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1

phob

fear

2

ego

self

egotism
exaggerated self importance

3

troph

feed, grow

dystrophy
changes due to lack of nutrients

4

esthesi/o

sensation

anesthesia
lack of sensation

5

sten/o

narrowing

stenosis
narrowing of canal

6

physi/o

nature

7

ped/o

child

8

psych/o

mind

9

orth/o

straight

10

pod/o

foot

11

neur/o

nerve

12

cardi/o

heart

13

derm/a

skin

14

opt/o

eye

15

techn/o

art or skill

16

cut/i

skin

17

metr/o

measure

18

ven/o

vein

19

leps/i

seize

20

ur/o

urine

21

hydr/o

water

22

calc/i

calcium

23

thanat/o

death

24

odont/o

teeth

25

therm/o

temperature

26

plegia

paralysis

27

nat/i

birth

28

nas/o

nose

29

gastr/o

stomach

30

morph/o

form

Ex. polymorphous
having many forms

31

cyt/o

cell

Ex. cytologist
one who studies cells

32

nucle/o

nucleus

Ex. nuclear
pertaining to a nucleus

33

kary/o

nucleus

Ex. karyotype
picture of cell's chromosomes organized according to size

34

hist/o, histi/o

tissue

Ex. histocompatibility
tissue similarity that permits transplantation

35

fibr/o

fiber

Ex. fibrosis
abnormal formation of fibrous tissue

36

reticul/o

network

Ex. Reticulum
a network

37

aden/o

gland

Ex. adenoma
tumor (-oma) of a gland

38

papill/o

nipple

Ex. papilla
projection that resembles a nipple

39

myx/o

mucus

Ex. myxadenitis
inflamation (-itis) of mucus secreting gland

40

muc/o

mucus, mucous membrane

Ex. mucorrhea
increased flow (-rhea) of mucus

41

somat/o

body, small body

Ex. Chromosome
small body that takes up color

42

blast/o

immature cell, productive cell, embryonic cell

Ex. histioblast
a tissue-forming cell

43

gen

origin, formation

Ex. Karyogenesis
formation of a nucleus

44

phag/o

eat, ingest

Ex. autophagy
self-destruction of a cell's organelles

45

phil

attract, absorb

Ex. basophilic
attracting basic stain

46

plas

formation, molding, development

Ex. hyperplasia
overdevelopment of an organ or tissue

47

trop

act on, affect

Ex. chronotropic
affecting rate or timing (chron/o)

48

troph/o

feeding, growth, nourishment

Ex. atrophy
tissue wasting

49

hydr/o

water, fluid

Ex. hydration
addition of water; relative amount of water present

50

gluc/o

glucose

Ex. glucogenesis
production of glucose

51

glyc/o

sugar, glucose

Ex. normoglycemia
normal blood sugar level

52

sacchar/o

sugar

Ex. polysaccharide
compound containing many simple sugars

53

amyl/o

starch

Ex. amyloid
resembling starch

54

lip/o

lipid, fat

Ex. lipophilic
attracting or absorbing lipid

55

adip/o

fat

Ex. adiposuria
presence of fat in the urine (ur/o)

56

steat/o

fatty

Ex. steatorrhea
discharge (-rhea) of fatty stools

57

prote/o

protein

Ex. protease
enzyme that digests protein

58

cephal/o

head

Ex. megacephaly
abnormal largeness of the head

59

cervic/o

neck

Ex. cervicofacial
pertaining to the neck and face

60

thorac/o

chest, thorax

Ex. thoracotomy
incision (-tomy) into the chest

61

abdomin/o

abdomen

Ex. intra-abdominal
within the abdomen

62

celi/o

abdomen

Ex. celiocentesis
surgical puncture (centesis) of the abdomen

63

lapar/o

abdominal wall

Ex. laparoscope
instrument (-scope) for viewing the peritoneal cavity through the abdominal wall

