Chapter 20 The Muscular System

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 20
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1

my/o

muscle

Ex. Myositis
inflammation of muscle

2

muscul/o

muscle

Ex. musculature
muscle arrangement in a part or the whole body

3

in/o

fiber

Ex. inotropic
acting on (muscle) fibers

4

fasci/o

fascia

Ex. fasciodesis
binding (suture) of a fascia to a tendon or other fascia

5

ten/o, tendin/o

tendon

Ex. tenostosis
ossification of a tendon

6

ton/o

tone

Ex. cardiotonic
having a strengthening action on the heart

7

erg/o

work

Ex. ergonomics
study of the efficient use of energy during work

8

kin/o-, kine, kinesi/o, kinet/o

movement

Ex. Kinesis
movement (adjective: kinetic)

9

acetylcholine (ACh)

A neurotransmitter that stimulates contraction of skeletal muscles

10

actin

One of the two contractile proteins in muscle cells; the other is myosin

11

agonist

The muscle that carries out a given movement; prime mover

12

antagonist

The muscle that opposes an agonist (prime mover); it must relax when the agonist contracts

13

cardiac muscle

Involuntary muscle that makes up the wall of the heart

14

fascia

The fibrous sheath of connective tissue that covers a muscle; called deep fascia to differentiate it from the superficial fascia that underlies the skin (root: fasci/o); plural: fasciae

15

fascicle

A small bundle, as of muscle or nerve fibers

16

insertion

In a given movement, the point where a muscle is attached to a moving part of the skeleton

17

muscle

An organ that produces movement by contracting; also the tissue that composes such organs (root: my/o, muscul/o)

18

myosin

One of the two contractile proteins in muscle cells; the other is actin

19

neuromuscular junction (NMJ)

The point of contact, or synapse, between a branch of a motor neuron and a muscle cell

20

origin

In a given movement, the point where a muscle is attached to a stable part of the skeleton

21

skeletal muscle

Voluntary muscle that moves the skeleton and maintains posture

22

smooth muscle

Involuntary muscle that makes up the wall of the hollow organs, vessels, and ducts; visceral muscle

23

synergist

A muscle that assists an agonist to produce a given movement

24

tendon

A fibrous band of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone (root: ten/o, tendin/o)

25

tonus

A state of steady, partial contraction of muscle that maintains firmness; muscle tone (root: ton/o)

26

amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS)

A disease caused by degeneration of motor neurons resulting in muscular weakness and atrophy; Lou Gehrig disease

27

chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS)

A disease of unknown cause that involves persistent fatigue, along with muscle and joint pain and other symptoms; may be virally induced

28

dermatomyositis

A disease of unknown origin involving inflammation of muscles as well as dermatitis and skin rashes

29

fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS)

A disorder associated with widespread muscular aches and stiffness and having no known cause

30

muscular dystrophy

A group of hereditary muscular disorders marked by progressive weakness and atrophy of muscles

31

myasthenia gravis (MG)

A disease characterized by progressive muscular weakness; an autoimmune disease affecting the neuromuscular junction

32

polymyositis

A disease of unknown cause involving muscle inflammation and weakness

33

repetitive strain injury

Tissue damage caused by repeated motion, usually overuse of the arm or hand in occupational activities such as writing, typing, painting, or using hand tools; also called repetitive motion injury, cumulative trauma injury, overuse syndrome

34

sprain

Injury to a ligament caused by abnormal or excessive force at a joint, but without bone dislocation or fracture

35

strain

Trauma to a muscle because of overuse or excessive stretch; if severe, may involve tearing of muscle, bleeding, or separation of muscle from its tendon or separation of a tendon from bone

36

tendinitis

Inflammation of a tendon, usually caused by injury or overuse; the shoulder, elbow, and hip are common sites; also spelled tendonitis

37

tenosynovitis

Inflammation of a tendon sheath

38

creatine kinase (CK)

An enzyme found in muscle tissue; the serum level of CK increases in cases of muscle damage; creatine phosphokinase (CPK)

39

electromyography (EMG)

Study of the electrical activity of muscles during contraction

40

aponeurosis

A flat, white, sheetlike tendon that connects a muscle with the part that it moves

41

creatine

A substance in muscle cells that stores energy for contraction

42

glycogen

A complex sugar that is stored for energy in muscles and in the liver

43

isometric

Pertaining to a muscle action in which the muscle tenses but does not shorten (literally: same measurement)

44

isotonic

Pertaining to a muscle action in which the muscle shortens to accomplish movement (literally: same tone)

45

kinesthesia

Awareness of movement; perception of the weight, direction, and degree of movement (-esthesia means “sensation”)

