human anatomy chapter 17

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Autonomic Nervous System
1. functions...
2. makes...
3. functions (2)

1. outside of our conscious awareness
2. routine adjustments in our body's systems
3. A. Regulates body temperature
B. Coordinates cardiovascular, respiratory, digestive, excretory, and reproductive functions


Autonomic Nervous system
1. Axons innervate
2. Has
3. Afferent pathways originate

1. the visceral organs
2. afferent and efferent neyrons
3. the visceral receptors


Somatic Nervous System
1. Axons innervate
2. has
3. afferent pathways originate

1. the skeletal muscles
2. afferent and efferent neurons
3. in skeletal muscle


2 Subdivisions of ANS

1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic


2 subdivisions of ANS
1. Sympathetic
2. Parasympathetic

1. AKA Fight-or-Flight, thoracolumbar
2. AKA Rest-and-response, craniosacral


1. Sympathetic division
A. Thoracic an upper lumbar nerves synapse in...
B. Sympathetic activation results in...
C. All preganglionic fibers release _I_. these effects are _II_
D. Most postganglionic fibers release _I_. these effects are _II_

A. ganglia near the spinal cord
B. increased metabolism and alertness
c. I. Acetylocholine Ach II. Stimulatory
D. I. Norepinephrine NE II. Stimulatory


2. Parasympathetic division
A. synapses are located...
B. parasympathetic activation results in...
C. All preganglionic fibers release _I_. these effects are _II_
D. Postganglionic fibers release _I_. These effects are _II_

A. near the target organ
B. Energy conservation
C. I. Acetylcholine Ach II. Stimulatory
D. I. Acetylcholine Ach II. inhibitory

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Subdivisions of ANS

1. Autonomic Nervous System 2. Sympathetic Division
3. Preganglionic neurons in lateral gray horns of spinal segments T1-L2
4. Ganglia near spinal cord
5. Preganglionic fibers release ACh (excitory), stimylating ganglionic neurons
6. Target organs
7. Most post ganglionic fibers release NE at neuroeffector junctions
8. Fight or flight response

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Subdivisions of ANS

1. Autonomic Nervous System 2. Parasympathetic Div
3. Preganglionic neurons in brainstem and in lateral portion of anterior gray horns of S2-S4
4. Ganglia in or near target organs
5. preganglionic fibers release Ach (excitatory), stimulating ganglionic neurons
6. Target organs
7. All postganglionic fibers release ACh at neuroeffector junctions
8. release and rest response


Sympathetic division consists of
1. ___ between T1 and L2
2. 2 types of ganglionic neurons near vertebral columns
3. __ in the interior of the superenal gland

1. Preganglionic Neurons
2. A. Sympathetic chain ganglia(lateral to vertebral column)
B. Collateral ganglia(anterior to vertebral column)
C. Specialized neurons


Sympathetic Division
1. Preganglionic neurons
A. Cell bodies are in...
B. Axons enter...
2. Sympathetic chain ganglion (__A__)
B. controls...

1. A. lateral gray horns
B. ventral roots
2. A. Paravertebral ganglia
B. effectors in the body wall, head, neck, limbs, and thoracic cavity


Sympathetic Division
3. Collateral ganglia
A. Neurons innervate...
4. Specialized neurons
A. are...
B. neurons release...

1. A. effectors in the abdominopelvic cavity
2. A. Modified sympathetic ganglion in the suprarenal gland
B. neurotransmitters that act like hormones

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Sympathetic Divisions of ANS

1. Preganglionic Neurons
2. lateral gray horns of spinal segments T1-L2
3. Ganglionic Neurons
4. Sympathetic chain ganglia (paired)
5. collateral ganglia (unpaired)
6. suprarenal medullae (paired) 7. target organ
8. visceral effectors in thoracic cavity, head, body wall, & limbs
9. visceral effectors in abdominopelvic cavity
10. organs and systems throughout the body


Sympathetic Chain ganglia
1. ventral root __ a dorsal root
2. forms a...
3. __ branches off the spinal nerve
4. goes to a...

