Central Nervous System: The Brain and Spinal Cord Flashcards


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1

Major brain regions

telencephalon, diencephalon, metencephalon, myelencephalon

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telencephalon

cerebrum - higher mental activities, processes somatic sensory and motor info, L/R hemispheres, white mater
cerebral cortex - surface layer of gray matter, gyri, sulci, fissures increase surface area
basal nuclei - subconscious activities (has gray mater)

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diencephalon

part of the forebrain specializes to form hypothalamus, thalamus, epithalamus, and retina of eye

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thalamus

replays and processes sensory information (not smell)
filters ascending sensory info for primary sensory cortex
mediates sensation, some motor activities, cortical arousal

5

hypothalamus

- below thalamus
- mediates perception of pleasure, fear, and rage
- regulation of body temp, BP, digestive tract motility, rate and depth of breathing, other visceral activities
- drives food intake, thirst

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mamillary bodies

relay station for olfactory info
control reflex eating movements

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pituitary gland

major endocrine gland, controls all others
connected to hypothalamus via infundibulum
interfaces nervous and endocrine systems bc controlled by hypothalamus

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mesencephalon (brain stem)

midbrain; processing of visual and auditory data; generation of reflexive somatic motor responses; maintenance of consciousness
2 basic divisions - tectum, tegmentum
cranial nerve nuclei III, IV

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corpora quadrigemina (tectum)

mesencephalon
process of visual and auditory sensations
superior colliculi (visual reflex)
inferior colliculi (auditory reflex)

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substantia nigra (tegmentum)

mesenchepalon
-neurons inhibit activity of cerebral nuclei by releasing dopamine
-if damaged, results in less dopamine released and muscle tone increases: muscle rigidity, difficulty initiating movements = PARKINSON'S DISEASE

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metencephalon (brain stem)

pons - replays sensory info to cerebellum and thalamus; subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers
- contains nuclei of the reticular formation; nuclei and tracts pass through to the cerebellum (motor and somatosensory info); nuclei and tracts to other portions of the CNS (pass through)
cranial nerves: V, VI, VII, VIII

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myelencephalon (brain stem)

medulla oblongata: relays sensory information to thalamus and to other portions of the brain stem; autonomic centers for regulation of visceral function (cardiovascular, respiratory, and digestive system activities)

cranial nerves - IX, X, XI, XII

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cerebellum

"little brain"; coordinates complex somatic motor patterns; adjusts output of other somatic motor centers in brain and spinal cord; when learning new complex movements (ride a bike, tie shoe) cerebellum activity is high, once it becomes automatic cerebellum no longer involved

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spinal cord

- central cavity surrounded by a gray mater core
- external to which is white mater composed of myelinated fiber tracts

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brain

- more gray area than spinal cord
- cerebellum has gray mater in nuclei
- cerebrum has nuclei and additional gray mater in cortex

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nucleus

collection of neuron cell bodies in CNS

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tract

collection of axon i the CNS

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ganglia

collection of neuron cell bodies in PNS

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nerve

collection of axons in the PNS
- cranial nerves
- spinal nerves

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olfactory (I) nerve

function - purely sensory; smell
testing - person asked to sniff aromatic substances

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optic (II) nerve

function - sensory; vision
testing - vision and visual field determined w/eye chart and by testing point at which person first sees object moving into visual field

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oculomotor (III) nerve

function - motor; muscle that direct eyeball, eyelid, lens shape
testing - pupils examined for size, shape, and equality; pupillary reflex tested; convergence and ability to follow object

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trochlear (IV) nerve

function - motor; moves eyeball
testing - tested in common with cranial nerve III

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trigeminal nerve (V)

function - mixed; sensory nerve of face; mandibular division contain motor fibers that innervate muscle of mastication and muscle of floor of mouth
testing - sensations of pain, touch, and temp tested with pin and hot/cold objects; clench teeth, open mouth, move jaw side-to-side

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abducens nerve (VI)

function - carries somatic motor fibers to lateral rectus muscle that moves eyeball
testing - with cranial nerve III

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facial nerve (VII)

function - mixed; facial expression, sensory fibers from taste receptors
testing - anterior 2/3 tongue tested for ability to taste; symmetry of face; close eyes, smile, whistle; ammonia fumes

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vestibulocochlear (VIII)

function - sensory; sense of equilibrium; impulses associated with hearing from cochlea
testing - hearing checked by air and bone conduction

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glossopharyngeal

functions - mixed; pharyngeal nerves, salivary glands
testing - tongue depressor for position of uvula; gag and swallowing reflexes checked; speak and cough; posterior tongue taste

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vagus, accessory, hypoglossal

function - mixed