The Language of Medicine: medical terminology 15-18 Flashcards


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The Language of Medicine
Chapters 15-18
medical terminology
Grade levels:
College: First year
Subjects:
medical terminology, medical, dictionaries & terminology
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1

calc/o

calcium

2

calci/o

calcium

3

kyph/o

humpback

4

lamin/o

lamina, part of the vertebral arch

5

lord/o

curve, swayback; anterior curvature in the lumbar region

6

lumb/o

loins, lower back

7

myel/o

bone marrow

8

orth/o

straight

9

oste/o

bone

10

scoli/o

crooked, bent

11

spondyl/o

vertebra

12

vertebr/o

vertebra

13

-blast

embryonic or immature cell

14

-clast

to break

15

-listhesis

slipping

16

-malacia

softening

17

-physis

to grow

18

-porosis

pore, passage

19

-tome

instrument to cut

20

acetabul/o

acetabulum (hip socket)

21

calcane/o

calcaneus (heel)

22

carp/o

carpals (wrist bones)

23

clavicul/o

clavicle (collar bone)

24

cost/o

ribs (true ribs, false ribs, floating ribs)

25

crani/o

cranium (skull)

26

femor/o

femur (thigh bone)

27

fibul/o

fibula (smaller leg bone)

28

humer/o

humerus (upper arm bone)

29

ili/o

ilium (upper part of pelvic bone)

30

ischi/o

ischium (posterior part of pelvic bone)

31

malleol/o

malleolus (process on each side of ankle)

32

mandibul/o

mandible (lower jawbone)

33

maxill/o

maxilla (upper jawbone)

34

metacarp/o

metacarpals (hand bones)

35

metatars/o

metatarsals (foot bones)

36

olecran/o

olecranon (elbow)

37

patell/o

patella (kneecap)

38

pelv/i

pelvis (hipbone)

39

perone/o

fibula (

40

phalang/o

phalanges (finger/toe bones)

41

pub/o

pubis (anterior part of pelvic bone)

42

radi/o

radius (fore-arm bone, thumb side)

43

scapul/o

scapula (shoulder blade)

44

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

45

tars/o

tarsals bones of the hind foot)

46

tibi/o

tibia (shin bone)

47

uln/o

ulna (forearm bone, little finger side)

48

hypercalcemia

excessive calcium in the blood

49

kyphosis

an abnormal backward curve to the vertebral column (hunchback)

50

laminectomy

surgical removal of the posterior portion of a vertebra to relieve pressure on a spinal nerve or spinal cord from a displaced inter vertebral disk

51

lordosis

forward curvature of the lumbar spinal column, "swayback"

52

lumbar

lower back

53

lumbosacral

pertaining to the lower bones of the back (lumbar and sacral regions)

54

myelopoiesis

formation of bone marrow

55

orthopedics

surgical specialty devoted to straightening, correcting and treating deformities and diseases in bones.

56

osteitis

inflammation of bone

57

osteodystrophy

abnormal development of bone

58

osteogenesis

(imperfecta) congenital bone disease in which bones are unusually brittle and fragile

59

scoliosis

abnormal condition of lateral (sideways) curvature of spine

60

spondylosis

abnormal condition of the spine (vertebral column) characterized by stiffness and fixation of vertebral joints

61

vertebroplasty

surgical repair of the vertebra

62

osteoblast

bone cell responsible for forming bony tissue

63

osteoclast

large bone cell that functions to absorbb and remove unwanted bony tissue during growth and healing of fractures

64

spondylolisthesis

forward slipping or subluxation of one vertebra over another

65

osteomalacia

softening of bones with inadequate amounts of mineral (calcium) in bone, rickets

66

epiphysis

each end of a long bone

67

pubic symphysis

area of confluence (coming together_ of the two pubic bones in the pelvis. They are joined (sym=together, -physis= to grow) by a fibrocartilaginous disk

68

osteoporosis

abnormal condition of increased loss of bony tissue. bones become thin, weak, brittle and break easy