64

lumb/o

lumbar region, lower back

Ex. thoracolumbar
pertaining to the chest and lumbar region

65

periton, peritone/o

peritoneum

Ex. peritoneal+
pertaining to the peritoneum

66

acro

extremity, end

Ex. acrocyanosis
bluish discoloration of the extremities

67

brachi/o

arm

Ex. antebrachium
forearm

68

dactyl/o

finger, toe

Ex. polydactyly
having more than the normal number of fingers or toes

69

ped/o

foot

Ex. pedometer
instrument that measures footsteps

70

pod/o

foot

Ex. podiatric
pertaining to study and treatment of the foot

71

chem/o

chemical

Ex. Chemotherapy
chemical therapy

72

gnath/o

jaw

Ex. gnathic
pertaining to the jaw

73

pneum/o, pneumon/o

lungs, air, gas

Ex. pneumonia
inflammation of the lungs

74

rhin/o

nose

Ex. rhinoplasty
plastic repair of the nose

75

derm/o, dermat/o

skin

76

Ex. dermabrasion

surgical procedure used to resurface the skin and remove imperfections

77

kerat/o

keratin, horny layer of the skin

Ex. keratinous
containing keratin; horny

78

melan/o

dark, black, melanin

Ex. melanosome
a small cellular body that produces melanin

79

hidr/o

sweat, perspiration

Ex. anhidrosis
absence of sweating

80

seb/o

sebum, sebaceous gland

Ex. seborrhea
excess flow of sebum

81

trich/o

hair

Ex. trichomycosis
fungal infection of the hair

82

onych/o

nail

Ex. onychia
inflammation of the nail and nail bed

83

oste/o

bone

Ex. osteopenia
deficiency of bone tissue

84

myel/o

bone marrow; also, spinal cord myeloid pertaining to or resembling bone marrow

85

chondr/o

cartilage

Ex. chondroblast
a cartilage-forming cell

86

arthr/o

joint

Ex. arthrosis
joint; condition affecting a joint

87

synov/i

synovial fluid, joint, or membrane

Ex. asynovia
lack of synovial fluid

88

burs/o

bursa

Ex. peribursal
around a bursa

89

crani/o

skull, cranium

Ex. Craniometry
measurement of the cranium

90

spondyl/o

vertebra

Ex. spondylolysis
destruction and separation of a vertebra

91

vertebr/o

vertebra, spinal column

Ex. paravertebral
near the vertebrae or spinal column

92

rachi/o

spine

Ex. rachischisis
fissure (-schisis) of the spine; spina bifida

93

cost/o

rib

Ex. costochondral
pertaining to a rib and its cartilage

94

sacr/o

sacrum

Ex. presacral
in front of the sacrum

95

coccy, coccyg/o

coccyx

Ex. Coccygeal
pertaining to the coccyx

96

pelvi/o

pelvis

Ex. pelviscope
endoscope for examining the pelvis

97

ili/o

ilium

Ex. iliopelvic
pertaining to the ilium and pelvis

98

my/o

muscle

Ex. Myositis
inflammation of muscle

99

muscul/o

muscle

Ex. musculature
muscle arrangement in a part or the whole body

100

in/o

fiber

Ex. inotropic
acting on (muscle) fibers

101

fasci/o

fascia

Ex. fasciodesis
binding (suture) of a fascia to a tendon or other fascia

102

ten/o, tendin/o

tendon

Ex. tenostosis
ossification of a tendon

103

ton/o

tone

Ex. cardiotonic
having a strengthening action on the heart

104

erg/o

work

Ex. ergonomics
study of the efficient use of energy during work

105

kin/o-, kine, kinesi/o, kinet/o

movement

Ex. Kinesis
movement (adjective: kinetic)

106

neur/o, neur/I

nervous system, nervous tissue, nerve

Ex. Neurotrophin
factor that promotes nerve growth (troph/o = nourish)

107

gli/o

neuroglia

Ex. glial
pertaining to neuroglia

108

gangli/o, ganglion/o

ganglion

Ex. ganglioma
tumor of a ganglion

109

mening/o, meninge/o

meninges

Ex. meningocele
hernia of the meninges

110

myel/o

spinal cord (also bone marrow)

Ex. hematomyelia
hemorrhage into the spinal cord

111

radicul/o

spinal nerve root

Ex. radiculopathy
any disease of a spinal nerve root

112

encephal/o

brain

Ex. anencephaly
absence of a brain

113

cerebr/o

cerebrum (loosely, brain)

Ex. infracerebral
below the cerebrum

114

cortic/o

cerebral cortex, outer portion

Ex. corticospinal
pertaining to the cerebral cortex and spinal cord

115

cerebell/o

cerebellum

Ex. supracerebellar
above the cerebellum

116

thalam/o

thalamus

Ex. thalamotomy
incision of the thalamus

117

ventricul/o

cavity, ventricle

Ex. intraventricular
within a ventricle

118

medull/o

medulla oblongata (also spinal cord)

