Chapter 26: 4--The George H. W. Bush Presidency

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-who was Georg H. S. Bush before he was president?

-son of Connecticut senator, served in WWII as bomber pilot in Pacific, awarded Distinguished Flying Cross, after war had profitable career in Texas oil industry
-1966 began long and distinguished political career, served as a member of Congress from Texas, ambassador to UN under Nixon, chairperson of Republican National Committee, American envoy to China under Ford, head of CIA until1 977
-well connected and earned reputation as moderate and loyal republican


-why did Bush lack support of conservatives in the Republican Party?

-questioned his commitment to their cause
-concerned about his apparent early sympathy for abortion rights, called Reagan's economic plans "voodoo economics" during 1980 campaigns


-who did Bush run against in 1988 election?
-what promises did Bush make?
-how did Bush attack Dukakis?

-Demo Governor Michael Dukakis of Massachusetts
-no new taxes
-aired ads describing him as soft on crime, challenging environmental record, successfully damaged him



policy of restructuring or reforming the economic and political system



The policy or practice of more open government and wider dissemination of information,


-what began the falling of the Iron Curtain in Europe?

-began w/ SU leader Mkhail Gorbachev's public statements encouraging Eastern European leaders to adopt perestroika and glasnost--unthinkable suggestion in region where police States efficiently smothered all opposition
-gave hope and inspiration to anti--commy movements in Eastern Europe


describe how Poland removed itself from SU and how Lech Walesa was involved

-1970: severe food shortages provoked riots in city of Gdansk, there young electrician Walesa became involved in anti-commy union organizing--lost job after leading 1976 protest '
-1980" shipyard workers in Gdansk launched strike-Walesa led, became head of movement, after 2 weeks gov gave in to workers' demands for right to form free & indep trade union
-union activity spread in Poland, formed alliance 'Solidarity,' then SU banned it & jailed leaders
-1983 Walesa won Nobel peace prize
-1988: more economic collapse in Poland sparked more protests & strikes, SU met w/ Solidarity & scheduled free elections June 1989, Walesa elected


describe the falling of the Berlin Wall & of commy East Germany

-wall separated commy east from democratic west
-summer of 1989, East German tourists visiting Hungary escaped to Austria & West Germany, flight embarrassed EG leaders
-EG cities nonviolent protests pressured reforms & open border crossings, Nov 9 gov announced EGs could travel freely to WG
-EGs flooded over wall, Germans scaled it from both side, smashed it down w/ sledgehammers
-in a month Commy Party began to collapse, year later EG and WG reunited


describe the fall of the soviet union

-August 1991 conservative commies in SU held Gorbachev captive, hoping to pressure him into resignation
-SU's 15 republic sensed weakness in central gov & began to move towards independence
-Gorbachev resigned presidency December 25, 1991, 1 week later SU had fallen
-new president was Boris Yeltsin who emerged as the dominant leader in the fragmented land


-what happened in Tiananmen Square in China?

-Chinese students gathered to march for democracy and reform in the capital Beijing
-May: protestors occupied the square despite orders to leave, numbers swelled to . 1 million
-build statue modeled on statue of liberty
-June 3: leaders ordered army to attack protestor camps, hundreds maybe thousands demonstrators died & others quickly scattered, many more imprisoned and executed


-how did Bush react to events in Tiananmen square?
-how did Americans react to Bush's reaction?

-valued relationship US had w/ China, so rather than attack China's leaders & risk international crisis, Bush negotiated quietly & encouraged trade between China & US
-his non confrontational stance upset many who believed he was indifferent to human rights in China


what happened in Panama between Bush and Panama's dictator Manuel Noriega?

-Bush suspected Noriega of smuggling cocaine into US
-Noriega declared war on US, Bush then launched a lightning attack against Panama in December 1989, quickly won control of the country
-Noriega surrendered to US forces January 3, 1990, 2 years later federal jury in Florida convicted him of drug smuggling


-what sequence of events led up to the Persian Gulf War?

-August 1990: in Iraq, headed by brutal dictator Saddam Hussein, launched sudden invasion of neighboring Kuwait, justified assault by citing centuries-old territorial claims, but in fact just wanted Kuwait's oil wealth
-flow of Kuwait oil west if concern to US, Bush viewed protection of those oil reserves as issue of national =security, also concerned about security of Saudi Arabia, key Arab ally in the region, and Saddam investment in destructive weapons
-at first tried through diplomatic efforts to persuade Saddam to withdraw but failed
-through UN, US gathered alliance of 28 countries to launch the war


General Colin Powell

-Bush turned to him to organize military operations
-Powell had risen quickly through military ranks, 1979, age 42, became Army's youngest brigadier general, 1st AA to serve as national security adviser, 1989 had been named nation's youngest ever Chairman of the Join Chiefs of Staff, top military officer in nation


what was Powell's battle plan?

-use airpower to destroy Iraq's ability to wage war, then smash Iraqi forces occupying Kuwait
-series of massive air strikes launched, "Operation Desert Storm" Jan 16=17, 1991: UN forces directed by Powell liberated Kuwait in 6 weeks
-lost < 300 soldiers, while tens of thousands of Iraqi troops had died
-didn't end up removing Saddam from power in Iraq though


-Bush nominated Clarence Thomas, conservative black judge to Supreme Court 1991 after Thurgood Marshall retired which angered ___________, and...

-many moderates and liberals
-Thomas faced grilling on views on civil rights and about charges of past sexual harassment
-won confirmation after stormy televised Senate hearing that ignited public debate on issue of sexual harassment


how did Bush react to the swelling of budget deficits during his presidency?

-by slowing spending for social programs
-then agreed to a deficit reduction plan that included new taxes
-tax hike broke his campaign promise and generated public anger


recession at end of Bush's term

-gasoline prices rose because of turmoil in Persian Gulf
-end of Cold War let US spend less on defense, as a result, firms that supplied planes, ships and military hardware laid off workers
-in other industries downsizing also occurred
-unemployment rate reached 7% highest in nearly 5 years
-states that relied more on defense were hit harder than others



laying of workers to cut costs