Chapter 17 The Nervous System

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Medical Terminology
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1

neur/o, neur/I

nervous system, nervous tissue, nerve

Ex. Neurotrophin
factor that promotes nerve growth (troph/o = nourish)

2

gli/o

neuroglia

Ex. glial
pertaining to neuroglia

3

gangli/o, ganglion/o

ganglion

Ex. ganglioma
tumor of a ganglion

4

mening/o, meninge/o

meninges

Ex. meningocele
hernia of the meninges

5

myel/o

spinal cord (also bone marrow)

Ex. hematomyelia
hemorrhage into the spinal cord

6

radicul/o

spinal nerve root

Ex. radiculopathy
any disease of a spinal nerve root

7

encephal/o

brain

Ex. anencephaly
absence of a brain

8

cerebr/o

cerebrum (loosely, brain)

Ex. infracerebral
below the cerebrum

9

cortic/o

cerebral cortex, outer portion

Ex. corticospinal
pertaining to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord

10

cerebell/o

cerebellum

Ex. supracerebellar
above the cerebellum

11

thalam/o

thalamus

Ex. thalamotomy
incision of the thalamus

12

ventricul/o

cavity, ventricle

Ex. intraventricular
within a ventricle

13

medull/o

medulla oblongata (also spinal cord)

Ex. medullary
pertaining to the medulla

14

psych/o

mind

Ex. psychogenic
originating in the mind

15

narc/o

stupor, unconsciousness

Ex. narcosis
state of stupor induced by drugs

16

somn/o, somn/i

sleep

Ex. Somnolence
sleepiness

17

-phasia

speech

Ex. heterophasia
uttering words that are different from those intended

18

-lalia

speech, babble

Ex. coprolalia
compulsive use of obscene words (copro- means “feces”)

19

-lexia

reading

Ex. bradylexia
slowness in reading

20

-plegia

paralysis

Ex. tetraplegia
paralysis of all four limbs

21

-paresis

partial paralysis

Ex. hemiparesis
partial paralysis of one side of the body

22

-lepsy

seizure

Ex. narcolepsy
condition marked by sudden episodes of sleep

23

-phobia

persistent, irrational fear

Ex. agoraphobia
fear of being in a public place (from Greek agora, meaning “marketplace”)

24

-mania

excited state, obsession

Ex. megalomania
exaggerated self-importance; “delusions of grandeur”

25

afferent

Carrying toward a given point, such as the sensory neurons and nerves that carry impulses toward the CNS (root fer means “to carry”)

26

arachnoid mater

The middle layer of the meninges (from the Greek word for spider, because this tissue resembles a spider web)

27

autonomic nervous system (ANS)

The division of the nervous system that regulates involuntary activities, controlling smooth muscles, cardiac muscle, and glands; the visceral nervous system

28

axon

The fiber of a neuron that conducts impulses away from the cell body

29

brain

The nervous tissue contained within the cranium; consists of the cerebrum, diencephalon, brainstem, and cerebellum (root: encephal/o)

30

brainstem

The part of the brain that consists of the midbrain, pons, and medulla oblongata

31

central nervous system (CNS)

The brain and spinal cord

32

cerebellum

The posterior portion of the brain dorsal to the pons and medulla; helps to coordinate movement and to maintain balance and posture (cerebellum means “little brain”) (root: cerebell/o)

33

cerebral cortex

The cerebrum's thin surface layer of gray matter (the cortex is the outer region of an organ) (root: cortic/o)

34

cerebrum

The large upper portion of the brain; it is divided into two hemispheres by the longitudinal fissure (root: cerebr/o)

35

cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)

The watery fluid that circulates in and around the brain and spinal cord as a protection

36

cranial nerves

The 12 pairs of nerves that are connected to the brain

37

dendrite

A fiber of a neuron that conducts impulses toward the cell body

38

diencephalons

The part of the brain that contains the thalamus, hypothalamus, and pituitary gland; located between the cerebrum and the brainstem

39

dura mater

The strong, fibrous outermost layer of the meninges

40

efferent

Carrying away from a given point, such as the motor neurons and nerves that carry impulses away from the CNS (root fer means “to carry”)