Ex. medullary
pertaining to the medulla

119

psych/o

mind

Ex. psychogenic
originating in the mind

120

narc/o

stupor, unconsciousness

Ex. narcosis
state of stupor induced by drugs

121

somn/o, somn/i

sleep

Ex. Somnolence
sleepiness

122

audi/o

hearing

Ex. Audiology
the study of hearing

123

acous, acus, cus

sound, hearing

Ex. Acoustic
pertaining to sound or hearing

124

ot/o

ear

Ex. Ototoxic
poisonous or harmful to the ear

125

myring/o

tympanic membrane

Ex. Myringotome
knife used for surgery on the eardrum

126

tympan/o

tympanic cavity (middle ear), tympanic membrane

Ex. Tympanometry
measurement of transmission through the tympanic membrane and middle ear

127

salping/o

tube, auditory tube

Ex. Salpingoscopy
endoscopic examination of the auditory tube

128

staped/o, stapedi/o

stapes

Ex. Stapedoplasty
plastic repair of the stapes

129

labyrinth/o

labyrinth (inner ear)

Ex. Labyrinthitis
inflammation of the inner ear (labyrinth)

130

vestibul/o

vestibule, vestibular apparatus

Ex. Vestibulotomy
incision of the vestibule of the inner ear

131

cochle/o

cochlea of inner ear

Ex. Retrocochlear
behind the cochlea

132

blephar/o

eyelid

Ex. Symblepharon
adhesion of the eyelid to the eyeball (sym- means together)

133

palpebr/o

eyelid

Ex. Palpebral
pertaining to an eyelid

134

dacry/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

Ex. Dacryorrhea
discharge from the lacrimal apparatus

135

dacryocyst/o

lacrimal sac

Ex. Dacryocystocele
hernia of the lacrimal sac

136

lacrim/o

tear, lacrimal apparatus

Ex. Lacrimation
secretion of tears

137

kerat/o

cornea

Ex. Keratoplasty
plastic repair of the cornea; corneal transplant

138

lent/I

lens

Ex. Lentiform
resembling a lens

139

phak/o, phac/o

lens

Ex. Aphakia
absence of a lens

140

uve/o

uvea

Ex. Uveal
pertaining to the uvea

141

chori/o, choroid/o

choroid

Ex. Subchoroidal
below the choroid

142

cycl/o

ciliary body, ciliary muscle

Ex. Cycloplegic
pertaining to or causing paralysis of the ciliary muscle

143

ir, irit/o, irid/o

iris

Ex. Iridoschisis
splitting of the iris

144

pupill/o

pupil

Ex. Iridopupillary
pertaining to the iris and the pupil

145

retin/o

retina

Ex. Retinoscopy
examination of the retina

146

opt/o

eye, vision

Ex. Optometer
instrument for measuring the refractive power of the eye

147

ocul/o

eye

Ex. Sinistrocular
pertaining to the left eye

148

ophthalm/o

eye

Ex. Exophthalmos
protrusion of the eyeball

149

scler/o

sclera

Ex. Episcleritis
inflammation of the tissue on the surface of the sclera

150

corne/o

cornea

Ex. Circumcorneal
around the cornea

151

cardi/o

heart

Ex. Cardiomyopathy
any disease of the heart muscle

152

atri/o

atrium

Ex. Atriotomy
surgical incision of an atrium

153

ventricul/o

cavity, ventricle

Ex. Supraventricular
above a ventricle

154

valv/o, valvul/o

valve

Ex. Valvulotome
instrument for incising a valve

155

angi/o

vessel

Ex. Angiography
x-ray imaging of a vessel

156

vas/o, vascul/o

vessel, duct

Ex. Vasospasm
sudden contraction of a blood vessel

157

arter/o, arteri/o

artery

Ex. Endarterial
within an artery

158

arteriol/o

arteriole

Ex. Arteriolar
pertaining to an arteriole

159

aort/o

aorta

Ex. Aortoptosis
downward displacement of an aorta

160

ven/o, ven/i

vein

Ex. Venous
pertaining to a vein

161

phleb/o

vein

Ex. Phlebotomy
incision of a vein to withdraw blood

162

myel/o

bone marrow

Ex. Myelogenous
originating in bone marrow

163

hem/o, hemat/o

blood

Ex. Hemopathy
any disorder of blood

164

erythr/o, erythrocyt/o

red blood cell

Ex. Erythroblast
immature red blood cell

165

leuk/o, leukocyt/o

white blood cell

Ex. Leukocytosis
increase in the number of leukocytes in the blood

166

lymph/o, lymphocyt/o

lymphocyte

Ex. Lymphocytic
pertaining to lymphocytes

167

thromb/o

blood clot

Ex. Thrombolytic
pertaining to lymphocytes

168

thrombocyt/o

platelet, thrombocyte

Ex. Thrombocytopoiesis
formation of platelets

169

immun/o

immunity, immune system

Ex. Immunization
production of immunity

170

azot/o

nitrogenous compounds

Ex. Azoturia
increased nitrogenous compounds in the urine (-uria)