69

osteotome

instrument to cut bone

70

acetabular

of the cup-shaped socket that receives the head of the thigh bone

71

calcaneal

pertaining to the calcaneus (heel bone)

72

carpal

wrist bone

73

supraclavicular

pertaining to above the clavicle (collar bone)

74

subcostal

pertaining to under the ribs

75

chondrochostal

pertaining to cartilage that is attached to the ribs

76

craniotomy

incision of the skull

77

craniotome

instrument to cut the skull

78

femoral

pertaining to the femur (thigh bone)

79

fibular

pertaining to the fibula (smaller lower lef bone)

80

humeral

pertaining to the humerous (upper arm bone)

81

iliac

pertaining to the ilium (upper and largest portion of the pelvic bone)

82

ischial

pertaining to the ischium (back portion of the pelvic bone)

83

malleolar

pertaining to a malleolus (, pertaining to the malleolus (bone that sticks out on each ankle)

84

mandibular

pertaining to lower jaw bone

85

maxillary

pertaining to the upper jawbone

86

metacarpectomy

Surgical excision of one or more bones of the hand

87

metatarsalgia

foot pain

88

olecranal

pertaining to the elbow

89

patellar

near or relating to the patella or kneecap

90

pelvimetry

obstetric measurement of the pelvis to evaluate proper conditions for vaginal delivery

91

peroneal

pertaining to the fibula

92

phalangeal

pertaining to the bones of the fingers and the toes

93

pubic

relating or near the pubis

94

radial

pertaining to the radius, a bone in the lower arm (thumb side of wrist)

95

scapular

pertaining to shoulder blade

96

sternal

of or relating to or near the sternum

97

tarsectomy

removal of anklebone

98

tibial

pertaining of the two lower leg bones

99

ulnar

pertaining to thh ulna (forearm bone, little finger side)

100

ankyl/o

stiff

101

arthr/o

joint

102

articul/o

joint

103

burs/o

bursa

104

chondr/o

cartilage

105

ligament/o

ligament

106

rheumat/o

watery flow

107

synov/o

synovial membrane

108

ten/o

tendon

109

tendin/o

tendon

110

-desis

to bind, tie together

111

-stenosis

narrowing

112

ankylosis

immobility of a joint due to disease, injury, or surgical procedure

113

arthroplasty

surgical repair of a joint (with prosthesis) total hip replacement, and total knee replacement are examples

114

arthrotomy

incision of a joint

115

hemarthrosis

condition of blood in a joint

116

hydrarthrosis

condition of water or fluid in a joint

117

polyarthritis

inflammation of many joints

118

articular cartilage

thin layer of cartilage surrounding the bones in the joint space

119

bursitis

inflammation of a bursa surrounding a joint

120

achondroplasia

inherited disorder in which bones of the arms and legs fail to grow to normal size (achondroplastic dwarf)

121

chondroma

benign tumor of cartilage

122

chondromalacia

softening of cartilage

123

ligamentous

pertaining to a ligament

124

rheumatologist

Dr. specializing in diagnosis and treatment of joint disorders

125

synovitis

inflammation of the synovial membrane lining the synovial joint

126

tenorrhaphy

suture of tendon

127

tenosynovitis

inflammation of a tendon and its sheath or covering

128

tendinitis

inflammation of tendons, tendonitis

129

arthrodesis

surgical fusion of a joint to eliminate movement

130

spinal stenosis

narrowing of the spinal canal causing pressure on the cord and nerves

131

flexion

decreasing the angle between two bones by bending a limb at a joint

132

extension

increasing the angle between two bones, straightening out a limb

133

abduction

moving away from body

134

adduction

moving toward the body

135

rotation

circular movement around axis, (central point) internal rotation is toward the midline , and external rotation is away from the midline

136

dorsiflexion

decreasing the angle of the ankle joint so the foot bends backward (upward) this is the opposite of stepping on a gas pedal

137

plantar flexion

motion that extends the foot downward (pointing toes)