41

ganglion

A collection of nerve cell bodies outside the CNS (plural: ganglia) (root: gangli/o, ganglion/o)

42

gray matter

Unmyelinated tissue of the nervous system

43

gyrus

A raised convolution of the surface of the cerebrum (plural: gyri)

44

hypothalamus

The part of the brain that controls the pituitary gland and maintains homeostasis

45

interneuron

Any neuron located between a sensory and a motor neuron in a neural pathway, such as the neurons that transmit impulses within the CNS

46

medulla oblongata

The portion of the brain that connects with the spinal cord. It has vital centers for control of respiration, heart rate, and blood pressure (root: medull/o). Often called simply medulla

47

meninges

The three membranes that cover the brain and spinal cord (singular: meninx) (root: mening/o, meninge/o)

48

midbrain

The part of the brainstem between the diencephalon and the pons; contains centers for coordination of reflexes for vision and hearing

49

motor

Producing movement; describes neurons that carry impulses away from the CNS

50

myelin

A whitish, fatty substance that surrounds certain axons of the nervous system

51

neuroglia

The supportive cells of the nervous system; also called glial cells (from glia meaning “glue;” root: gli/o)

52

neuron

The basic unit of the nervous system; a nerve cell

53

neurotransmitter

A chemical that transmits energy across a synapse. Examples are epinephrine, acetylcholine (a-sē-til-KŌ-lēn), serotonin (ser-ō-TŌ-nin), and dopamine (DŌ-pa-mēn)

54

nerve

A bundle of nerve cell fibers outside the CNS (root: neur/o)

55

parasympathetic nervous system

The part of the automatic nervous system that reverses the response to stress and restores homeostasis. It slows heart rate and respiration rate and stimulates activity of the digestive, urinary, and reproductive systems.

56

peripheral nervous system (PNS)

The portion of the nervous system outside the CNS

57

pia mater

The innermost layer of the meninges

58

pons

A rounded area on the ventral surface of the brainstem; contains fibers that connect regions of the brain; adjective: pontine (PON-tēn)

59

reflex

A simple, rapid, and automatic response to a stimulus

60

root

A branch of a spinal nerve that connects with the spinal cord; the dorsal (posterior) root joins the dorsal gray horn of the spinal cord; the ventral (anterior) root joins the ventral gray horn of the spinal cord (root: radicul/o)

61

sensory

Describing neurons that carry impulses toward the CNS

62

somatic nervous system

The division of the nervous system that controls skeletal (voluntary) muscles

63

spinal cord

The nervous tissue contained within the spinal column; extends from the medulla oblongata to the second lumbar vertebra (root: myel/o)

64

spinal nerves

The 31 pairs of nerves that connect with the spinal cord

65

sulcus

A shallow furrow or groove, as on the surface of the cerebrum (plural: sulci)

66

sympathetic nervous system

The part of the autonomic nervous system that mobilizes a response to stress; increases heart rate and respiration rate and delivers more blood to skeletal muscles

67

synapse

The junction between two neurons; also the junction between a motor neuron and a muscle or gland

68

thalamus

The part of the brain that receives all sensory impulses, except those for the sense of smell, and directs them to the proper portion of the cerebral cortex (root: thalam/o)

69

tract

A bundle of nerve cell fibers within the CNS

70

ventricle

A small cavity, such as one of the cavities in the brain in which CSF is produced (root: ventricul/o)

71

visceral nervous system

The autonomic nervous system

72

white matter

Myelinated tissue of the nervous system

73

Alzheimer disease (AD)

A form of dementia caused by atrophy of the cerebral cortex; presenile dementia

74

amyloid

A starchlike substance of unknown composition that accumulates in the brain in Alzheimer and other diseases

75

aneurysm

A localized abnormal dilation of a blood vessel that results from weakness of the vessel wall; an aneurysm may eventually burst

76

aphasia

Specifically, loss or defect in speech communication (from Greek phasis, meaning “speech”). In practice, the term is applied more broadly to a range of language disorders, both spoken and written. May affect ability to understand speech (receptive aphasia) or the ability to produce speech (expressive aphasia). Both forms are combined in global aphasia

