drain out of the eye (root goni/o means “angle”)

160

keratometer

An instrument for measuring the curvature of the cornea

161

mydriatic

A drug that causes dilation of the pupil

162

phorometer

An instrument for determining the degree and kind of strabismus

163

retinoscope

An instrument used to determine refractive errors of the eye; also called a skiascope

164

slit-lamp biomicroscope

An instrument for examining the eye under magnification

165

Snellen chart

A chart printed with letters of decreasing size used to test visual acuity when viewed from a set distance; results reported as a fraction giving a subject's vision compared with normal vision at a distance of 20 feet

166

tarsorrhaphy

Suturing together of all or part of the upper and lower eyelids

167

tonometer

An instrument used to measure fluid pressure in the eye

168

A, Acc

Accommodation

169

AMD

Age-related macular degeneration

170

ARC

Abnormal retinal correspondence

171

As, AST

Astigmatism

172

cc

With correction

173

Em

Emmetropia

174

EOM

Extraocular movement, muscles

175

ERG

Electroretinography

176

ET

Esotropia

177

FC

Finger counting

178

HM

Hand movements

179

IOL

Intraocular lens

180

IOP

Intraocular pressure

181

NRC

Normal retinal correspondence

182

NV

Near vision

183

sc

Without correction

184

VA

Visual acuity

185

VF

Visual field

186

XT

Exotropia

187

ABR

Auditory brainstem response

188

AC

Air conduction

189

BAEP

Brainstem auditory evoked potentials

190

BC

Bone conduction

191

dB

Decibel

192

ENG

Electronystagmography

193

ENT

Ear(s), nose, and throat

194

HL

Hearing level

195

Hz

Hertz

196

OL

Otolaryngology

197

OM

Otitis media

198

ORL

Otorhinolaryngology

199

ST

Speech threshold

200

TM

Tympanic membrane

201

TTS

Temporary threshold shift