Chapter 21 Skin

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Medical Terminology
Chapter 21
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1

derm/o, dermat/o

skin

Ex. dermabrasion
surgical procedure used to resurface the skin and remove imperfections

2

kerat/o

keratin, horny layer of the skin

Ex. keratinous
containing keratin; horny

3

melan/o

dark, black, melanin

Ex. melanosome
a small cellular body that produces melanin

4

hidr/o

sweat, perspiration

Ex. anhidrosis
absence of sweating

5

seb/o

sebum, sebaceous gland

Ex. seborrhea
excess flow of sebum

6

trich/o

hair

Ex. trichomycosis
fungal infection of the hair

7

onych/o

nail

Ex. onychia
inflammation of the nail and nail bed

8

cutaneous

Pertaining to the skin (from Latin cutis, meaning “skin”)

9

derma

Skin (from Greek)

10

dermis

The layer of the skin between the epidermis and the subcutaneous tissue; the true skin or corium

11

epidermis

The outermost layer of the skin (from epi-, meaning “upon or over” and derm, meaning “skin”)

12

hair

A threadlike keratinized outgrowth from the skin (root: trich/o)

13

hair follicle

The sheath in which a hair develops

14

integumentary system

The skin and its associated glands, hair, and nails

15

keratin

A protein that thickens and toughens the skin and makes up hair and nails (root: kerat/o)

16

melanin

A dark pigment that gives color to the hair and skin and protects the skin against the sun's radiation (root: melan/o)

17

nail

A plate-like keratinized outgrowth of the skin that covers the dorsal surface of the terminal phalanges (root: onych/o)

18

sebaceous gland

A gland that produces sebum; usually associated with a hair follicle (root: seb/o)

19

sebum

A fatty secretion of the sebaceous glands that lubricates the hair and skin (root: seb/o)

20

skin

The tissue that covers the body; the integument (root: derm/o, dermat/o)

21

subcutaneous tissue

The layer of tissue beneath the skin; also called the hypodermis

22

sudoriferous gland

A sweat gland (root: hidr/o)

23

atopic dermatitis

Hereditary, allergic, chronic inflammation of the skin with pruritus (itching); eczema

24

basal cell carcinoma

An epithelial tumor that rarely metastasizes and has a high cure rate with surgical removal

25

cicatrization

The process of scar formation; a scar is a cicatrix

26

debridement

Removal of dead or damaged tissue, as from a wound

27

dehiscence

Splitting or bursting, as when the layers of a wound separate

28

dermatitis

Inflammation of the skin, often associated with redness and itching; may be caused by allergy, irritants (contact dermatitis), or a variety of diseases

29

dermatology

Study of the skin and diseases of the skin

30

dermatome

Instrument for cutting thin sections of skin for skin grafting

31

eczema

A general term for an inflammation of the skin with redness, lesions, and itching; atopic dermatitis

32

erythema

Diffuse redness of the skin

33

escharotomy

Removal of scab tissue (eschar) resulting from burns or other skin injuries

34

evisceration

Protrusion of internal organs (viscera) through an opening, as through a wound

35

exudates

Material, which may include fluid, cells, pus, or blood, that escapes from damaged tissue

36

Kaposi sarcoma

Cancerous lesion of the skin and other tissues seen most often in patients with AIDS

37

keloid

A raised, thickened scar caused by tissue overgrowth during scar formation

38

lupus erythematosus (LE)

A chronic, inflammatory, autoimmune disease of connective tissue that often involves the skin; types include the more widespread systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and a discoid form (DLE) that involves only the skin

39

malignant melanoma

A metastasizing pigmented tumor of the skin

40

pemphigus

An autoimmune disease of the skin characterized by sudden, intermittent formation of bullae (blisters); may be fatal if untreated

41

pressure ulcer

An ulcer caused by pressure to an area of the body, as from a bed or chair; decubitus ulcer, bedsore, pressure sore

42

pruritus

Severe itching

43

psoriasis

A chronic hereditary dermatitis with red lesions covered by silvery scales

44

rule of nines

A method for estimating the extent of body surface area involved in a burn by assigning percentages in multiples of nine to various regions of the body

45

scleroderma

A chronic disease that is characterized by thickening and tightening of the skin and that often involves internal organs in a form called progressive systemic sclerosis (PSS)

46

squamous cell carcinoma

An epidermal cancer that may invade deeper tissues but tends not to metastasize

47

acne

An inflammatory disease of the sebaceous glands and hair follicles usually associated with excess secretion of sebum; acne vulgaris

48

actinic

Pertaining to the effects of radiant energy, such as sunlight, ultraviolet light, and x-rays

49

albinism

A hereditary lack of pigment in the skin, hair, and eyes

50

alopecia

Absence or loss of hair; baldness

51

Beau lines

White lines across the fingernails; usually a sign of systemic disease or injury

52

bromhidrosis

Sweat that has a foul odor because of bacterial decomposition; also called bromidrosis

53

carbuncle

A localized infection of the skin and subcutaneous tissue, usually caused by staphylococcus, and associated with pain and discharge of pus

54

comedo

A plug of sebum, often containing bacteria, in a hair follicle; a blackhead (plural: comedones)