77

astrocytoma

A neuroglial tumor composed of astrocytes

78

cerebral contusion

A bruise to the surface of the brain following a blow to the head

79

cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

Sudden damage to the brain resulting from reduction of cerebral blood flow; possible causes are atherosclerosis, thrombosis, or a ruptured aneurysm; commonly called stroke

80

coma

State of deep unconsciousness from which one cannot be roused

81

concussion

Injury resulting from a violent blow or shock; a concussion of the brain usually results in loss of consciousness

82

confusion

A state of reduced comprehension, coherence, and reasoning ability resulting in inappropriate responses to environmental stimuli

83

contrecoup injury

Damage to the brain on the side opposite the point of a blow as a result of the brain's hitting the skull (from French, meaning “counterblow”)

84

convulsion

A series of violent, involuntary muscle contractions. A tonic convulsion involves prolonged contraction of the muscles; in a clonic convulsion there is alternation of contraction and relaxation. Both forms appear in grand mal epilepsy

85

dementia

A gradual and usually irreversible loss of intellectual function

86

embolism

Obstruction of a blood vessel by a blood clot or other material carried in the circulation

87

encephalitis

Inflammation of the brain

88

epidural hematoma

Accumulation of blood in the epidural space (between the dura mater and the skull)

89

epilepsy

A chronic disease involving periodic sudden bursts of electric activity from the brain, resulting in seizures

90

glioma

A tumor of neuroglia cells

91

hemiparesis

Partial paralysis or weakness of one side of the body

92

hemiplegia

Paralysis of one side of the body

93

hydrocephalus

Increased accumulation of CSF in or around the brain as a result of obstruction to flow. May be caused by tumor, inflammation, hemorrhage, or congenital abnormality

94

insomnia

Insufficient or nonrestorative sleep despite ample opportunity to sleep

95

meningioma

Tumor of the meninges

96

meningitis

Inflammation of the meninges

97

multiinfarct dementia (MID)

Dementia caused by chronic cerebral ischemia (lack of blood supply to the tissues) as a result of multiple small strokes. There is progressive loss of cognitive function, memory, and judgment as well as altered motor and sensory function

98

multiple sclerosis (MS)

A chronic, progressive disease involving loss of myelin in the CNS

99

narcolepsy

Brief, uncontrollable episodes of sleep during the day

100

neurilemoma

A tumor of the sheath (neurilemma) of a peripheral nerve; schwannoma

101

paralysis

Temporary or permanent loss of function. Flaccid paralysis involves loss of muscle tone and reflexes and degeneration of muscles. Spastic paralysis involves excess muscle tone and reflexes but no degeneration

102

parkinsonism

A disorder originating in the basal ganglia and characterized by slow movements, tremor, rigidity, and masklike face. Also called Parkinson disease

103

seizure

A sudden attack, as seen in epilepsy. The most common forms of seizure are tonic–clonic, or grand mal (gran mal) (from French, meaning “great illness”); absence seizure, or petit mal (pet-Ē mal), meaning “small illness;” and psychomotor seizure

104

shingles

An acute viral infection that follows nerve pathways causing small lesions on the skin. Caused by reactivation of the virus that also causes chickenpox (varicella–zoster virus). Also called herpes zoster (HER-pēz ZOS-ter)

105

sleep apnea

Brief periods of breathing cessation during sleep

106

stroke

Sudden interference with blood flow in one or more cerebral vessels leading to oxygen deprivation and necrosis of brain tissue; caused by a blood clot in a vessel (ischemic stroke) or rupture of a vessel (hemorrhagic stroke). Cerebrovascular accident (CVA)

107

subdural hematoma

Accumulation of blood beneath the dura mater

108

thrombosis

Development of a blood clot within a vessel

109

tremor

A shaking or involuntary movement

110

carotid endarterectomy

Surgical removal of the lining of the carotid artery, the large artery in the neck that supplies blood to the brain

111

cerebral angiography

Radiographic study of the blood vessels of the brain after injection of a contrast medium

112

electroencephalography (EEG)

Amplification, recording, and interpretation of the brain’s electric activity

113

L-dopa

A drug used in the treatment of parkinsonism; levodopa

114

lumbar puncture

Puncture of the subarachnoid space in the lumbar region of the spinal cord to remove spinal fluid for diagnosis or to inject anesthesia; spinal tap

