The Axial Skeleton Flashcards


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created 10 years ago by rappt2
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Bones of the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
updated 10 years ago by rappt2
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College: Second year
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1

cranial vault or calvaria

forms the superior, lateral, and posterior walls of the skull

2

cranial floor

forms skull bottom, has three distinct internal concavities (anterior, middle, posterior cranial fossae) in which the brain sits

3

frontal bone

anterior portion of the cranium; forms the forehead, superior part of the orbit, and floor of anterior cranial fossa

4

parietal bone

posterolateral to the frontal bone, forming sides of cranium

5

supraorbital foramen (notch)

opening above each orbit allowing blood vessels and nerves to pass

6

sagittal suture

midline articulation point of the two parietal bones

7

coronal suture

point of articulation of parietals with frontal bone

8

temporal bone

inferior to parietal bone on lateral skull; four major parts: squamous region, tympanic region, mastoid region, and petrous region

9

squamous suture

point of articulation of the temporal bone with the parietal bone

10

zygomatic process

bridgelike projection joining the zygomatic bone anteriorly, together these two bones form the zygomatic arch

11

mandibular fossa

rounded depression on the inferior surface of the zygomatic process (anterior to the ear); forms socket for the mandibular condyle

12

external acoustic meatus

canal leading to eardrum and middle

13

styloid process

needlike projection inferior to external acoustic meatus; attachment point for muscles and ligaments of the neck

14

mastoid process

rough projection inferior and posterior to external auditory acoustic meatus; attachment site for muscles

15

jugular foramen

opening medial to the styloid process through which the internal carotid artery passes into the cranial cavity

16

occipital bone

most posterior bone of the cranium - forms floor and back wall; joins sphenoid bone anteriorly via its narrow basioccipital region

17

lambdoid suture

site of articulation of occipital bone and parietal bones

18

foramen magnum

large opening in base of occipital, which allows the spinal cord to join with the brain

19

occipital condyles

rounded projections lateral to the foramen magnum that articulate with the first cervical vertebra (altas)

20

sphenoid bone

bat-shaped bone forming the anterior plateau of the middle cranial fossa across the width of the skull; keystone of the cranium because it articulates with all other cranial bones

21

sella turcica

a saddle-shaped region in the sphenoid midline

22

foramen rotundum

opening lateral to the sella turcica providing passage for a branch of the fifth cranial nerve

23

foramen ovale

opening posterior to the sella turcica that allows passage of a branch of the fifth cranial nerve

24

ethmoid bone

irregularly shaped bone anterior to the sphenoid; forms the roof of the nasal cavity, upper nasal septum, and part of the medial orbit walls

25

crista galli

vertical projection providing a point of attachment for the dura matter, helping to secure the brain within the skull; part of horizontal plate of ethmoid

26

cribriform plates

bony plates lateral to the crista galli through which olfactory fibers pass to the brain from the nasal mucosa; part of horizontal plate of the ethmoid bone

27

mandible

the lower jawbone, which articulates with the temporal bones in the only freely moveable joints of the skull

28

mandibular condyle

articulation point of the mandible with the mandibular fossa of the temporal bone

29

mental foramen

prominent opening on the body (lateral to the midline) that transmits the mental blood vessels and nerve to the lower jaw

30

maxillae

two bones fused in a median suture; form the upper jawbone and part of the orbits; all facial bones except mandible articulate

31

palatine process

form the anterior hard palate; meet medially in the intermaxillary suture

32

infraorbital foramen

opening under the orbit carrying the infraorbital nerves and blood vessels to the nasal region

33

lacrimal bone

fingernail sized bones forming a part of the medial orbit walls between the maxilla and the ethmoid; each bone has lacrimal fossa = tear passageway

34

palatine bone

paired bones posterior to the palatine processes; form posterior hard palate and part of the orbit; meet medially at the median palatine suture

35

zygomatic bone

lateral to the maxilla; forms the cheekbone and part of lateral orbit; has three processes

36

nasal bone

small rectangular bones forming the bridge of the nose

37

vomer

blade-shaped bone in median plane of nasal cavity that forms the posterior and inferior nasal septum

38

inferior nasal conchae

thin curved bones protruding medially from the lateral walls of the nasal cavity

39

fontanelle

infant skull bones that are incomplete and connected by unossified remnants of fibrous membranes that allow the infant's head to be compressed slightly during birth and accomodate brain growth in the fetus and infant (anterior, occipital, mastoid, sphenoidal)

40

anterior fontanelle

large and diamond-shaped, palpable for 1.5-2 years after birth

41

cervical vertebrae

7 bones, C1-C7
body - small, wide
spinous process - short; bifid; projects directly posteriorly
vertebral foramen - triangular
transverse process - contain foramina
superior/inferior articulating processes - superoposteriorly/inferoanteriorly
movements - flexion, extension, most range of motion

42

thoracic vertebrae

12 bones T1-T12
body - larger, heart-shaped, costal facets
spinous process - long, sharp, projects inferiorly
vertebral foramen - circular
superior/inferior articulating processes - posteriorly/anteriorly
movement - rotation

43

lumbar vertebrae

5 bones L1-L5
body - massive, kidney-shaped
spinous process - short; blunt; projects posteriorly
vertebral foramen - circular
transverse processes - thin and tapered
superior/inferior articulating processes - posteromedially/anterolaterally

44

saccrum

composite bone formed from the fusion of five vertebra