Microbiology Lecture - Chapter 17 Adaptive Immunity-Specific Defenses of the host Flashcards


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1

Characteristics of adaptive immunity

slower than innate
memory
specific
response depends on specific foreign entity
acquired (based on exposure)
Two components humoral and cellular

2

Third line of defense is?

Specialized lymphocytes:
T cells and B cells
Antibodies

3

Why is the adaptive immune system slower than the innate?

because it has to process what the foreign substance is that it is coming across in order to produce antibodies
produces antibodies in the whole body to fight off same microbe in the future

4

The humoral component has to do with__________.
The cellular component is __________.

antibodies
lymphocytes

5

Source of lymphocytes

Stem cells- before birth/liver
after birth/bone marrow
Stem cell differentiation- bone marrow (B cells)
thymus (T cells)
Stem cell migration- B and T cells migrate to lymphoid tissues and blood

6

Antigens are:

antibody generators
Not all can induce the immune system response
substances that cause the production of antibodies
typically a protein or polysaacharide (sugar)
molecular fragments on surface of foreign entities
-viruses
-microbes
-pollen

7

Antibodies:

protein structures
produced by B cells (plasma cells)
recognize and bind to a specific antigen
-bind to a particular region on a molecular fragment (epitope)

8

Bacterial antigens can be found on:

cell walls
flagella
pilli

9

Antigens may have several epitopes. Epitopes are a region on an _______ and a binding site for ______.

antigens
antibody
an antibody binding to an epitope can turn the complementary system on

10

Haptens are ________________.

Are epitopes that are too small to induce an immune response it needs a carrier molecule
antigen of low molecular weight

11

Antibodies are also called

immunoglobulins

12

Antibodies are ______________.

globular soluble protein molecules
are present in body fluids such as milk, serum and gastric secretions

13

There are 5 major classes of antibodies they are

G- IgG Most common circlating
M- IgM
A- IgA
D- IgD
E- IgE

14

Structure of an antibody:

4 chains- 2 heavy and 2 light
the disulfide bridge holds the 2 pieces together
the body is the stem
the variable light and variable heavy bind to the epitope

15

B cells function

antibodies and memory cells

16

What is MHC?

major histo compatibility complex

17

True or false B cells have antibodies on the surface?

true

18

B cells become activated when________ bind to ______ .

antibodies
antigens

19

Antigen fragments bind to MHC. The MHC displays the fragments to __________ .

immune system

20

The MHC goes outside the B cell and tells the immune system

this piece I am holding out is foreign but do not destroy the B cell that is self

21

B cells sometimes require help from?

T cells known as 'helper' T cells

22

The T helper cell binds to the MHC antigen complex which does the following:

activates the T cell----> cytokine (chemical signal) ----> further activates B cell -----> make memory cells and mass produce antibodies

23

Plasma cells are

short lived
produce antibodies
antibodies are then released into the blood stream

24

Memory cells are

long lived
secondary response to an antigen

25

What are other antigen producing cells?

dendritic cells
macrophages

26

Agglutination is

reduces the number of infectious units to be dealt with

27

opsinization

highlighter flags antigen for the immune system-coating antigen w antibody

28

Neutralization

the microbe is covered and can't adhere to the cell wall

29

activation of complement system

causes inflammation and cell lysis

30

Antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity

lysis the cell from outside- helminths, parasites