Chapter 03 Prefixes

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1

prim/i-

first

Ex. primary
first

2

mon/o-

one

Ex. monocular
having one eyepiece or affecting one eye

3

uni-

one

Ex. unite
form into one part

4

hemi-

half, one side

Ex. hemisphere
one half of a rounded structure

5

semi-

half, partial

Ex. semipermeable
partially permeable (capable of being permeable

6

bi-

two, twice

Ex. binary
made up of two parts

7

di-

two, twice

Ex. diatomic
having two atoms

8

dipl/o-

double

Ex. diplococci
round bacteria (cocci) that grow in a group or two

9

tri-

three

Ex. tricuspid
having three points or cusps

10

quadr/i-

four

Ex. quadruplet
one of four babies born together

11

tetra-

four

Ex. tetralogy
a group of four

12

multi-

many

Ex. multicellular
consisting of many cells

13

poly-

many, much

Ex. polymorphous
having many forms (morph/o)

14

cyan/o-

blue

Ex. cyanosis
bluish discoloration of the skin due lack of oxygen

15

erythr/o-

red

Ex. erythrocyte
red blood cell (cyte)

16

leuk/o-

white, cololess

Ex. leukemia
cancer of white blood cells

17

melan/o-

black, dark

Ex. melanin
the dark pigment that colors the hair and skin

18

xanth/o-

yellow

Ex. xanthoma
yellow growth (-oma) on the skin

19

a-, an-

not without, lack of, absence

Ex. anhydrous
lacking water (hydr/o

20

anti-

against

Ex. antiseptic
agent used to prevent infection

21

contra-

against, opposite, opposed

Ex. contraindicated
against recommendations, not advisable

22

de-

down, without, removal, loss

Ex. decalcify
remove calcium (calc/i) from

23

dis-

absence, removal, separation

Ex. dissect
to separate tissues for anatomical study

24

in-, im-, (used before b, m, p)

not

Ex. incontinent
not able to contain or control discharge or excretions

25

non-

not

Ex. noncontributory
not significant, not adding information to a medical diagnosis

26

un-

not

Ex. uncoordinated
not working together, not coordinated

27

ab-

away from

Ex. abduct
move away from the midline

28

ad-

toward, near

Ex. adduct
move toward the midline

29

dia-

through

Ex. diarrhea
frequent discharge of fluid fecal matter

30

per

through

Ex. percutaneous
through the skin

31

trans-

through

Ex. transected
cut (sectioned) through or across

32

hyper-

over, excess, abnormally high, increased

Ex. hyperthermia
high body temperature

33

hypo-

under, below, abnormally low, decreased

Ex. hyposecretion
under production of secretion

34

olig/o-

few, scanty

Ex. oligospermia
abnormally low sperm count in semen

35

pan-

all

Ex. pandemic
disease affecting an entire population

36

super-

above, excess

Ex. supernumerary
in excess number

37

equi-

equal, same

Ex. equilibrium
state of balance, state in which conditions remain the same

38

eu-

true, good, easy, normal

Ex. euthanasia
easy or painless death (thanat/o)

39

hetero-

other, different, unequal

Ex. heterogeneous
composed of different materials, not uniform

40

homo-, homeo-

same, unchanging

Ex. homograft
tissue transplanted to another of the same species

41

iso-

equal, same

Ex. isocellular
composed of similar cells

42

macro-

large, abnormally large

Ex. macroscopic
large enough to be seen without a microscope

43

mega-, megalo-

large, abnormally large

Ex. megacolon
enlargement of the colon

44

micro-

small

Ex. microcyte
very small cell (-cyte)

45

neo-

new

Ex. neonate
a newborn infant

46

normo-

normal

Ex. normovolemia
normal blood volume

47

ortho-

straight, correct, upright

Ex. orthodontics
branch of dentistry concerned with correction and staightening of the teeth (odont/o)

48

poikilo-

varied, irregular

Ex. poikilothermic
having variable body temperature (therm/o)

49

pseudo-

false

Ex. pseudoplegia
false paralysis (-plegia)

50

re-

again, back

Ex. reflux
backward flow

51

ante-

before

Ex. antenatal
before birth (nat/i)

52

pre-

before, in front of

Ex. premature
occurring before the proper time

53

pro-

before, in front of

Ex. prodrome
symptom that precedes a disease

54

post-

after, behind

Ex. postnatal
behind the nose (nas/o)

55

dextr/o-

right

Ex. dextrogastria
displacement of the stomach (gastr/o) to the right

56

sinistr/o-

left

Ex. sinistromanual
left-handed

57

ec-, ecto-

out, outside

Ex. ectopic
out of normal position

58

ex/o-

away from, outside

excise
to cut out

59

end/o-

in, within

Ex. endoderm
inner layer of a developing embryo

60

mes/o-

middle

Ex. mesencephalon
middle portion of the brain (encephalon), midbrain

61

syn-, sym- (used before b, m, p)

together

Ex. synapse
a junction between two nerves

62

tel/e-, tel/o-

end

Ex. telophase
the last stage of cell division (mitosis)

