Chapter 19 The Skeleton

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 19
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1

oste/o

bone

Ex. osteopenia
deficiency of bone tissue

2

myel/o

bone marrow; also, spinal cord myeloid pertaining to or resembling bone marrow

3

chondr/o

cartilage

Ex. chondroblast
a cartilage-forming cell

4

arthr/o

joint

Ex. arthrosis
joint; condition affecting a joint

5

synov/i

synovial fluid, joint, or membrane

Ex. asynovia
lack of synovial fluid

6

burs/o

bursa

Ex. peribursal
around a bursa

7

crani/o

skull, cranium

Ex. Craniometry
measurement of the cranium

8

spondyl/o

vertebra

Ex. spondylolysis
destruction and separation of a vertebra

9

vertebr/o

vertebra, spinal column

Ex. paravertebral
near the vertebrae or spinal column

10

rachi/o

spine

Ex. rachischisis
fissure (-schisis) of the spine; spina bifida

11

cost/o

rib

Ex. costochondral
pertaining to a rib and its cartilage

12

sacr/o

sacrum

Ex. presacral
in front of the sacrum

13

coccy, coccyg/o

coccyx

Ex. Coccygeal
pertaining to the coccyx

14

pelvi/o

pelvis

Ex. pelviscope
endoscope for examining the pelvis

15

ili/o

ilium

Ex. iliopelvic
pertaining to the ilium and pelvis

16

acetabulum

The bony socket in the hip bone that holds the head of the femur (from the Latin word for vinegar because it resembles the base of a vinegar cruet)

17

articulation

A joint (adjective: articular)

18

atlas

The first cervical vertebra (root: atlant/o)

19

axis

The second cervical vertebra

20

bone

A calcified form of dense connective tissue; osseous tissue; also an individual unit of the skeleton made of such tissue (root: oste/o)

21

bone marrow

The soft material that fills the cavities of bones. Yellow marrow fills the central cavity of the long bones; blood cells are formed in red bone marrow, which is located in spongy bone tissue (root: myel/o)

22

bursa

A fluid-filled sac that reduces friction near a joint (root: burs/o)

23

cartilage

A type of dense connective tissue that is found in the skeleton, larynx, trachea, and bronchi. It is the precursor to most bone tissue (root: chondr/o)

24

diarthrosis

A freely movable joint; also called a synovial join; adjective: diarthrotic

25

diaphysis

The shaft of a long bone

26

epiphyseal plate

The growth region of a long bone; located in the metaphysis, between the diaphysis and epiphysis. When bone growth ceases, this area appears as the epiphyseal line

27

epiphysis

The irregularly shaped end of a long bone

28

Ilium

The large, flared, superior portion of the pelvic bone; adjective: iliac; (root: ili/o)

29

joint

The junction between two bones; articulation (root: arthr/o)

30

ligament

A strong band of connective tissue that joins one bone to another

31

metaphysis

The region of a long bone between the diaphysis (shaft) and epiphysis (end); during development, the growing region of a long bone

32

ossification

The formation of bone tissue (from Latin os, meaning “bone”)

33

osteoblast

A cell that produces bone tissue

34

osteoclast

A cell that destroys bone tissue

35

osteocyte

A mature bone cell that nourishes and maintains bone tissue

36

pelvis

The large ring of bone at the inferior trunk. Formed of the two hip bones (os coxae) joined to the sacrum and coccyx (plural: pelves). Each os coxae is formed of three bones, the superior, flared ilium, ischium, and pubis

37

periosteum

The fibrous membrane that covers the surface of a bone

38

resorption

Removal of bone by breakdown and absorption into the circulation

39

skeleton

The bony framework of the body, consisting of 206 bones. The axial portion (80 bones) is composed of the skull, spinal column, ribs, and sternum. The appendicular skeleton (126 bones) contains the bones of the arms and legs, shoulder girdle, and pelvis

40

suture

An immovable joint, such as the joints between the skull bones

41

symphysis

A slightly movable joint

42

synovial fluids

The fluid contained in a freely movable (diarthrotic) joint; synovia (root: synov/i)