138

supination

as applied to hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm up. as applied to the foot, the outward roll of the foot in normal motion

139

pronation

as applied to hand and forearm, the act of turning the palm down, as applied to the foot, an inward roll of the foot during normal motion

140

fasci/o

fascia (forms sheaths enveloping muscles)

141

fibr/o

fibrous connective tissue

142

leiomy/o

smooth muscle that lines the walls of internal organs

143

my/o

muscle

144

myocardi/o

heart muscle

145

plant/o

sole of the foot

146

myos/o

muscle

147

rhabdomy/o

skeletal (striated) muscle connected to bones

148

sarc/o

flesh

149

-asthenia

lack of strength

150

-trophy

development, nourishment

151

ab-

away from

152

ad-

toward

153

dorsi-

back

154

poly-

many

155

fasciectomy

removal of fascia

156

fibromyalgia

chronic pain and stiffness in muscles and fibrous tissue, especially in shoulders, neck, hips and knees

157

leiomyoma

benign tumor of smooth, involuntary muscle

158

leiomyosarcoma

malignant tumor of smooth muscle

159

myalgia

muscle pain

160

electromyography

process of recording strength of muscle contraction as a result of electrical stimulation

161

myopathy

disease of muscles

162

myocardial

Pertaining to the heart muscle

163

myositis

inflammation of muscles

164

plantar flexion

motion that extends the foot downward toward the ground

165

rhabdomyoma

benign tumor of striated voluntary muscle (attached to bones)

166

rhabdomyosarcoma

malignant tumor of striated voluntary muscle

167

sarcopenia

Loss of muscle mass and strength associated with aging.

168

myasthenia gravis

autoimmune neuromuscular disorder characterized by weakness of voluntary muscles

169

atrophy

wasting away of normally developed organ tissue (especially muscle)

170

hypertrophy

increase in size of individual cells

171

amyotrophic

Pertaining to loss of muscle development, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-Lou Gehrigs Disease

172

abduction

Movement away from the midline

173

adduction

movement toward the midline

174

dorsiflexion

bending of the foot or the toes upward

175

polymyalgia

pain of many muscles

176

adip/o

fat

177

albin/o

white

178

caus/o

burning

179

cauter/o

burning

180

cutane/o

skin

181

derm/o

skin

182

dermat/o

skin

183

diaphor/o

profuse sweating

184

erythem/o

redness

185

erythemat/o

redness

186

hidr/o

sweat

187

ichthy/o

dry, scaly

188

kerat/o

hard

189

leuk/o

white

190

lip/o

fat

191

melan/o

black

192

myc/o

fungus

193

onych/o

nail

194

phyt/o

plant

195

pil/o

hair

196

py/o

pus

197

rhytid/o

wrinkle

198

seb/o

sebum (oily secretion from sebaceous glands)

199

squam/o

scale-like

200

steat/o

fat

201

trich/o

hair

202

ungu/o

nail

203

xanth/o

yellow

204

xer/o

dry

205

adipose

pertaining to fat

206

albinism

absence of pigment in skin, eyes, hair

207

causalgia

intensely unpleasant burning pain in a limb following damage to nerves

208

electrocautery

use of needle or snare by electric current to destroy or burn tissue (wart, polyps removal)

209

subcutaneous

pertaining to under the skin

210

epidermis

outer layer of skin

211

dermatitis

inflammation of skin

212

dermatoplasty

surgical repair of skin

213

dermatologist

specialist in the study of skin disorders

214

dermabrasion

treatment for removal of superficial scars or wrinkles on the skin using sandpaper-like material

215

epidermolysis

loosening of outer layer of skin with formation of large blisters (bullae)

216

diaphoresis

profuse sweating

217

erythema

condition of redness of the skin

218

anhidrosis

absence of sweating

219

ichthyosis

hereditary condition in which skin resembles fish scales and is dry, rough, and scaly

