IT Capstone 2013

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created 9 years ago by sarahs89
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Identify the different types of input ports



Describe how memory manager divides up and allocates memory?

virtual, shared, paged, contiguous, non-contiguous memory and multi-programming


Building a LAN, what hardware requirements should be considered?

memory, disk drive size, processor size, category 5e cable, hub, switch bridge and routers.


What are the three key control structures in programming and what are they used for?

sequence, unconditional/conditional, looping


Explain the "scope" of a data statement

an instruction that specifies the format.


what are the implications of misidentifying a local and a global variable?

making a variable global when it should have been a local variable will keep its value stored until the end of the program.
making a variable local when it should have been a global variable will be deleted when the function ends.


explain the difference between passing a piece of data "by value" and passing a piece of data "by reference"?

"by value" calls a function or returns a value based on a number or value. "by reference" calls a function and passes a pointer to a memory location that contains the value.


building a database to track a family tree, how would you structure a database?

identify entities
select a primary key/foreign key
identify attributes
create tables/relationships


explain the difference among "select" query, "insert" query, and "update" query.

select query=selects data from a table based on the arguments in the query
insert query=inserts a single record or multiple record into a table
update=updates records in a table


what are the basic components of a database?

primary/foreign keys


what file is used on a Linux system?

ext2, ext3, ext4


what techniques can be used to install new software on fedora? when do you use each?

yum-when groups of computers have to install and dont want to manually update each
RPM redhat package management system-command line used to install, un-install, upgrade, querry and verify
tar/gz- building software from source code tarballs


Linux machine, admin wants to permit user settings and project files to be available when users log on any machine. name and describe server processor needs.

NIS, LDAP, NFS to permit exporting user home directories)


given IP with a subnetmask of identify network address, host address, number of hosts, and broadcast address. what must be done for users to communicate with the rest of the world?

network address=
host address=
number of hosts=254
broadcast address=
routing and network address translation


subnet= network address= identify the subnets, first host, last host, and the broadcast address.

subnets= and
fist host= and
last host= and
broadcast address= and


identify the address class in IPv4.

class A
first octect=1-126
class B
first octect=128-191
class C
fist octect=192-223
class D
first octect 224-239
subnet=multi cast
class E
first octect=240-255


compare and contrast major pieces of networking equipment used to construct an Ethernet network

HUB- peer-to-peer one big collision domain
SWITCH- LAN device each port is a collision domain
BRIDGE- bridges two networks
ROUTER- Network gateway device, defines each subnet


what does an access control list ACL block and why do you need one in place?

ACL blocks the source address
ACL is placed close to the source to conserve bandwidth


describe the major types of cabling used in networks and what they are used for.

10/100BaseT--twisted pair
Category 5e


what are the primary tasks of a system admin?

server management responsible for installation maintenance and upgrading servers. ensure servers are backed up and data is secure.


describe the service performed on a domain controller that would not be performed on a workgroup.

management service -allows sys admin to manage network reources
directory service- organizes and stores file sustem
DNS service- hierarchical naming conventions
ISS/Web service-allows admin to administer and maintain web presence
active directory- identifies, stores and manages access to all network components
mail-responsible for email


describe the difference between work groups and domains in the context of information security.

workgroups or peer-to-peer local users have their own profile.
client/server-local and user account access that allows limited access to resources and data to be properly secured


how do you configure an operating system to interface with a network?

making sure the network is set up properly and the network adapters have the drivers properly installed such as NIC, and setting DHCP or static for TCP/IP


what considerations should you take into account when preparing to install an operating system?

minimum CPU speed. minimum amount of memory, disk space, compatible monitor, mouse, and keyboard.