115

polysomnography

Simultaneous monitoring of a variety of physiologic functions during sleep to diagnose sleep disorders

116

anxiety

A feeling of fear, worry, uneasiness, or dread

117

Asperger syndrome

A behavioral condition on a continuum with autism that may include difficulty with social interactions and understanding, strong specific interests, and repetitive behaviors

118

attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD)

A condition that begins in childhood and is characterized by attention problems, easy boredom, impulsive behavior, and hyperactivity

119

autism

A disorder of unknown cause consisting of self-absorption, lack of response to social contact and affection, preoccupations, stereotyped behavior, and resistance to change (from auto-, “self” and -ism, “condition of”)

120

bipolar disorder

A form of depression with episodes of mania (a state of elation); manic depressive illness

121

delusion

A false belief inconsistent with knowledge and experience

122

depression

A mental state characterized by profound feelings of sadness, emptiness, hopelessness, and lack of interest or pleasure in activities

123

dysthymia

A mild form of depression that usually develops in response to a serious life event (from dys- and Greek thymos, meaning “mind, emotion”)

124

hallucination

A false perception unrelated to reality or external stimuli

125

mania

A state of elation, which may include agitation, hyperexcitability, or hyperactivity (adjective: manic)

126

obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD)

A condition associated with recurrent and intrusive thoughts, images, and repetitive behaviors performed to relieve anxiety

127

panic disorder

A form of anxiety disorder marked by episodes of intense fear

128

paranoia

A mental state characterized by jealousy, delusions of persecution, or perceptions of threat or harm

129

phobia

An extreme, persistent fear of a specific object or situation

130

posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD)

Persistent emotional disturbances that follow exposure to life-threatening, catastrophic events, such as trauma, abuse, natural disasters, and warfare

131

psychosis

A mental disorder extreme enough to cause gross misperception of reality with delusions and hallucinations

132

schizophrenia

A poorly understood group of severe mental disorders with features of psychosis, delusions, hallucinations, and withdrawn or bizarre behavior (schizo means “split” and phren means “mind”)

133

acetylcholine

A neurotransmitter; activity involving acetylcholine is described as cholinergic

134

basal ganglia

Four masses of gray matter in the cerebrum and upper brainstem that are involved in movement and coordination

135

blood–brain barrier

A special membrane between circulating blood and the brain that prevents certain damaging substances from reaching brain tissue

136

Broca area

An area in the left frontal lobe of the cerebrum that controls speech production

137

circle of Willis

An interconnection (anastomosis) of several arteries supplying the brain, located at the base of the cerebrum; cerebral arterial circle

138

contralateral

Affecting the opposite side of the body

139

corpus callosum

A large band of connecting fibers between the cerebral hemispheres

140

dermatome

The area of the skin supplied by a spinal nerve; term also refers to an instrument used to cut skin for grafting (see Chapter 21)

141

ipsilateral

On the same side; unilateral

142

leptomeninges

The pia mater and arachnoid together

143

norepinephrine

A neurotransmitter very similar in chemical composition and function to the hormone epinephrine; also called noradrenalin

144

nucleus

A collection of nerve cells within the central nervous system

145

plexus

A network, as of nerves or blood vessels

146

pyramidal tracts

A group of motor tracts involved in fine coordination. Most of the fibers in these tracts cross in the medulla to the opposite side of the spinal cord and affect the opposite side of the body. Fibers not included in the pyramidal tracts are described as extrapyramidal.

147

reticular activating system (RAS)

A widespread system in the brain that maintains wakefulness

148

Schwann cells

Cells that produce the myelin sheath around peripheral axons

149

Wernicke area

An area in the temporal lobe concerned with speech comprehension

150

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

A disorder marked by muscular weakness, spasticity, and exaggerated reflexes caused by degeneration of motor neurons; Lou Gehrig disease

151

amnesia

Loss of memory

152

apraxia

Inability to move with purpose or to use objects properly

153

ataxia

Lack of muscle coordination; dyssynergia

154

athetosis

Involuntary, slow, twisting movements in the arms, especially the hands and fingers