220

keratosis

excessive development of hard, keratinized tissue on the skin

221

leukoplakia

white plaques on mucous membranes and surfaces of the body

222

lipoma

benign tumor of fatty tissue

223

liposuction

removal of adipose with a suction device

224

melanocyte

cell in the basal layer of the epidermis that produces melanin

225

melanoma

malignant skin tumor

226

mycosis

any disease caused by fungus

227

onycholysis

separation of nail plate from nal bed in fungal infections after trauma

228

onychomycosis

fungal infection of a nail

229

paronychia

inflammation and swelling of skin folds around a nail

230

dermatophytosis

fungal infection of skin

231

pilosebaceous

pertaining to hair follicles and sebaceous glands

232

pyoderma

skin disease with pus formation

233

rhytidectomy

plastic surgery to remove wrinkles and other signs of aging

234

seborrhea

condition marked by excessive secretion of sebaceous glands

235

squamous epithelium

flat, scale like layer of cells in the epidermis or outer layer of skin

236

steatoma

fatty mass within sebaceous gland

237

trichomycosis

any disease of the hair caused by fungi

238

subungual

beneath a nail

239

xanthoma

yellowish-orange, lipid-filled nodule or plaque in the skin, often on an eyelid or over a joint.

240

xeroderma

excessive or abnormal dryness of the skin

241

aque/o

water

242

blephar/o

eyelid

243

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva

244

cor/o

pupil

245

corne/o

cornea

246

cycl/o

ciliary body or muscle of the eye

247

dacry/o

tears, tear duct

248

ir/o

iris

249

irid/o

iris

250

kerat/o

cornea

251

lacrim/o

tears

252

ocul/o

eye

253

ophthalm/o

eye

254

opt/o

eye, vision

255

optic/o

eye, vision

256

palpebr/o

eyelid

257

papill/o

optic disc, nipple like

258

phac/o

lens of the eye

259

phak/o

lens of the eye

260

pupill/o

pupil

261

retin/o

retina

262

scler/o

sclera (white of the eye)

263

uve/o

uvea, vascular layer of the eye

264

vitre/o

glassy

265

ambly/o

dull, dim

266

dipl/o

double

267

glauc/o

gray

268

mi/o

smaller, less

269

mydr/o

widen, enlarge

270

nyct/o

night

271

phot/o

light

272

presby/o

old age

273

scot/o

darkness

274

xer/o

dry

275

-opia

vision

276

-opsia

vision

277

-tropia

to turn

278

acous/o

hearing

279

audi/o

hearing, sense of hearing

280

aur/o

ear

281

auricul/o

ear

282

cochle/o

cochlea

283

mastoid/o

mastoid process

284

myring/o

eardrum, tympatic membrane

285

ossicul/o

ossicle

286

ot/o

ear

287

salping/o

eustachian tube, auditory tube

288

staped/o

stapes, third bone of middle ear

289

tympan/o

eardrum, tympatic membrane

290

vestibul/o

vestibule

291

-acusis

hearing

292

-cusis

hearing

293

-meter

instrument to measure

294

-otia

ear condition

295

aqueous humor

watery liquid found in the anterior cavity of the eye

296

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

297

blepharoptosis

drooping of the upper eyelid

298

conjunctivitis

pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva

299

anisocoria

unequal pupil size

300

corneal abrasion

an injury, such as a scratch or irritation, to the outer layers of the cornea

301

cycloplegic

Paralysis of the muscles of the ciliary body.