43

synovial joint

A freely movable joint; has a joint cavity containing synovial fluid; a diarthrosis

44

tendon

A fibrous band of connective tissue that attaches a muscle to a bone

45

thorax

The upper part of the trunk between the neck and the abdomen; formed by the 12 pairs of ribs and sternum

46

ankylosing spondylitis

A chronic, progressive inflammatory disease involving the joints of the spine and surrounding soft tissue, most common in young males; also called rheumatoid spondylitis

47

ankylosis

Immobility and fixation of a joint

48

arthritis

Inflammation of a joint

49

chondrosarcoma

A malignant tumor of cartilage

50

curvature of the spine

An exaggerated spinal curve, such as scoliosis, lordosis, or kyphosis

51

degenerative joint disease (DJD)

Osteoarthritis

52

fracture

A break in a bone. In a closed or simple fracture, the broken bone does not penetrate the skin; in an open fracture, there is an accompanying wound in the skin

53

gout

A form of acute arthritis, usually beginning in the knee or foot, caused by deposit of uric acid salts in the joints

54

herniated disk

Protrusion of the center (nucleus pulposus) of an intervertebral disk into the spinal canal; ruptured or “slipped” disk

55

kyphosis

An exaggerated curve of the spine in the thoracic region; hunchback, humpback

56

lordosis

An exaggerated curve of the spine in the lumbar region; swayback

57

osteoarthritis (OA)

Progressive deterioration of joint cartilage with growth of new bone and soft tissue in and around the joint; the most common form of arthritis; results from wear and tear, injury, or disease; also called degenerative joint disease (DJD)

58

osteogenic sarcoma

A malignant bone tumor; osteosarcoma

59

osteomalacia

A softening and weakening of the bones due to vitamin D deficiency or other disease

60

osteomyelitis

Inflammation of bone and bone marrow caused by infection, usually bacterial

61

osteopenia

A lower than average bone density, which may foreshadow osteoporosis

62

osteoporosis

A condition characterized by reduction in bone density, most common in white women past menopause; predisposing factors include poor diet, inactivity, and low estrogen levels

63

Paget disease

Skeletal disease of the elderly characterized by bone thickening and distortion with bowing of long bones; osteitis deformans

64

Pott disease

Inflammation of the vertebrae, usually caused by tuberculosis

65

rheumatoid arthritis

A chronic autoimmune disease of unknown origin resulting in inflammation of peripheral joints and related structures; more common in women than in men

66

rheumatoid factor

A group of antibodies found in the blood in cases of rheumatoid arthritis and other systemic diseases

67

rickets

Faulty bone formation in children, usually caused by a deficiency of vitamin D

68

sciatica

Severe pain in the leg along the course of the sciatic nerve, usually related to spinal nerve root irritation

69

scoliosis

A sideways curvature of the spine in any region

70

spondylolisthesis

A forward displacement of one vertebra over another (-listhesis means “a slipping”)

71

spondylolysis

Degeneration of the articulating portions of a vertebra allowing for spinal distortion, specifically in the lumbar region

72

alkaline phosphatase

An enzyme needed in the formation of bone; serum activity of this enzyme is useful in diagnosis

73

arthrocentesis

Aspiration of fluid from a joint by needle puncture

74

arthrodesis

Surgical immobilization (fusion) of a joint; artificial ankylosis

75

arthroplasty

Partial or total replacement of a joint with a prosthesis

76

arthroscopy

Use of an endoscope to examine the interior of a joint or to perform surgery on the joint; the instrument used is an arthroscope

77

diskectomy

Surgical removal of a herniated intervertebral disk; also spelled discectomy

78

orthopedics

The study and treatment of disorders of the skeleton, muscles, and associated structures; literally “straight” (ortho) “child” (ped); also spelled orthopaedics

79

reduction of a fracture

Return of a fractured bone to a normal position; may be closed (not requiring surgery) or open (requiring surgery)

80

traction

The process of drawing or pulling, such as traction of the head in the treatment of injuries to the cervical vertebrae