155

Bell palsy

Paralysis of the facial nerve

156

berry aneurysm

A small saclike aneurysm of a cerebral artery

157

catatonia

A phase of schizophrenia in which the patient is unresponsive; there is a tendency to remain in a fixed position without moving or talking

158

cerebral palsy

A nonprogressive neuromuscular disorder usually caused by damage to the CNS near the time of birth. May include spasticity, involuntary movements, or ataxia

159

chorea

A nervous condition marked by involuntary twitching of the limbs or facial muscles

160

claustrophobia

Fear of being shut in or enclosed (from Latin claudere, “to shut”)

161

compulsion

A repetitive, stereotyped act performed to relieve tension

162

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease (CJD)

A slow-growing degenerative brain disease caused by a prion (PRĪ-on), an infectious protein. Related to bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, “mad cow disease”) in cattle

163

delirium

A sudden and temporary state of confusion marked by excitement, physical restlessness, and incoherence

164

dysarthria

Defect in speech articulation caused by lack of control over the required muscles

165

dysmetria

Disturbance in the path or placement of a limb during active movement. In hypometria, the limb falls short; in hypermetria, the limb extends beyond the target

166

euphoria

An exaggerated feeling of well-being; elation

167

glioblastoma

A malignant astrocytoma

168

Guillain–Barré syndrome

An acute polyneuritis with progressive muscular weakness that usually occurs after a viral infection; in most cases recovery is complete, but may take several months to years

169

hematomyelia

Hemorrhage of blood into the spinal cord, as from an injury

170

hemiballism

Jerking, twitching movements of one side of the body

171

Huntington disease

A hereditary disease of the CNS that usually appears between ages 30 and 50. The patient shows progressive dementia and chorea, and death occurs within 10 to 15 years

172

hypochondriasis

Abnormal anxiety about one's health

173

ictus

A blow or sudden attack, such as an epileptic seizure

174

lethargy

A state of sluggishness or stupor

175

migraine

Chronic intense, throbbing headache that may result from vascular changes in cerebral arteries. Possible causes include genetic factors, stress, trauma, and hormonal fluctuations. Headache might be signaled by visual disturbances, nausea, photophobia, and tingling sensations

176

neurofibromatosis

A condition involving multiple tumors of peripheral nerves

177

neurosis

An emotional disorder caused by unresolved conflicts, with anxiety as a main characteristic

178

paraplegia

Paralysis of the legs and lower part of the body

179

parasomnia

Condition of having undesirable phenomena, such as nightmares, occur during sleep or become worse during sleep

180

quadriplegia

Paralysis of all four limbs; tetraplegia

181

Reye syndrome

A rare acute encephalopathy occurring in children after viral infections. The liver, kidney, and heart may be involved. Linked to administration of aspirin during a viral illness

182

sciatica

Neuritis characterized by severe pain along the sciatic nerve and its branches

183

somatoform disorders

Conditions associated with symptoms of physical disease, such as pain, hypertension, or chronic fatigue, with no physical basis

184

somnambulism

Walking or performing other motor functions while asleep and out of bed; sleepwalking

185

stupor

A state of unconsciousness or lethargy with loss of responsiveness

186

syringomyelia

A progressive disease marked by formation of fluid-filled cavities in the spinal cord

187

tic

Involuntary, spasmodic, recurrent, and purposeless motor movements or vocalizations

188

tic douloureux

Episodes of extreme pain in the area supplied by the trigeminal nerve; also called trigeminal neuralgia

189

tabes dorsalis

Destruction of the dorsal (posterior) portion of the spinal cord with loss of sensation and awareness of body position, as seen in advanced cases of syphilis

190

Tourette syndrome

A tic disorder with intermittent motor and vocal manifestations that begins in childhood. There also may be obsessive and compulsive behavior, hyperactivity, and distractibility

191

transient ischemic attack

A sudden, brief, and temporary cerebral dysfunction usually caused by interruption of blood flow to the brain

192

Wallerian degeneration

Degeneration of a nerve distal to an injury

193

whiplash

Cervical injury caused by rapid acceleration and deceleration resulting in damage to muscles, ligaments, disks, and nerves

194

Babinski reflex

A spreading of the outer toes and extension of the big toe over the others when the sole of the foot is stroked. This response is normal in infants but indicates a lesion of specific motor tracts in adults

