Microbiology Exam 1 Flashcards


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Micro biology
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1

Which groups of organisms are microorganisms?

• Bacteria
• Viruses
• Fungi
• Protozoa
• Algae
• Helminths

2

Why is microbiology so diverse?

The simplicity,growth rate,and adaptability of
microbes are some of the reasons that
microbiology is so diverse

3

When did prokaryotes first appear on the planet?

Prokaryotes first appear on the planet 3.5 billion years ago.

4

What type of relationship do most microorganisms have with humans?

Most human relationships with microorganisms are beneficial
– Nutrient production and energy flow(algae and
some photosynthetic bacteria)
– Breakdown and recycling of nutrients (fungi)

5

What are the human uses of microorganisms?

• Biotechnology – industrial products, foods, drugs
• Genetic engineering–new products and life forms
• Bioremediation–clean up wastes and pollutants

6

What are some examples of human uses of microorganisms?

• Biodiesel bioreactor – using algae to mass produce oil
• Testing bacteria to detoxify radioactive waste

7

What is the top infectious cause of death in the USA?

Influenza and pneumonia

8

What is the top infectious cause of death in the world?

Respiratory Infection

9

How old is microbiology as a science?

300 Years old.

10

What is a hypothesis?

a tentative explanation for what has been observed or measured

11

What is a law?

theory becomes law when the accuracy and
predictability of the theory is so compelling that
the next level of confidence is reached

12

What is a theory?

a collection of statements, propositions, or concepts that explains or accounts for a natural event

13

What were the major contributions of Lister?

aseptic technique

14

What were the major contributions of Pasteur?

pasteurization

15

What were the major contributions of Koch?

"germ"--theory of disease

16

What were the major contributions of van Leeuwenhoek?

Microscope and the study of Microbiology

17

Which taxon contains the most organisms?

Domain

18

Which taxon contains the fewest organisms?

Species

19

How is an organism’s name written using binomial nomenclature?

Organisms are assigned binomial scientific names consisting of their genus and species names:
i.e. Homo sapiens, Escherichia coli

20

What is the basis of the Whittaker classification system?

His basis is based on cell structure and cell type.
Added:
• Five kingdoms(plants, animal, fungi, protists and monerans)
• Two cell type (prokaryotes and eukaryotes)

21

What is the basis of the Woese-Fox classification system?

His basis is based on the genetic structure of ribosomes.
Added:
• 4 Kingdoms-> Plantae, Animalia, Fungi, Prostista
• 3 Domain-> Bacteria, Archaea, Eukarya

22

What structures are found in all cells?

– Cell membrane
– Cytoplasm
– Chromosome
– Ribosomes

23

What are the basic characteristics of life?

Heredity and reproduction (Sexually or asexually)
Growth, Metabolism, Responsiveness (Irritability, Communication, Motility), and Transport

24

What are the functions of glycocalyces?

its function is to provide a slime layer or a capsule

25

What are the functions of pili?

its function is to provide a means for genetic exchange

26

What are the functions of fimbriae?

its function is in adhering (sticking)

27

What are the functions of flagella?

its function is used for motility

28

Which part of the bacterial cell envelope provides cell rigidity?

peptidoglycan–A repeating framework of long glycan chains cross-linked by short peptide fragments.

29

How many cell envelope layers are found in Gram-positive cells?

Three
1) Cellmembrane (thin inner layer)
2) Periplasmicspace (space between 1+3)
3) Peptidoglycan layer (thick outer layer)

30

How many cell envelope layers are found in Gram-negative cells?

Five (1=cell membrane, 2-5= cell wall)
1) Cell membrane (thin inner layer)
2) Periplasmic space (space b/t 1+3+5)
3) Peptidoglycan layer(thin outer layer)
4) Periplasmic space (space b/t 1+3+5)
5) Outer cell membrane

31

What color are Gram-positive cells after a Gram stain?

Purple

32

What color are Gram-negative cells after a Gram stain?

Red

33

What is the list of the bacterial internal structures?.

Chromosomes
Nucleoid
Ribosomes
Plasmids
Inclusions
Actin cytoskeleton
Endospores

34

What is the general description of Nucleoid?

where chromosomes are condensed

35

What is the general description of Ribosomes?

site of protein synthesis,(70S)

36

What is the general description of Plasmids?

extra genetic information

37

What is the general description of Inclusion?

storage structures

38

What is the general description of Actin cytoskeleton?

gives bacterial cell shape

39

What is the general description of Endospores

highly resistant structure for survival,
NOT reproduction

40
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What is this bacteria

coccus

41
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What is this bacteria

Rod/Bacillus

42
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What is this bacteria

Vibrio

43
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What is this bacteria

Spirillum
-Polar (outside) flagella; cells swim by rotating around like corckscrew, do not flex, have one to several flagella, can be in tufts (1-20 helical turns)

44
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What is this bacteria

Spirochete
-Periplasmic flagella within sheath; cells flex; can swim by rotation or by creeping on surfaces; have 2 to 100 periplasmic flagella (3 to 70 helical turns)

45
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What is this bacteria

Branching filaments

46
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What is this bacteria

Pleomorphic(variation in shape and size within a
species(below)

47

What are some general characteristics of Archaea.

characterized by their ability to tolerate extremes in temperature and acidity; methane-producers and salt-lovers;

48

What is the endosymbiotic theory?