302

dacryoadenitis

an inflammation of the lacrimal gland that can be caused by a bacterial, viral, or fungal infection

303

iritis

inflammation of the iris

304

iridic

of or relating to the iris of the eye

305

iridectomy

surgical removal of part of the iris of the eye

306

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea causing watery painful eyes and blurred vision

307

lacrimal

relating to or located near the organ that produces tears

308

lacrimation

secretion of tears

309

intraocular

pertaining to within the eye

310

ophthalmologist

physician who studies and treats diseases of the eye

311

ophthalmic

of or relating to ophthalmology

312

ophthalmoplegia

paralysis of the motor nerves of the eye

313

optic

the organ of sight

314

optometrist

a person skilled in testing for defects of vision in order to prescribe corrective glasses

315

optician

a worker who makes glasses for remedying defects of vision

316

palpebral

pertaining to the eyelid

317

papilledema

swelling of the optic disc

318

phacoemulsification

use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract with aspiration and removal

319

aphakia

absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction

320

pupillary

of or relating to the pupil of the eye

321

retinitis

inflammation of the retina

322

hypertensive retinopathy

destructive retinal changes caused by hypertension

323

corneoscleral

pertaining to the cornea and the sclera-outer layer

324

scleritis

inflammation of the sclera

325

uveitis

Inflammation of the uvea (vascular layer of the eye).

326

vitrious humor

posterior cavity is filled with this jelly like fluid

327

ambylopia

decreased vision in early life due to a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (when one eye is more near-sighted, farsightered, or astigmatic than the other), or trauma; usually occurs in one eye, also known as lazy eye (ambyl/o = dim)

328

diplopia

double vision

329

glaucoma

group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision

330

miosis

Constriction of the pupil

331

mydriasis

Dilation of the pupil

332

nyctalopia

a condition in which an individual with normal daytime vision has difficulty seeing at night; also known as night blindness

333

photophobia

extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light

334

presbyopia

farsightedness resulting from a reduced ability to focus caused by loss of elasticity of the crystalline lens with age

335

scotoma

blind spot in vision

336

xerophthalmia

drying of eye surfaces including the conjunctiva; also known as dry eye

337

hyperopia

farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina

338

hemianopsia

Blindness in one half of the visual field of one or both eyes

339

esotropia

strabismus in which one or both eyes turn inward toward the nose

340

acoustic

relating to sound or hearing

341

audiogram

record of hearing measurement

342

audiologist

person who specializes in the study of hearing impairments

343

auditory

Having to do with the sense of hearing

344

aural

pertaining to the sense of hearing

345

postauricular

pertaining to behind the ear

346

cochlear

Pertaining to the cochlea (spiral-shaped tube in the inner ear).

347

mastoiditis

inflammation of the mastoid process

348

myringotomy

the surgical incision in the eardrum to create an opening for the placement of tympanostomy tubes

349

myringitis

inflammation of the eardrum

350

ossiculoplasty

Surgical repair of an ossicle (small bone) of the middle ear.

351

otic

of or relating to near the ear

352

otomycosis

abnormal condition of fungus in the ear

353

otopyorrhea

discharge of pus from the ear

354

otolaryngologist

physician who specializes in diagnosis and treatment of ear, nose, and throat diseases

355

salpingopharyngeal

Pertaining to the eustachian tube and the throat.

356

stapedectomy

surgical removal of the stapes of the middle ear

357

tympanoplasty

surgical correction or repair of defects or injuries in the eardrum or the bones of the middle ear

358

vestibulocochlear

pertaining to the vestibule and the cochlea

359

hyperacusis

Painful sensitivity to sounds.

360

presbycusis

Hearing impairment in old age

361

audiometer

an instrument used to measure the sensitivity of hearing

362

macrotia

abnormally large ears

363

aden/o

gland

364

adren/o

adrenal gland

365

adrenal/o

adrenal gland

366

gonad/o

sex glands

367

pancreat/o

pancreas

368

parathyroid/o

parathyroid gland

369

pituitar/o

pituitary gland, hypophysis

370

thyr/o

thyroid gland

371

thyroid/o

thyroid gland

372

andr/o

male

373

calc/o

calcium

374

calci/o

calcium

375

cortic/o

cortex, outer region

376

crin/o

secrete

377

dips/o

thirst

378

estr/o

female

379

gluc/o

sugar

380

home/o

sameness

381

hormon/o

hormone

382

kal/i

potassium

383

lact/o

milk

384

myx/o

mucus

385

natr/o

sodium

386

phys/o

growing

387

somat/o

body

388

ster/o

solid structure

389

toc/o

childbirth

390

toxic/o

poison

391

ur/o

urine

392

-agon

assemble, gather together

393

-emia

blood condition

394

-in

a substance

395

-ine

a substance

396

-tropin

stimulating the function of (to turn or act on)