195

evoked potentials

Record of the electric activity of the brain after sensory stimulation. Included are visual evoked potentials (VEPs), brainstem auditory evoked potentials (BAEPs), and somatosensory evoked potentials (SSEPs), obtained by stimulating the hand or leg. These tests are used to evaluate CNS function

196

Glasgow coma scale

A system for assessing level of consciousness by assigning a score to each of three responses: eye opening, motor responses, and verbal responses

197

positron emission tomography (PET)

Use of radioactive glucose or other metabolically active substances to produce images of biochemical activity in tissues. Used for study of the living brain, both healthy and diseased, and also in cardiology

198

Romberg sign

Inability to maintain balance when the eyes are shut and the feet are close together

199

sympathectomy

Interruption of sympathetic nerve transmission either surgically or chemically

200

trephination

Cutting a piece of bone out of the skull; the instrument used is a trepan (tre-PAN) or trephine (tre-FIN)

201

antianxiety agent

Relieves anxiety by means of a calming, sedative effect on the CNS; for example, chlordiazepoxide (Librium), diazepam (Valium), alprazolam (Xanax); anxiolytic

202

antidepressants (other than those listed in separate categories below)

Block the reuptake of neurotransmitters such as serotonin, norepinephrine, dopamine, alone or in combination; for example, bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), mirtazapine (Remeron), nefazodone (Serzone), venlafaxine (Effexor XR), atomoxetine (Strattera)

203

monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOI)

Block an enzyme that breaks down norepinephrine and serotonin, thus prolonging their action; for example, phenelzine (Nardil), tranylcypromine (Parnate), isocarboxazid (Marplan)

204

neuroleptics

Drugs used to treat psychosis, including schizophrenia; for example, clozapine (Clozaril), haloperidol (Haldol), risperidone (Risperdal), olanzapine (Zyprexa); antipsychotic. Action mechanism unknown, but may interfere with neurotransmitters

205

selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)

Block the reuptake of serotonin in the brain, thus increasing levels; for example, fluoxetine (Prozac), citalopram (Celexa), paroxetine (Paxil), sertraline (Zoloft)

206

stimulants

Promote activity and a sense of well-being; for example, methylphenidate (Ritalin), dextroamphetamine (Dexedrine), amphetamine + dextroamphetamine (Adderall)

207

tricyclic antidepressants (TCA)

Block the reuptake of norepinephrine, serotonin, or both; for example, amitriptyline (Elavil), clomipramine (Anafril), imipramine (Tofranil), doxepin (Sinequan), trimipramine (Surmontil)

208

ACh

Acetylcholine

209

AD

Alzheimer disease

210

ADHD

Attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder

211

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

212

ANS

Autonomic nervous system

213

BAEP

Brainstem auditory evoked potentials

214

CBF

Cerebral blood flow

215

CJD

Creutzfeldt–Jakob disease

216

CNS

Central nervous system

217

CP

Cerebral palsy

218

CSF

Cerebrospinal fluid

219

CVA

Cerebrovascular accident

220

CVD

Cerebrovascular disease

221

DSM

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

222

DTR

Deep tendon reflexes

223

EEG

Electroencephalogram; electroencephalograph(y)

224

GAD

Generalized anxiety disorder

225

ICP

Intracranial pressure

226

LMN

Lower motor neuron

227

LOC

Level of consciousness

228

LP

Lumbar puncture

229

MAOI

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

230

MID

Multiinfarct dementia

231

MS

Multiple sclerosis

232

NICU

Neurological intensive care unit; also neonatal intensive care unit

233

NPH

Normal pressure hydrocephalus

234

NREM

Non–rapid eye movement (sleep)

235

OCD

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

236

PDD

Pervasive developmental disorder

237

PET

Positron emission tomography

238

PNS

Peripheral nervous system

239

PTSD

Posttraumatic stress disorder

240

RAS

Reticular activating system

241

REM

Rapid eye movement (sleep)

242

SSEP

Somatosensory evoked potentials

243

SSRI

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

244

TCA

Tricyclic antidepressant

245

TIA

Transient ischemic attack

246

UMN

Upper motor neuron

247

VEP

Visual evoked potentials