June 2013 World History Semester Exams
groups of laws from the Roman Empire organized by scholars into 4 different parts, the Code, the Digest, the Institutes, and the last part was the Novellae
a wife bringing money or goods to a husband at marriage
a picture that is used to represent something such as Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the saints
a punishment of the church basically banning an individual from the sacraments and ceremonies of the church
a crime against the church; in conflict with official church beliefs
creating a design using small pieces of glass, enamel or stone
usually a grassy, treeless area that has black fertile soil ideally suited for agriculture.
an area with a short growing season and has great forests with much rainfall
Russian term for "Caesar"
what Moscow was known after the fall of Rome and Constantinople
were Arabic nomadic herders
was the migration from Mecca to Yathrib
a religion started by Muhammad that had wise policies and tolerance
mans "submission to God" and followers of Islam
the word of God as revealed to Muhammad in this holy book
means "the struggle to defend the faith"
means "successor to the Prophet"
ruler of the Turks who claimed to serve the caliph
an instrument that allowed observers to chart the positions of the stars and calculate their own position on Earth
a tower attached to the outside of a mosque
transitional time in the development of Western culture from 400s to 1500.
a synonym for Middle Ages
a grant of land
a person who receives a fief
system of inheritance from father to eldest son
system of riles that dictated knights' behavior towards others; from the French word "cheval"
ceremonies at which participants received God's direct favor to help ward off the consequences of sin
a group of counselors to the pope from the highest ranks of the clergy
"the princes of the church"
the way of life in convents and monasteries
monks and nuns that abide by certain rules
means "the present world" and include priests, bishops, and the pope
elected head of a monastery
the elected head of a convent
the practice of buying high positions within the church heirarchy
Latin for "Great Charter" and was a document that became a foundation for constitutional government
law based upon customs and judges' decisions, rather than upon written codes
A period of battles that Christians wanted to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims
An economy based on exchanging goods and services for goods and services; no currency
This was forbidden by the church because it was charging interest for loans.
Wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits
Where land, labor, and capital are controlled by individual persons
These form in cities or towns to give merchants the right to trade there and they also helped their members and their members' families
Skilled workers were part of this system made up of members from a single craft and controlled the training of skilled workers.
The first step in the training process for skilled workers. This can take five to nine years.
The second step in the craft guild training process; the boy is now working on his craft and earning a wage under a master
merchants and master workers became part of this; they were between the class of nobles and that of peasants and unskilled workers
The result of infected rats shipped from Asia to Europe that took over one-third of the European population.
Those people with little education spoke this and it varied regionally.
traveling singers who wrote poems about love and chivalry.
the attempt of philosophers to bring together faith and reason.
A style of architecture that has flying buttresses, tall spires, and many windows. This style succeeded Romanesque architecture.
Period of time when popes lived in Avignon, France.
Period in church history when it was divided into opposing groups
This term means rebirth and includes advancements in the arts and thinking.
Those who studies the classic Greeks and Romans.
Renaissance painters used this technique to make their paintings more lifelike.
This is the attempt to make reforms in the church and led to the formation of Protestant churches.
Johann Tetzel had sold these pardons from sin to finance the building of the new St. Peter's Basilica. Many people opposed this.
New religious groups that did not form organized churches.
A Calvinist idea stating that God has chosen ones believed to be saved from the beginning of time.
A government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God's authority.
The attempt by the Catholic church to return to spiritual matters and gained back members lost to Protestant churches
Council of Trent
Church leaders meeting over three different periods to define official church position on matters of doctrine.
These were one-sided bestselling papers that might include a royal decree or news of some sensational crime or other event.
Books that published predictions about the weather and prospects for growing crops. They were best-sellers because they spoke to the beliefs and concerns of ordinary people.
standard of living
The measure of the quality of life that can be affected by the factors such as environment, health, home life, income, and working conditions.
People began to use experiments and mathematics to answer questions to mysteries of nature.
The traditional theory that the Earth is the center of the universe.
The theory stated by Nicholas Copernicus that stated the sun is the center of the universe
An instrument that has a magnetized needle and lodestone to aid in navigation.
Period of time between the late 1400s and 1700s where Europeans changed their basic economic practices.
A business that split ownership into shares to bring capital into the corporation.
The idea that a county's government should do all it could to increase the country's wealth.
favorable balance of trade
When a country received more gold and silver from other nations than it paid to them.
The result of the interaction between the Old World and New World after Columbus' expeditions.
Slave trade was part of this three-continent trade system between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.
The second stage that shipped slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas.
The representatives of the monarchy in the colonies
A military technique that sent small bands of soldiers on quick raids to keeps opponents confused.