June 2013 World History Semester Exams

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Mr. Zukowski Grafton High School
updated 8 years ago by richzukowski
Grade levels:
9th grade
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world history
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1

Justinian Code

groups of laws from the Roman Empire organized by scholars into 4 different parts, the Code, the Digest, the Institutes, and the last part was the Novellae

2

dowry

a wife bringing money or goods to a husband at marriage

3

icon

a picture that is used to represent something such as Jesus, the Virgin Mary, or the saints

4

excommunication

a punishment of the church basically banning an individual from the sacraments and ceremonies of the church

5

heresy

a crime against the church; in conflict with official church beliefs

6

mosaic

creating a design using small pieces of glass, enamel or stone

7

steppe

usually a grassy, treeless area that has black fertile soil ideally suited for agriculture.

8

taiga

an area with a short growing season and has great forests with much rainfall

9

czar

Russian term for "Caesar"

10

"Third Rome"

what Moscow was known after the fall of Rome and Constantinople

11

bedouins

were Arabic nomadic herders

12

hijrah

was the migration from Mecca to Yathrib

13

Islam

a religion started by Muhammad that had wise policies and tolerance

14

Muslims

mans "submission to God" and followers of Islam

15

Qur'an

the word of God as revealed to Muhammad in this holy book

16

jihad

means "the struggle to defend the faith"

17

caliph

means "successor to the Prophet"

18

sultan

ruler of the Turks who claimed to serve the caliph

19

astrolabe

an instrument that allowed observers to chart the positions of the stars and calculate their own position on Earth

20

minaret

a tower attached to the outside of a mosque

21

Middle Ages

transitional time in the development of Western culture from 400s to 1500.

22

medieval

a synonym for Middle Ages

23

fief

a grant of land

24

vassal

a person who receives a fief

25

primogeniture

system of inheritance from father to eldest son

26

chivalry

system of riles that dictated knights' behavior towards others; from the French word "cheval"

27

sacraments

ceremonies at which participants received God's direct favor to help ward off the consequences of sin

28

curia

a group of counselors to the pope from the highest ranks of the clergy

29

cardinals

"the princes of the church"

30

monasticism

the way of life in convents and monasteries

31

regular clergy

monks and nuns that abide by certain rules

32

secular clergy

means "the present world" and include priests, bishops, and the pope

33

abbot

elected head of a monastery

34

abbess

the elected head of a convent

35

simony

the practice of buying high positions within the church heirarchy

36

Magna Carta

Latin for "Great Charter" and was a document that became a foundation for constitutional government

37

common law

law based upon customs and judges' decisions, rather than upon written codes

38

Crusades

A period of battles that Christians wanted to regain the Holy Land from the Muslims

39

barter

An economy based on exchanging goods and services for goods and services; no currency

40

usury

This was forbidden by the church because it was charging interest for loans.

41

capital

Wealth that is earned, saved, and invested to make profits

42

market economy

Where land, labor, and capital are controlled by individual persons

43

merchant guild

These form in cities or towns to give merchants the right to trade there and they also helped their members and their members' families

44

craft guilds

Skilled workers were part of this system made up of members from a single craft and controlled the training of skilled workers.

45

apprentice

The first step in the training process for skilled workers. This can take five to nine years.

46

journeyman

The second step in the craft guild training process; the boy is now working on his craft and earning a wage under a master

47

middle class

merchants and master workers became part of this; they were between the class of nobles and that of peasants and unskilled workers

48

Black Death

The result of infected rats shipped from Asia to Europe that took over one-third of the European population.

49

vernacular languages

Those people with little education spoke this and it varied regionally.

50

Troubadours

traveling singers who wrote poems about love and chivalry.

51

scholasticism

the attempt of philosophers to bring together faith and reason.

52

Gothic

A style of architecture that has flying buttresses, tall spires, and many windows. This style succeeded Romanesque architecture.

53

Babylonian Captivity

Period of time when popes lived in Avignon, France.

54

Great Schism

Period in church history when it was divided into opposing groups

55

Renaissance

This term means rebirth and includes advancements in the arts and thinking.

56

humanists

Those who studies the classic Greeks and Romans.

57

perspective

Renaissance painters used this technique to make their paintings more lifelike.

58

Reformation

This is the attempt to make reforms in the church and led to the formation of Protestant churches.

59

indulgences

Johann Tetzel had sold these pardons from sin to finance the building of the new St. Peter's Basilica. Many people opposed this.

60

sects

New religious groups that did not form organized churches.

61

predestination

A Calvinist idea stating that God has chosen ones believed to be saved from the beginning of time.

62

theocracy

A government ruled by religious leaders who claimed God's authority.

63

counter-reformation

The attempt by the Catholic church to return to spiritual matters and gained back members lost to Protestant churches

64

Council of Trent

Church leaders meeting over three different periods to define official church position on matters of doctrine.

65

broadsides

These were one-sided bestselling papers that might include a royal decree or news of some sensational crime or other event.

66

almanacs

Books that published predictions about the weather and prospects for growing crops. They were best-sellers because they spoke to the beliefs and concerns of ordinary people.

67

standard of living

The measure of the quality of life that can be affected by the factors such as environment, health, home life, income, and working conditions.

68

Scientific Revolution

People began to use experiments and mathematics to answer questions to mysteries of nature.

69

geocentric theory

The traditional theory that the Earth is the center of the universe.

70

heliocentric theory

The theory stated by Nicholas Copernicus that stated the sun is the center of the universe

71

compass

An instrument that has a magnetized needle and lodestone to aid in navigation.

72

Commercial Revolution

Period of time between the late 1400s and 1700s where Europeans changed their basic economic practices.

73

joint-stock company

A business that split ownership into shares to bring capital into the corporation.

74

merchantilism

The idea that a county's government should do all it could to increase the country's wealth.

75

favorable balance of trade

When a country received more gold and silver from other nations than it paid to them.

76

Columbian Exchange

The result of the interaction between the Old World and New World after Columbus' expeditions.

77

triangular trade

Slave trade was part of this three-continent trade system between Europe, Africa, and the Americas.

78

Middle Passage

The second stage that shipped slaves across the Atlantic to the Americas.

79

viceroys

The representatives of the monarchy in the colonies

80

guerrilla warfare

A military technique that sent small bands of soldiers on quick raids to keeps opponents confused.