55

dermatophytosis

Fungal infection of the skin, especially between the toes; athlete's foot (root: phyt/o means “plant”)

56

diaphoresis

Profuse sweating

57

dyskeratosis

Any abnormality in keratin formation in epithelial cells

58

ecchymosis

A collection of blood under the skin caused by leakage from small vessels

59

erysipelas

An acute infectious disease of the skin with localized redness and swelling and systemic symptoms

60

erythema nodosum

Inflammation of subcutaneous tissues resulting in tender, erythematous nodules; may be an abnormal immune response to a systemic disease, an infection, or a drug

61

exanthema

Any eruption of the skin that accompanies a disease, such as measles; a rash

62

excoriation

Lesion caused by scratching or abrasion

63

folliculitis

Inflammation of a hair follicle

64

furuncle

A painful skin nodule caused by staphylococci that enter through a hair follicle; a boil

65

hemangioma

A benign tumor of blood vessels; in the skin, called birthmarks or port wine stains

66

herpes simplex

A group of acute infections caused by herpes simplex virus. Type I herpes simplex virus produces fluid-filled vesicles, usually on the lips, after fever, sun exposure, injury, or stress; cold sore, fever blister. Type II infections usually involve the genital organs

67

hirsutism

Excessive growth of hair

68

ichthyosis

A dry, scaly condition of the skin (from the root ichthy/o, meaning “fish”)

69

impetigo

A bacterial skin infection with pustules that rupture and form crusts; most commonly seen in children, usually on the face

70

keratosis

Any skin condition marked by thickened or horny growth. Seborrheic keratosis is a benign tumor, yellow or light brown in color, that appears in the elderly. Actinic keratosis is caused by exposure to sunlight and may lead to squamous cell carcinoma

71

lichenification

Thickened marks caused by chronic rubbing, as seen in atopic dermatitis (a lichen is a flat, branching type of plant that grows on rocks and bark)

72

mycosis fungoides

A rare malignant disease that originates in the skin and involves the internal organs and lymph nodes. There are large, painful, ulcerating tumors

73

nevus

A defined discoloration of the skin; a congenital vascular tumor of the skin; a mole, birthmark

74

paronychia

Infection around a nail. Caused by bacteria or fungi, and may affect multiple nails

75

pediculosis

Infestation with lice

76

petechiae

Flat, pinpoint, purplish red spots caused by bleeding within the skin or mucous membrane (singular, petechia)

77

photosensitization

Sensitization of the skin to light, usually from the action of drugs, plant products, or other substances

78

purpura

A condition characterized by hemorrhages into the skin and other tissues

79

rosacea

A condition of unknown cause involving redness of the skin, pustules, and overactivity of sebaceous glands, mainly on the face

80

scabies

A highly contagious skin disease caused by a mite

81

senile lentigines

Brown macules that appear on sun-exposed skin in adults; liver spots

82

shingles

An acute eruption of vesicles along the path of a nerve; herpes zoster (HER-pēz ZOS-ter); caused by the same virus that causes chickenpox

83

tinea

A fungal infection of the skin; ringworm

84

tinea versicolor

Superficial chronic fungal infection that causes varied pigmentation of the skin

85

urticaria

A skin reaction marked by temporary, smooth, raised areas (wheals) associated with itching; hives

86

venous stasis ulcer

Ulcer caused by venous insufficiency and stasis of venous blood; usually forms near the ankle

87

verruca

An epidermal tumor; a wart

88

vitiligo

Patchy disappearance of pigment in the skin; leukoderma

89

xeroderma pigmentosum

A fatal hereditary disease that begins in childhood with discolorations and ulcers of the skin and muscle atrophy. There is increased sensitivity to the sun and increased susceptibility to cancer

90

aloe

A gel from the leaves from the plant Aloe vera that is used in treatment of burns and minor skin irritations

91

antipruritic

Agent that prevents or relieves itching

92

cautery

Destruction of tissue by physical or chemical means; cauterization; also the instrument or chemical used for this purpose

93

dermabrasion

A plastic surgical procedure for removing scars or birthmarks by chemical or mechanical destruction of epidermal tissue

94

dermatoplasty

Transplantation of human skin; skin grafting

95

diascopy

Examination of skin lesions by pressing a glass plate against the skin

96

fulguration

Destruction of tissue by high frequency electric sparks

97

skin turgor

Resistance of the skin to deformation. Evidenced by the ability of the skin to return to position when pinched. Skin turgor is a measure of the skin’s elasticity and state of hydration. It typically declines with age and when decreased may also be a sign of poor nutrition

98

wood lamp

An ultraviolet light to diagnose fungal infections

99

BSA

Body-surface area

100

DLE

Discoid lupus erythematosus

101

FTSG

Full-thickness skin graft

102

LE

Lupus erythematosus

103

PSS

Progressive systemic sclerosis

104

PUVA

Psoralen ultraviolet A

105

SCLE

Subacute cutaneous lupus erythematosus

106

SLE

Systemic lupus erythematosus

107

SPF

Sun protection factor

108

STSG

Split-thickness skin graft

109

UV

Ultraviolet

110

UVA

Ultraviolet A

111

UVB

Ultraviolet B

112

VAC

Vacuum-assisted closure