Articulations

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created 7 years ago by rappt2
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updated 7 years ago by rappt2
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College: Second year
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1

fibrous joint

structural classification; bones joined by fibrous tissue, no joint cavity is present; 3 types - sutures, syndesmoses, gomphoses

2

sutures

occur only between bones of the skull; the bone edges interlock and the junction is completely filled by a small amount of short CT fibers

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syndesmoses

joint held together by a ligament; fibrous tissue can vary in length, but is longer than sutures

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gomphosis

"peg in socket" fibrous joint, periodontal ligament holds tooth in socket

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cartilaginous joints

structural classification; bones are united by cartilage, lack a joint cavity and are not very movable; two types - synchondroses, symphyses

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synchondroses

bones connected by hyaline cartilage; epiphyseal plates in children

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symphyses

articular surfaces of the bones are covered w/articular (hyaline) cartilage that is fused with fibrocartilage plate (main connecting material, absorbs shock and permits limited amount of movement)

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synovial joints

bone ends/parts covered with articular cartilage and enclosed within an articular capsule lined with synovial membrane and containing synovial fluid; 6 types - plane, hinge, pivot, condyle, saddle, ball-and-socket

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origin and insertion

skeletal muscle is attached to bone or other CT structure at no fewer than two points. Origin is attached to the immovable bone, insertion is attached to the movable bone. Movement occurs when muscles contract across joints and their insertion moves toward their origin.

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skull

cranial and facial bones
fibrous: suture
synarthrotic: no movement

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temporomandibular

temporal bone and mandible
synovial:modified-hinge
Diarthrotic: gliding and uniaxial rotation; slight lateral movement, elevation, depression, protraction, retraction of mandible

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Atlanto-occipital

occipital bone of skull and atlas
synovial: condyloid
Diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension, lateral flexion, circumduction of head on neck

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Altantoaxial

atlas (C1) and axis (C2)
synovial: pivot
Diarthrotic: uniaxial, rotation of the head

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Intervertebral (1)

between adjacent vertebral bodies
Cartilaginous: symphysis
Amphiarthrotic: slight movement

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Intervertebral (2)

between articular processes
Synovial: plane
Diarthrotic: gliding

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Vertebrocostal

vertebrae (transverse processes or bodies) and ribs
Synovial: plane
Diarthrotic: gliding of ribs

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Sternoclavicular

sternum and clavicle
Synovial: shallow saddle (contains articular disc)
Diarthrotic: multiaxial (allows clavicle to move in all axes)

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Sternocostal (1)

sternum and rib 1
cartilaginous: synchondrosis
synarthrotic: no movement

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Sternocostal (2)

sternum and ribs 2-7
synovial: double plane
diarthrotic: gliding

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acromioclavicular

acromion of scapula and clavicle
Synovial: plane (contains articular disc)
diarthrotic: gliding and rotation of scapula on clavicle

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Shoulder (glenohumeral)

scapula and humerus
synovial: ball-and-socket
Diarthrotic: multiaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, rotation of humerus

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Elbow

ulna (and radius) with humerus
Synovial: hinge
Diarthrotic: uniaxial, flexion, extension of forearm

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Radioulnar

radius and ulna
Synovial: pivot
Diarthrotic: uniaxial, pivot (convex head of radius rotates in radial notch of ulna)

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Wrist (radiocarpal)

Radius and proximal carpals
Synovial: condyloid
Diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction of hand

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Intercarpal

adjacent carpals
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding

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carpometacarpal of digit 1 (thumb)

carpal (trapezium) and metacarpal 1
synovial: saddle
diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction, opposition of metacarpal 1

27

carpometacarpal of digits 2-5

carpals and metacarpals
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding of metacarpals

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knuckle (metacarpophalangeal)

metacarpal and proximal phalanx
synovial: condyloid
diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction of fingers

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finger (interphalangeal)

adjacent phalanges
synovial: hinge
diarthrotic: uniaxial, flexion, extension of fingers

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sacroiliac

sacrum and coxal bone
synovial: plane in childhood, increasingly fibrous in adult
diarthrotic in child; amphiarthrotic in adult (more movement in pregnancy)

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pubic symphysis

pubic bones
cartilaginous: symphysis
amphiarthrotic: slight movement (enhanced during pregnancy)

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Hip (coxal)

hip bone and femur
synovial: ball-and-socket
diarthrotic: multiaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, rotation, circumduction of thigh

33

Knee (tibiofemoral)

femur and tibia
synovial: modified hinge (contains articular discs)
diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension of leg, some rotation allowed in flexed position

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Knee (femoropatellar)

femur and patella
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding of patella

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tibiofibular (proximal)

tibia and fibula (proximally)
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding of fibula

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tibiofibular (distal)

tibia and fibula (distally)
fibrous: syndesmosis
synarthrotic: slight "give" during dorsiflexion

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Ankle

tibia and fibula with talus
synovial: hinge
diarthrotic: uniaxial, dorsiflexion, and plantar flexion of foot

38

Intertarsal

adjacent tarsals
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding, inversion and eversion of foot

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tarsometatarsal

tarsals and metatarsals
synovial: plane
diarthrotic: gliding of metatarsals

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metatarsophalangeal

metatarsals and proximal phalanx
synovial: condyloid
diarthrotic: biaxial, flexion, extension, abduction, adduction circumduction of great toe

41

toe (interphalangeal)

adjacent phalanges
synovial: hinge
diarthrotic: uniaxial, flexion, extension of toes

42

gliding movement

occurs when one flat bone surface glides or slips over another without angulation or rotation; back-and-forth and side-to-side

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angular movement

increase or decrease the angle between two bones; include flexion, extension, hyperextension, abduction, adduction, circumduction

44

flexion

bending movement along sagittal plane, decreases the angle of the joint and brings bones closer together

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extension

occurs along sagittal plane, increases the angle between the bones and typically straightens a flexed limb or body part

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abduction

movement away from the midline of the body, along frontal plane

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adduction

movement of a limb toward the body midline

48

circumduction

moving a limb so that it describes a cone in space; distal end of the limb moves in a circle while point of cone (shoulder or hip) is more or less stationary

49

rotation

turning of a bone around its own long axis

50

synovial joint: plane

articular surfaces are mostly flat, only short nonaxial gliding movements; no rotation around any axis

51

synovial joint: hinge

cylindrical end of one bone conforms to a trough-shaped surface on another; uniaxial; flexion and extension only

52

synovial joint: pivot

rounded-end of one bone conforms to a "sleeve" or ring composed of bone/ligament of another; uniaxial rotation along bones own long axis; atlas and axis - head from side-to-side

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synovial joint: condyloid

oval articular surface of one bone fits into a complementary depression in another; biaxial; movement in all angular movements; flexion, extension, abduction, adduction, circumduction

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synovial joint: saddle

each articular surface has both concave and convex areas; carpometaparpal joints of the thumbs

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synovial joint: ball-and-socket

head of one bone articulates with the cuplike socket of another; multiaxial and most freely moving