What is an operating system?
Give examples of an operating system

interface between hardware and user--runs the programs.
Ex--Windows, Linux, Mac OS


What is an MMC with reference to Microsoft Windows operating systems? Describe several snap-ins related to the MMC.

microsoft management console
some snap-in include event viewer, computer management, and shared folders


With regards to the MMC, what is the difference between "author mode" and "user
mode"? when would you choose each?

author mode--ability to change the MMC to adapt to a particular task used by sys admin to creat or change MMC task
user mode--ability to execute a task setup by some administrators used by end users to change domain passwords


What are the two ways you can create or edit a Group Policy Object (GPO)?

1--open MMC and browse Active Directory and choose GPO to edit
2--in active directory user and computers find the OU right click select properties and then group policy tab


What are some of the ways you would troubleshoot a DNS problem

nslookup in the command line
check event viewer for errors or warnings


What are the three components of a Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN)?

a host name a domain name and the root


What are the components of DNS?

domain namespace
DNS zones
DNS records


A Fedora server is storing security logs that contain a vast array of data. Design a tool chain that would contact an administrator via email in specific risk scenarios, and would otherwise provide daily updates.

create a cron job that is scheduled to check static logs


The Apache Web server on Fedora is not returning data to the outside world. What could you do to check what might be wrong?

service httpd status to verify the web server thinks its running
check the network card is up via


Which directories are most important on Linux and what do they contain?

/etc--config file
/bin--needed for boot process and to run in the system in single user mode
/home--home directories
/var--administrative files such as log files and temp files


How would you design and implement a backup and restore plan? Justify your choices.

differential backup, incremental backup, full backup, daily, weekly and monthly backups


Compare and contrast a workgroup with a domain. When would you use each of them?

peer-to peer no centralized managment or security good for home use
client/server, active directory controls access to network services, resources and management good for corprate networks


What is the difference between a System Access Control List (SACL) and a Discretionary Access Control List (DACL)?

SACL--defined by the OS and controlled administratively by policies
DACL--lists of users or groups that have been granted access to an object at the discretion of the owner


What is an information security policy?2. What best practices should be considered when designing and implementing a
security policy? Explain.

document that outlines how a network will be secured and protected from intruders malicious acts and users.
Best practice--
perform a risk assesment
determine types of users and what types of access


Explain the difference between connecting to a network using a Domain Server and one using Workgroups.

workgroup-- you only log onto the computer in the workgroup no centralized management.
domain server-- access is controlled by a domain controller using active directory


What is required for an unattended installation or a remote installation of WinXP beyond what is required for an attended installation?

you need to have the required hardware and a network boot disk.


How does a virtual private network (VPN) work and when you would want to put one into effect?

VPN is a secure way to connect a remote user to a corprate intranet.


What components should you install when setting up an Exchange Server?

active directory
domain controller
DNS Server
management shell
virtual machines/PCs


What is the purpose and function of IIS?

IIS=internet information service designed to allow the ability to host web sites and web based applications programs


You are asked to set up a peer-to-peer Windows XP LAN using four computers with a LinkSys home Internet router with five built-in Ethernet switch ports. The LinkSys router serves as the DHCP server for the entire network. Identify what logical configurations you need in order to establish and test the connectivity.

DHCP configuration--use a static route
routing between the two subnets


You have confirmed all the four computers are talking to each other, so you decide to put two of the machines on a separate subnet while still retaining communication between the two subnets. When you implement the new subnet on the two machines, only the machines on the original subnet are talking to each other. What might have gone wrong and how would you fix it?

physical connectivity--check cable, NIC, switch ports power supply
troubleshoot by using ping


Using the OSI model as a reference, describe how you would troubleshoot a connectivity problem.

start with the physical layer and check the network card, then layer 2 data link use an ARP command, network layer 3 troubleshoot IP with ICMP packets, then layer 4 transport using a packet sniffer, layer 5 session trooubleshoot the netbios over TCP/IP, then layer 6 presentation and layer 7 application. if all layers are working properly then apply patches to software or reinstall.


Explain the purpose and components of the OSI model.

Purpose--standarization in designing, developing, manufacturing, implementing and troubleshooting
Componentes--Physical, logical link, network, transport, session, presentation, and application