81

antiinflammatory agent

Drug that reduces inflammation; includes steroids, such as cortisone, and nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (NSAIDs)

82

bisphosphonate

Agent used to prevent and treat osteoporosis; increases bone mass by decreasing bone turnover. Examples are alendronate (Fosamax) and risedronate (Actonel)

83

nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)

Drug that reduces inflammation but is not a steroid; examples include aspirin and ibuprofen and other inhibitors of prostaglandins, naturally produced substances that promote inflammation

84

selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM)

Drug that acts on estrogen receptors. Raloxifene (Avista) is used to prevent bone loss after menopause. Other SERMs are used to prevent and treat estrogen-sensitive breast cancer

85

annulus fibrosus

The outer ring-like portion of an intervertebral disk

86

calvaria

The dome-like upper portion of the skull

87

coxa

Hip

88

cruciate ligaments

Ligaments that cross in the knee joint to connect the tibia and fibula. They are the anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) and the posterior cruciate ligament (PCL). Cruciate means “shaped like a cross”

89

genu

The knee

90

glenoid cavity

The bony socket in the scapula that articulates with the head of the humerus

91

hallux

The great toe

92

malleolus

The projection of the tibia or fibula on either side of the ankle

93

meniscus

Crescent-shaped disk of cartilage found in certain joints, such as the knee joint. In the knee, the medial meniscus and the lateral meniscus separate the tibia and femur. (plural: menisci (me-NIS-kī); meniscus means “crescent”)

94

nucleus pulposus

The central mass of an intervertebral disk

95

olecranon

The process of the ulna that forms the elbow

96

os

Bone (plural: ossa)

97

osseous

Pertaining to bone

98

symphysis pubis

The anterior pelvic joint, formed by the union of the two pubic bones; also called pubic symphysis

99

achondroplasia

Decreased growth of cartilage in the growth plate of long bones resulting in dwarfism; a genetic disorder

100

Baker cyst

Mass formed at the knee joint by distention of a bursa with excess synovial fluid resulting from chronic irritation

101

bunion

Inflammation and enlargement of the metatarsal joint of the great toe, usually with displacement of the great toe toward the other toes

102

bursitis

Inflammation of a bursa, a small fluid-filled sac near a joint; causes include injury, irritation, and joint disease; the shoulder, hip, elbow, and knee are common sites

103

carpal tunnel syndrome

Numbness and weakness of the hand caused by pressure on the median nerve as it passes through a tunnel formed by carpal bones

104

chondroma

A benign tumor of cartilage

105

Ewing tumor

A bone tumor that usually appears in children 5 to 15 years of age. It begins in the shaft of a bone and spreads readily to other bones. It may respond to radiation therapy, but then returns. Also called Ewing sarcoma

106

exostosis

A bony outgrowth from the surface of a bone

107

giant cell tumor

A bone tumor that usually appears in children and young adults. The ends of the bones are destroyed, commonly at the knee, by a large mass that does not metastasize

108

hammertoe

Change in position of the toe joints so that the toe takes on a claw-like appearance and the first joint protrudes upward, causing irritation and pain on walking

109

hallux valgus

Painful condition involving lateral displacement of the great toe at the metatarsal joint. There is also enlargement of the metatarsal head and bunion formation

110

Heberden nodes

Small, hard nodules formed in the cartilage of the distal joints of the fingers in osteoarthritis

111

hemarthrosis

Bleeding into a joint cavity

112

Legg–Calvé–Perthes disease

Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the proximal growth center of the femur. The bone is eventually restored, but there may be deformity and weakness. Most common in young boys. Also called coxa plana

113

multiple myeloma

A cancer of blood-forming cells in bone marrow (see Chapter 10)

114

neurogenic arthropathy

Degenerative disease of joints caused by impaired nervous stimulation; most common cause is diabetes mellitus; Charcot arthropathy

115

Osgood-Schlatter disease

Degeneration (osteochondrosis) of the proximal growth center of the tibia causing pain and tendinitis at the knee

116

osteochondroma

A benign tumor consisting of cartilage and bone

117

osteochondrosis

Disease of a bone's growth center in children; degeneration of the tissue is followed by recalcification

118

osteodystrophy

Abnormal bone development

119

osteogenesis imperfecta (OI)

A hereditary disease resulting in the formation of brittle bones that fracture easily. There is faulty synthesis of collagen, the main structural protein in connective tissue.