397

-uria

urine condition

398

eu-

good, normal

399

hyper-

excessive, above normal

400

hypo-

deficient, below normal

401

oxy-

rapid, sharp, acid

402

pan-

all

403

tetra-

four

404

tri-

three

405

adenectomy

removal of a gland

406

adrenopathy

disease of adrenal glands

407

adrenalectomy

surgical removal of one or both of the adrenal glands

408

gonadotropin

hormone that stimulates the testes and ovaries to function

409

hypogonadism

deficient functioning of the gonads

410

pancreatectomy

excision of pancreas

411

parathyroidectomy

removal of parathyroid glands

412

hypopituitarism

deficient secretion of hormones from pituitary gland

413

thyrotropic hormone

hormone secreated by the anterior pituitary gland that acts on the thyroid gland (TSH or thyroid-stimulationg hormone)

414

thyroiditis

inflammation of the thyroid gland

415

androgen

male hormone responsible for developing and maintaining male secondary sex characteristics

416

hypercalcemia

high levels of calcium in the bloodstream

417

hypocalcemia

low levels of calcium in blood

418

hypercalciuria

high calcium levels in urine

419

corticosteroid

hormone secreted by adrenal cortex, (cortisol, aldosterone are examples)

420

endocrinologist

medical specialist in the diagnosis and treatment of endocrine gland disorders

421

polydipsia

excessive thirst

422

estrogenic

pertaining to producing female characteristics

423

glucagon

The antagonist of insulin. Its release is stimulated by low blood glucose levels. It stimulates the liver, its primary target organ, to break down its glycogen stores to glucose and subsequently to release glucose to the blood.

424

hyperglycemia

high levels of sugar in the blood

425

glycemic

`pertaining to blood sugar

426

glycogen

animal starch, glycogen is broken down to produce sugar.

427

homeostasis

tendency in an organism to return to a state of constancy and stability

428

hormonal

pertaining to a hormone

429

hypokalemia

low levels of potassium in the blood

430

prolactin

secreted by the anterior lobe of pituitary gland, promotes milk secretion

431

myxedema

hypofunctioning of the thyroid glands in adults

432

hyponatremia

low levels of sodium in the blood

433

hypophysectomy

removal of pituitary gland

434

somatotropin

hormone secreted by the anterior lobe of the pituitary gland, growth hormone

435

steroid

complex substance related to fat, many hormones are steroids (estrogens, cortisol, aldosterone)

436

oxytocin

hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of pituitary gland, stimulates contractions of uterus during childbirth

437

thyrotoxicosis

hyperthyroidism

438

antidiuretic hormone

secreted by posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, promotes water re-absorption by the kidney

439

glucagon

hormone secreted by the pancreas, increases blood glucose by conversion of glycogen to glucose

440

hypoglycemia

low levels of sugar in the blood

441

epinephrine

hormone secreted by adrenal medulla, increases heart rate and blood pressure

442

adrenocorticotropin

secretion from the anterior lobe of pituitary gland, stimulates the adrenal cortex, ACTH

443

glycosuria

sugar in urine

444

euthyroid

normal functioning of thyroid gland

445

hyperkalemia

excessive potassium in the blood

446

hypoinsulinism

deficient production of insulin

447

oxytocin

hormone secreted by the posterior lobe of the pituitary gland, stimulates contractions of the uterus during childbirth

448

panhypopituitarism

deficiency of ALL pituitary gland hormones

449

tetraiodothyronine

hormone secreted by the thyroid gland that increases body metabolism, thyroxine T4

450

triiodothyronine

hormone secreted by the thyroid gland stimulates body metabolism T3