171

calc/I

calcium (symbol Ca)

Ex. Calcification
deposition of calcium salts

172

ferr/o, ferr/I

iron (symbol Fe)

Ex. Ferrous
pertaining to or containing iron

173

sider/o

iron

Ex. Sideroderma
deposition of iron into the skin

174

Kali

potassium (symbol K)

Ex. Hyperkalemia
excess of potassium in the blood

175

Natri

sodium (symbol Na)

Ex. Natriuresis
excretion of sodium in the urine (ur/o)

176

ox/y

oxygen (symbol O)

Ex. Hypoxia
deficiency of oxygen in the tissues

177

nas/o

nose

Ex. Intranasal
within the nose

178

rhin/o

nose

Ex. Rhinoplasty
plastic repair of the nose

179

pharyng/o

pharynx

Ex. Pharyngeal
pertaining to the pharynx

180

laryng/o

larynx

Ex. Laryngospasm
spasm (sudden contraction) of the larynx

181

trache/o

trachea

Ex. Tracheotome
instrument used to incise the trachea

182

bronch/o, bronch/i

bronchus

Ex. Bronchogenic
originating in a bronchus

183

bronchiol

bronchiole

Ex. Bronchiolectasis
dilatation of the bronchioles

184

phren/o

diaphragm

Ex. Phrenic
pertaining to the diaphragm

185

phrenic/o

phrenic nerve

Ex. Phrenicectomy
partial excision of the phrenic nerve

186

pleur/o

pleura

Ex. Pleurodesis
fusion of the pleura

187

pulm/o, pulmon/o

lung

Ex. Extrapulmonary
outside the lungs

188

pneumon/o

lung

Ex. Pneumonitis
inflammation of the lung; pneumonia

189

pneum/o, pneumat/o

air, gas; also respiration, lung

Ex. Pneumothorax
presence of air in the thorax (pleural space)

190

spir/o

breathing

Ex. Spirometer
instrument for measuring breathing volumes

191

ren/o

kidney

Ex. Suprarenal
above the kidney

192

nephr/o

kidney

Ex. Nephrosis
any noninflammatory disease condition of the kidney

193

glomerul/o

glomerulus

Ex. Juxtaglomerular
near the glomerulus

194

pyel/o

renal pelvis

Ex. Pyelectasis
dilatation of the renal pelvis

195

cali/o-, calic/o-

calyx

Ex. Caliceal
pertaining to a renal calyx (note addition of e); also spelled calyceal

196

ur/o

urine, urinary tract

Ex. Urosepsis
generalized infection that originates in the urinary tract

197

urin/o

urine

Ex. Nocturia
urination during the night (noct/i)