63

circum-

around

Ex. circumoral
around the mouth

64

peri-

around

Ex. periorbital
around the orbit (eye socket)

65

intra-

in, within

Ex. intravascular
within a vessel (vascul/o)

66

epi-

on, over

Ex. epithelial
referring to epithelium, tissue that covers surfaces

67

extra-

outside

Ex. extrathoracic
outside the thorax

68

sub-

below, under

Ex. sublingual
under the tongue (lingu/o)

69

inter-

between

Ex. intercostal
between the ribs (cost/o)

70

juxta-

near, beside

Ex. juxtaposition
a location near or beside another structure

71

para-

near, beside

Ex. parasagittal
near or beside a sagittal plane

72

retro-

behind, backward

Ex. retrouterine
behind the uterus

73

supra-

above

Ex. suprapatellar
above the patella (kneecap)

74

infra-

below

Ex. Infrascapular
below the scapula (shoulder blade)

75

dys-

bad: painful: difficult: abnormal

dysfunction
difficult or abnormal function

76

eu-

good, true

Ex. Euphoria
exaggerated feelings of well-being

77

brady-

slow

Ex. bradypnea
slow breathing (-pnea) rate

78

dys-

abnormal, painful, difficult

Ex. dysplasia
abnormal development (plas) of tissue

79

mal-

bad, poor

Ex. malabsorption
poor absorption of nutrients

80

pachy-

thick

Ex. pachycephaly
abnormal thickness of the skull

81

tachy-

rapid

Ex. tachycardia
rapid heart (cardi/o) rate

82

xero-

dry

Ex. xeroderma
dryness of the skin

83

staphyl/o-

grape-like cluster

Ex. staphylococcus
a round bacterium that forms clusters

84

strept/o-

twisted chain

Ex. a rod-shaped bacterium that forms chains

85

-algia, -algesis

pain

Ex. neuralgia
pain in a nerve (neur/o)

86

-cele

hernia, localized dilation

Ex. gastrocele
hernia of the stomach (gastr/o)

87

-clasis, -clasia

breaking

Ex. karyoclasis
Breaking of nucleus (kary)

88

-itis

inflammation

Ex. cystitis
inflammation of the urinary bladder (cyst/o)\

89

-megaly

enlargement

Ex. hepatomegaly
enlargement of the liver (hepat/o)

90

-odynia

pain

Ex. urodynia
pain on urination (ur/o)

91

-oma

tumor

Ex. Lipoma
tumor of a fat cell

92

-pathy

any disease of

Ex. nephropathy
any disease of the kidney (nephr/o)

93

-rhage, -rhagia

bursting forth, profuse flow

Ex. hemorrhage
profuse flow of blood
+
-rhea +
flow, discharge

Ex. pyorrhea
discharge of pus

94

-rhexis

rupture

Ex. amniorrhexis
rupture of the amniotic sac (bag of water)

95

-schisis

fissure, splitting

Ex. retinoschisis
splitting of the retina of the eye

96

-dilation, -dilatation

expansion, widening

Ex. vasodilation
widening of blood vessels (vas/o)

97

-ectasia, -ectasis

dilation, dilatation, distension

Ex. gastrectasia
dilatation of the stomach (gastr/o)

98

- edema

accumulation of fluid, swelling

Ex. cephaledema
swelling of the head

99

-lysis

separation, loosening, dissolving, destruction

Ex. dialysis
separation of substances by passage through (dia-) a membrane

100

-malacia

softening

Ex. craniomalacia
softening of the skull (crani/o)

101

-necrosis

death of tissue

Ex. osteonecrosis
death of bone (oste/o) tissue

102

-ptosis

dropping downward, displacement, prolapse

Ex. blepharoptosis
dropping or drooping of the eyelid (blephar/o)

103

-sclerosis

hardening

Ex. phlebosclerosis
hardening of veins (phleb/o)

104

-spasm

sudden contraction, cramp

Ex. arteriospasm
spasm of an artery

105

-stasis

suppression, stoppage

Ex. menostasis
suppression of menstrual (men/o) flow

106

-stenosis

narrowing, constriction

Ex. bronchostenosis
narrowing of a bronchus

107

-toxin

poison

Ex. nephrotoxin
substance poisonous of harmful for the kidneys

108

anti-

against

Ex. antiemetic
drug that prevent vomiting

109

contra-

against, opposite, opposed

Ex. contraceptive
preventing conception

110

counter-

against, opposed

Ex. countertransport
movement in an oppostire direction