46

lactic acid

An acid produced in muscle cells that accumulates in muscle cells functioning without enough oxygen (anaerobically), as in times of great physical exertion

47

motor unit

A single motor neuron and all of the muscle cells that its branches stimulate

48

myoglobin

A pigment similar to hemoglobin that stores oxygen in muscle cells

49

asterixis

Rapid, jerky movements, especially in the hands, caused by intermittent loss of muscle tone

50

asthenia

Weakness (prefix a- meaning “without” with root sthen/o meaning “strength”)

51

ataxia

Lack of muscle coordination (from root tax/o meaning “order, arrangement”); adjective: ataxic

52

athetosis

A condition marked by slow, irregular, twisting movements, especially in the hands and fingers; adjective: athetotic

53

atrophy

A wasting away; a decrease in the size of a tissue or organ, such as the wasting of muscle from disuse

54

avulsion

Forcible tearing away of a part

55

clonus

Alternating spasmodic contraction and relaxation in a muscle; adjective: clonic

56

contracture

Permanent contraction of a muscle

57

fasciculation

Involuntary small contractions or twitching of muscle fiber groups (fasciculi)

58

fibromyositis

A nonspecific term for pain, tenderness, and stiffness in muscles and joints

59

fibrositis

Inflammation of fibrous connective tissue, especially the muscle fasciae; marked by pain and stiffness

60

restless legs syndrome (RLS)

Uneasiness, twitching, or restlessness in the legs that occurs after going to bed and often leading to insomnia; may be caused by poor circulation or drug side effects

61

rhabdomyolysis

An acute disease involving diffuse destruction of skeletal muscle cells (root rhabd/o means “rod,” referring to the long, rodlike muscle cells)

62

rhabdomyoma

A benign tumor of skeletal muscle

63

rhabdomyosarcoma

A highly malignant tumor of skeletal muscle

64

rheumatism

A general term for inflammation, soreness, and stiffness of muscles associated with pain in joints (adjective: rheumatic, rheumatoid)

65

spasm

A sudden, involuntary muscle contraction; may be clonic (contraction alternating with relaxation) or tonic (sustained); a strong and painful spasm may be called a cramp (adjectives, spastic, spasmodic)

66

spasticity

Increased tone or contractions of muscles causing stiff and awkward movements

67

tetanus

An acute infectious disease caused by the anaerobic bacillus Clostridium tetani. It is marked by persistent painful spasms of voluntary muscles; lockjaw

68

tetany

A condition marked by spasms, cramps, and muscle twitching caused by a metabolic imbalance, such as low blood calcium caused by underactivity of the parathyroid glands

69

torticollis

Spasmodic contraction of the neck muscles causing stiffness and twisting of the neck; wryneck

70

Chvostek sign

Spasm of facial muscles after a tap over the facial nerve; evidence of tetany

71

occupational therapy

Health profession concerned with increasing function and preventing disability through work and play activities. The goal of occupational therapy is to increase the patient's independence and quality of daily life

72

physical therapy

Health profession concerned with physical rehabilitation and prevention of disability. Exercise, massage, and other therapeutic methods are used to restore proper movement

73

rheumatology

The study and treatment of rheumatic diseases

74

Trousseau sign

Spasmodic contractions caused by pressing the nerve supplying a muscle; seen in tetany

75

antiinflammatory agent

Drug that reduces inflammation; includes steroids, such as cortisone, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs

76

COX-2 inhibitor

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug that does not cause the stomach problems associated with other NSAIDs. Inhibits the cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 enzyme without affecting the COX-1 enzyme, a lack of which can cause stomach ulcers. Some of these drugs have been withdrawn from the market because of cardiac risk. Example is celecoxib (Celebrex)

77

muscle relaxant

A drug that reduces muscle tension; different forms may be used to relax muscles during surgery, to control spasticity, or to relieve musculoskeletal pain

78

nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)

Drug that reduces inflammation but is not a steroid; examples include aspirin, ibuprofen, naproxen, and other inhibitors of prostaglandins, naturally produced substances that promote inflammation

79

Ach

Acetylcholine

80

ALS

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis

81

CFS

Chronic fatigue syndrome

82

C(P)K

Creatine (phospho)kinase

83

CTS

Carpal tunnel syndrome

84

EMG

Electromyography, electromyogram

85

FMS

Fibromyalgia syndrome

86

MG

Myasthenia gravis

87

MMT

Manual muscle test(ing)

88

NMJ

Neuromuscular junction

89

OT

Occupational therapy/therapist

90

PT

Physical therapy/therapist

91

RICE

Rest, ice, compression, elevation

92

RLS

Restless legs syndrome

93

ROM

Range of motion

94

RSI

Repetitive strain injury

95

RTC

Rotator cuff

96

SITS

Supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis (muscles)