198

ureter/o

ureter

Ex. Ureterostenosis
narrowing of the ureter

199

cyst/o

urinary bladder

Ex. Cystocele
hernia of the bladder

200

vesic/o

urinary bladder

Ex. Intravesical
within the urinary bladder

201

urethr/o

urethra

Ex. Urethrotome
instrument for incising the urethra

202

test/o

testis, testicle

Ex. Testosterone
hormone produced in the testis

203

orchi/o, orchid/o

testis

Ex. Anarchism
absence of a testis

204

osche/o

scrotum

Ex. Oscheal
pertaining to the scrotum

205

semin

semen

Ex. Inseminate
to introduce semen into a vagina

206

sperm/i, spermat/o

semen, spermatozoa

Ex. Polyspermia
secretion of excess semen

207

epididym/o

epididymis

Ex. Epididymitis
inflammation of the epididymis

208

vas/o

vas deferens, ductus deferens; also vessel

Ex. Vasostomy
surgical creation of an opening in the ductus deferens

209

vesicul/o

seminal vesicle

Ex. Vesiculogram
radiograph of a seminal vesicle

210

prostat/o

prostate

Ex. Prostatometer
instrument for measuring the prostate

211

gyn/o, gynec/o

woman

Ex. Gynecology
study of women's diseases

212

men/o, mens

month, menstruation

Ex. Premenstrual
before a menstrual periods

213

oo

ovum, egg cell

Ex. Oocyte
cell that gives rise to an ovum

214

ov/o, ovul/o

ovum, egg cell

Ex. Anovulatory
absence of egg ripening or of ovulation

215

ovari/o

ovary

Ex. Ovariopexy
surgical fixation of an ovary

216

oophor/o

ovary

Ex. Oophorectomy
excision of an ovary

217

salping/o

tube, uterine tube

Ex. Salpingoplasty
plastic repair of a uterine tube

218

uter/o

uterus

Ex. Intrauterine
within the uterus

219

metr/o, metr/i

uterus

Ex. Metrorrhea
abnormal uterine discharge

220

hyster/o

uterus

Ex. Hysterotomy
incision of the uterus

221

cervic/o

cervix, neck

Ex. Endocervical
pertaining to the lining of the cervix

222

vagin/o

vagina

Ex. Vaginometer
instrument for measuring the vagina

223

colp/o

vagina

Ex. Colpostenosis
narrowing of the vagina

224

vulv/o

vulva

Ex. Vulvar
pertaining to the vulva

225

episi/o

vulva

Ex. Episiotomy
incision of the vulva

226

perine/o

perineum

Ex. Perineal
pertaining to the perineum

227

clitor/o, clitorid/o

clitoris

Ex. Clitorectomy
excision of the clitoris

228

mamm/o

breast, mammary gland

Ex. Mammoplasty
plastic surgery of the breast

229

mast/o

breast, mammary gland

Ex. Amastia
absence of the breasts

230

amnio

amnion, amniotic sac

Ex. Diamniotic
showing two amniotic sacs

231

embry/o

embryo

Ex. Embryonic
pertaining to the embryo

232

fet/o

fetus

Ex. Fetometry
measurement of a fetus

233

toc/o

labor

Ex. Dystocia
difficult labor

234

nat/i

birth

Ex. Neonate
newborn

235

lact/o

milk

Ex. Lactose
sugar (-ose) found in milk

236

galact/o

milk

Ex. Galactogogue
agent that promotes (-agogue) the flow of milk

237

gravida

pregnant woman

Ex. Nulligravida
woman who has never (nulli-) been pregnant

238

para

woman who has given birth

Ex. Multipara
woman who has given birth two or more times

239

alg/o, algi/o, algesi/o

pain

Ex. algesia
condition of having pain

240

carcin/o

cancer, carcinoma

Ex. carsinoid
resembling cancer

241

cyst/o

filled sac or pouch, cyst, bladder

Ex. cystic
pertaining to or having cysts

242

lith

calculus, stone

Ex. lithiasis
stone formation

243

onc/o

tumor

Ex. oncogenic
causing a tumor

244

path/o

disease

Ex. pathogen
organism that produces disease

245

py

pus

Ex. pyocyst
cyst filled with pus

246

pyr/o, pyret/o

fever, fire

Ex. pyrexia
fever

247

scler/o

hard

Ex. sclerosis
hardening of tissue

248

tox/o. toxic/o

poison

Ex. endotoxin
toxin within bacterial cells

249

bacill/i, bacill/o

bacillus

Ex. bacilluria
bacilli in the urine

250

bacteri/o

bacterium

Ex. bacteriostatic
stopping (stasis) the growth of bacteria

251

myc/o

fungus, mold

Ex. mycotic
pertaining to fungus

252

vir/o

virus

Ex. viremia
presence of viruses in the blood (-emia)

253

aer/o

air, gas

Ex. aerobic
pertaining to or requiring air (oxygen)

254

bar/o

pressure

Ex. barometer
instrument used to measure pressure

255

chrom/o, chromate/o

color, stain

Ex. chromatic
having color

256

chron/0

time

Ex. chronologic
arranged according to the time of occurrence

257

cry/o

cold

Ex. cryoprobe
instrument used to apply extreme cold

258

electr/o

electricity

Ex. electrolysis
decomposition of a substance by means of electric current

259

erg/o

work

Ex. synergistic
working together with increased effect, such as certain drugs in combination

260

phon/o

sound, voice

Ex. phonograph
instrument used to reproduce sound

261

phot/o

light

Ex. photoreaction
response to light

262

radi/o

radiation, x-ray

Ex. radiology
study and use of radiation

263

son/o

sound

Ex. sonogram
record obtained by use of ultrasound

264

therm/o

heat, temperature

Ex. hypothermia
abnormally low body temperature

265

alg/o, ali/o, algesi/o

pain

Ex. algesia
sense of pain

266

chem/o

chemical

Ex. chemotherapy
treatment with drugs

267

hypn/o

sleep

Ex. hypnosis
induced state of sleep

268

narc/o

stupor

Ex. narcotic
agent that induces a state of stupor with decreased sensation

269

pharm, pharmacy/o

drug, medicine

Ex. Pharmacy
the science of preparing and dispensing drugs

270

pyr/o, pyret/o

fever

Ex. antipyretic
counteracting a fever

271

tox/o, toxic/o

poison, toxin

Ex. toxicity
state of being toxicity

272

vas/o

vessel

Ex. vasodilation
widening of a vessel