Chapter 04 - Cells, Tissue & Organs

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1

morph/o

form

Ex. polymorphous
having many forms

2

cyt/o, -cyte

cell

Ex. cytologist
one who studies cells

3

nucle/o

nucleus

Ex. muclear
pertaining to a nucleus

4

kary/o

nucleus

Ex. karyotype
picture of cell's chromosomes organized according to size

5

hist/o, histi/o

tissue

Ex. histocompatibility
tissue similarity that permits transplantation

6

fibr/o

fiber

Ex. fibrosis
abnormal formation of fibrous tissue

7

reticul/o

network

Ex. Reticulum
a network

8

aden/o

gland

Ex. adenoma
tumor (-oma) of a gland

9

papill/o

nipple

Ex. papilla
projection that resembles a nipple

10

myx/o

mucus

Ex. myxadenitis
inflamation (-itis) of mucus secreting gland

11

muc/o

mucus, mucous membrane

Ex. mucorrhea
increased flow (-rhea) of mucus

12

somat/o, -some

body, small body

Ex. Chromosome
small body that takes up color

13

blast/o, -blast

immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell

Ex. histioblast
a tissue-forming cell

14

gen

origin, formation

Ex. Karyogenesis
formation of a nucleus

15

phag/o

eat, ingest

Ex. autophagy
self-destruction of a cell's organelles

16

phil

attract, absorb

Ex. basophilic
attracting basic stain

17

plas

formation, molding, development

Ex. hyperplasia
overdevelopment of an organ or tissue

18

trop

act on, affect

Ex. chronotropic
affecting rate or timing (chron/o)

19

troph/o

feeding, growth, nourishment

Ex. atrophy
tissue wasting

20

hydr/o

water, fluid

Ex. hydration
addition of water; relative amount of water present

21

gluc/o

glucose

Ex. glucogenesis
production of glucose

22

glyc/o

sugar, glucose

Ex. normoglycemia
normal blood sugar level

23

sacchar/o

sugar

Ex. polysaccharide
compound containing many simple sugars

24

amyl/o

starch

Ex. amyloid
resembling starch

25

lip/o

lipid, fat

Ex. lipophilic
attracting or absorbing lipid

26

adip/o

fat

Ex. adiposuria
presence of fat in the urine (ur/o)

27

steat/o

fatty

Ex. steatorrhea
discharge (-rhea) of fatty stools

28

prote/o

protein

Ex. protease
enzyme that digests protein

29

-ase

enzyme

Ex. lipase
enzyme that digests fat (lipid)

30

-ose

sugar

Ex. lactose
milk sugar

31

ATP

The energy compound of the cell; stores energy needed for cell activities. ATP stands for adenosine triphosphate

32

carbohydrate

The category of organic compounds that includes sugars and starches

33

cell

The basic structural and functional unit of the living organism; a microscopic unit that combines with other cells to form tissues (root cyt/o)

34

chromosome

A threadlike body in a cell's nucleus that contains genetic information

35

cytology

Study of cells

36

cytoplasm

The fluid that fills a cell and holds the organelles

37

DNA

The genetic compound of the cell; makes up the genes. DNA stands for deoxyribonucleic acid.

38

Enzyme

An organic substance that speeds the rate of metabolic reactions

39

gene

A hereditary unit composed of DNA and combined with other genes to form the chromosomes

40

glucose

A simple sugar that circulates in the blood; the main energy source for metabolism (roots: gluc/o, glyc/o)

41

histology

Study of tissues

4 types
Epithelial
Connective
Muscle
Nervous

42

homeostasis

A steady state; a condition of internal stability and constancy

43

lipid

A category of organic compounds that includes fats (root lip/o)

44

metabolism

The sum of all the physical and chemical reactions that occur within an organism

45

mitosis

Cell division

46

mucus

A thick fluid secreted by cells in membranes and glands that lubricates and protects tissues (roots: muc/o, myx/o); the adjective is mucous.

47

nucleus

The cell's control center; directs all cell activities based on the information contained in its chromosomes (roots nucle/o, kary/o)