120

osteoma

A benign bone tumor that usually remains small and localized

121

Reiter syndrome

Chronic polyarthritis that usually affects young men; occurs after a bacterial infection and is common in those infected with HIV; may also involve the eyes and genitourinary tract

122

spondylosis

Degeneration and ankylosis of the vertebrae resulting in pressure on the spinal cord and nerve roots; often applied to any degenerative lesion of the spine

123

subluxation

A partial dislocation

124

talipes

A deformity of the foot, especially one occurring congenitally; clubfoot

125

valgus

Bent outward

126

varus

Bent inward

127

von Recklinghausen disease

Loss of bone tissue caused by increased parathyroid hormone; bones become decalcified and deformed, and fracture easily

128

allograft

Graft of tissue between individuals of the same species but different genetic makeup; homograft, allogenic graft (see autograft)

129

arthroclasia

Surgical breaking of an ankylosed joint to provide movement

130

aspiration

Removal by suction, as removal of fluid from a body cavity; also inhalation, such as accidental inhalation of material into the respiratory tract

131

autograft

Graft of tissue taken from a site on or in the body of the person receiving the graft; autologous graft (see allograft)

132

calcitonin

A hormone from the thyroid gland that decreases resorption (loss) of bone tissue; used in the treatment of Paget disease and osteoporosis; also called thyrocalcitonin

133

chondroitin

A complex polysaccharide found in connective tissue; used as a dietary supplement, usually with glucosamine, for treatment of joint pain

134

glucosamine

A dietary supplement used in the treatment of joint pain

135

goniometer

A device used to measure joint angles and movements (root goni/o means “angle”)

136

iontophoresis

Introduction into the tissue by means of electric current, using the ions of a given drug; used in the treatment of musculoskeletal disorders

137

laminectomy

Excision of the posterior arch (lamina) of a vertebra

138

meniscectomy

Removal of the crescent-shaped cartilage (meniscus) of the knee joint

139

myelogram

Radiograph of the spinal canal after injection of a radiopaque dye; used to evaluate a herniated disk

140

osteoplasty

Scraping and removal of damaged bone from a joint

141

prosthesis

An artificial organ or part, such as an artificial limb

142

ACL

Anterior cruciate ligament

143

AE

Above the elbow

144

AK

Above the knee

145

ASF

Anterior spinal fusion

146

BE

Below the elbow

147

BK

Below the knee

148

BMD

Bone mineral density

149

C

Cervical vertebra; numbered C1 to C7

150

Co

Coccyx; coccygeal

151

DEXA

Dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (scan)

152

DIP

Distal interphalangeal (joint)

153

DJD

Degenerative joint disease

154

Fx

Fracture

155

HNP

Herniated nucleus pulposus

156

IM

Intramedullary

157

L

Lumbar vertebra; numbered L1 to L5

158

MCP

Metacarpophalangeal (joint)

159

MTP

Metatarsophalangeal (joint)

160

NSAID(s)

Nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug(s)

161

OA

Osteoarthritis

162

OI

Osteogenesis imperfecta

163

ORIF

Open reduction internal fixation

164

ortho, ORTH

Orthopedics

165

PCL

Posterior cruciate ligament

166

PIP

Proximal interphalangeal (joint)

167

PSF

Posterior spinal fusion

168

RA

Rheumatoid arthritis

169

S

Sacrum; sacral

170

SERM

Selective estrogen receptor modulator

171

T

Thoracic vertebra; numbered T1 to T12

172

THA

Total hip arthroplasty

173

TKA

Total knee arthroplasty

174

TMJ

Temporomandibular joint

175

Tx

Traction