Endosymbiotic theory proposes that eukaryotic cells arose when a much larger procaryotic cell engulfed smaller procaryotic cells that began to live and reproduce inside the larger cell without being destroyed.

49

In which eukaryotic microorganisms are cell walls found?

in fungi and algae only

50

What are the forms and functions of the external structures of the eukaryotic cell.

Appendages for movement
– Cilia
– Flagella

51

What are the forms and functions of the internal structures of the eukaryotic cell.

Organelles
– Nucleus and nucleolus
– Endoplasmic reticulum
– Golgi complex
– Mitochondria and chloroplasts
– Ribosomes
– Cytoskeleton((microtubules(and(microfilaments)

52

What are structures shared by prokaryotes and eukaryotes.

Nucleic Acids, Cell membrane, Cytoplasms, and Ribosomes

53

Know the basic information about fungi

Morphology–2 forms YEAST (single cells) or MOLD (filamentous growth).
• Nutritional Mode/Distribution –(heterotrophic,(majority saprobic, a few are parasitic (but none are obligate) widespread
• Reproduction–primarily through spores, asexually or sexually
• Major Groups four main phyla based on sexual spore type
• Importance–essential decomposers

54

Know the basic information about algae

Morphology–unicellular, colonial, filamentous or larger forms such as seaweeds
• Nutritional Mode/Distribution–photosynthetic, freshwater and marine water habitats main component of plankton
• Importance–provide the basis of the food
web in most aquatic habitats

55

Know the basic information about protozoa,

• Morphology–most are unicellular, lack a cell wall, cytoplasm divided into ectoplas and endoplasm, many convert to a resistant
dormant stage called a cyst
• Nutritoonal Mode/Distribution–heterotrophic,free-living in moist habitats water, soil, feed by engulfing other organisms
• Reproduction–asexual mitosis, sexual conjugation of gametes
• Major Groups–four groups based on locomotion mode and type of reproduction
• Importance food webs and decomposing organic material

56

Know the basic information about helminthes.

Morphology–animal cells,multicellular, individual organs
• Reproduction – majority reproduce sexually,
sexes may be hermaphroditic
• Epidemiology – developing countries in the
tropics hardest hit with infections transmitted by
ingestion, vectors, and direct contact with
infectious stages, billions of humans affected

57

In what century were viruses finally directly studied?

the 20th century

58

What exactly are viruses?

Viruses are infectious particles. They are not cells and lack organelles, locomotion, are Complex molecules and Can be crystalline

59

What structures are found in an enveloped virus?

nucleic acid core, capsid and envelope/spikes

60

What structures are found in a naked virus?

nucleic acid core and capsid

61

How are viruses classified?

By DNA viruses and RNA viruses. These are further subdivided into families, depending on shape and size of capsid, presence or absence of envelope, nature of nucleic acid(single or double stranded),
antigenic similarities, and host cells.

62

What are the steps in animal virus multiplication.

1) Adsorption
2) Penetration
3) Uncoated
4) Synthesis
5) Assembly
6) Release

63

Describe Adsorption:

The virus attaches to its host cell by specific binding of its spikes to cell receptors

64

Describe Penetration:

The virus is engulfed into a vesicle and its envelope is "uncoated"

65

Describe Uncoated:

freeing the viral RNA into the cell cytoplasm

66

Describe Synthesis:

Replication and Protein Production under the control of viral genes, the cell synthesizes the basic components of new viruses RNA molecule, capsomers, spikes.

67

Describe Assembly:

Viral Spikes proteins are insterted into the cell membrane for the viral envelope; nucleocapsid is formed from RNA and capsomers

68

Describe Release:

Enveloped viruses bud off of the membrane, carrying away envelop with the spike. This complete virus or virion is ready to infect another cell.

69

What are examples of persistent viral infections.

measles, herpes zoster, and herpes simplex

70

What is an oncogenic virus?

Viruses that alter host genetic material, and may cause cancer

71

What are the major differences between animal virus replication and bacterial virus replication?

Whole cell engulfed versus injection of DNA and Lysis versus budding

72

What is needed to grow a virus?

an intracellular environment. MUST HAVE CELLS!

73

What is the name of a viral “clear spot” on growth media?

Plaque

74

What are some examples of cytopathic effects (CPE).

Inclusion body, cells fusing together to make one giant cell, and multiple nuclei's in one giant cell.

75

What types of diseases are caused by prions?

Mad Cow Disease and Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease

76

What are satellite viruses?

Defective viruses that depend on other viruses for
replication

77

What is delta agent?

naked RNA needs hepatitis B virus and together they worsen the symptoms

78

What are viroids?

Naked RNA strands pathogenic to tomatoes, potatoes, cucumbers, citrus trees, and chysanthemums.