1. joins
2. spinal nerve
3. white ramus
4. nearby sympathetic chain ganglion


Functions of Sympathetic Chain Ganglia (8(

1. Reduction of circulation to the skin
2. More circulation to skeletal muscles
3. Stimulates more energy production by skeletal muscles
4. Releases stored adipose
5. Stimulation of arrector pili muscles
6. Dilation of pupils
7. Increased heart rate
8. Dilation of respiratory tubes

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Sympathetic chain ganglion

1. innervates visceral organs in thoracic cavity via sympathetic nerves
2. innervates visceral effectors via spinal nerves
3. sympathetic Nerve (postganglionic fivers)
4. Autonomic ganglion of left sympathetic chain
5. Spinal nerve 6. preganglionic neuron
7. autonomic ganglion of right sympathetic chain
8. white ramus 9. ganglionic neuron
10. gray rammus


sympathetic chain ganlgion
1. Major effects produced by sympathetic postganglionic fibers in spinal nerves (7)

1. Constriction of cutaneous blood vessels, reduction in circulation to the skin and to most other organs in the body wall
2. Acceleration of blood flow to skeletal muscles and brain
3. Stimulation of energy production and use by skeletal muscle tissue
4. Release of stored lipids from subcutaneous adipose tissue
5. • Stimulation of secretion by sweat glands
6. • Stimulation of arrector pili
7. • Dilation of the pupils and focusing for distant objects


Sympathetic chain ganglion
2. Major effects produced by postganglionic fibers entering the thoracic cavity in sympathetic nerves (2)

1. • Acceleration of heart rate and increasing the strength of cardiac contractions
2. • Dilation of respiratory passageways


Anatomy of the Sympathetic Chain Ganglia
1. Each spinal nerve consists of:
2. There are... (5)

1. Preganglionic and postganglionic fibers
2. A. cervical sympathetic chain ganglia
B. thoracic sympathetic chain ganglia
C. lumbar sympathetic chain ganglia
D. sacral sympathetic chain ganglia
E. coccygeal sympathetic chain ganglia


Collateral Ganglia
1. Preganglionic neurons originate...
2. Fibers pass through...
3. Converge to form...
4. ___ converge on the collateral ganglia

1. in the inferior thoracic and superior lumbar areas of the spinal cord
2. the sympathetic chain ganglia without synapsing
2. the greater, lesser, and lumbar splanchnic nerves
4. Splanchnic nerves


Functions of the Collateral Ganglia(6)

1. Reduction of flow of blood to the visceral organs
2. Decrease in activity of the digestive organs
3. Stimulation of the release of glucose from glycogen in the liver
4. Stimulates adipose cells to release energy reserves
5. Relaxation of smooth muscles in the urinary bladder
6. Cause ejaculation in males

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collateral ganglia

1. innervates visceral organs in abdominopelvic cavity
2. postganglionic fibers
3. Splanchnic nerve (preganglionic fibers)
4. lateral gray horn 5. White ramus
6. collateral ganglion


Collateral Ganglion
major effects produced by preganglionic fibers innervating the collateral ganglia (7)

1. • Constriction of small arteries and reduction in the flow of blood to visceral organs
2. • Decrease in the activity of digestive glands and organs
3. • Stimulation of the release of glucose from glycogen reserves in the liver
4. • Stimulation of the release of lipids from adipose tissue
5. • Relaxation of the smooth muscle in the wall of the urinary bladder
6. • Reduction of the rate of urine formation at the kidneys
7. • Control of some aspects of sexual function, such as ejaculation in males


Anatomy of the Collateral Ganglia
Splanchnic nerves innervate:(3)

1. Celiac ganglion
2. Superior mesenteric ganglion
3. Inferior mesenteric ganglion


Anatomy of the Collateral Ganglia
Splanchnic nerves innervate:(3)
1. Celiac ganglion
2. Superior mesenteric ganglion
3. Inferior mesenteric ganglion

1. fibers innervate the stomach, duodenum, liver, gallbladder, pancreas, spleen, and kidney
2. fibers innervate the small intestine and the first parts of the large intestine
3. fibers innervate the kidney, urinary bladder, sex organs, and terminal ends of the large intestine


Sympathetic division
1. Suprarenal Medullae
A. fibers pass through...
B. proceed to...
C. fibers then

A. sympathetic chain and the celiac ganglion without synapsing
B. suprarenal medulla
C. synapse on modified neurons that when stimulated will release neurotransmitters that act as hormones: Epinephrin and NE


Sympathetic division
1. Functions of the suprarenal medullae (4)

1. Increase alertness by activating the reticular activating system
2. Increase cardiovascular and respiratory activity
3. Increase muscle tone
4. Increase the mobilization of energy reserves

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Suprarenal medullae

1. secretes neurotransmitters into general circulation
2. preganglionic fibers
3. endocrine cells (specialized ganglionic neurons)
4. Suprarenal meddulae


Major effect produced by preganglionic fibers innervating the suprarenal medullae:

Release of epinephrine and norepinephrine into the general circulation


Sympathetic activation and neurotransmitter release
1. sympathetic ganglion fibers release...
2. the stimulation of ganglionic neurons causes...
3. some ganglionic neurons also release...

1. ACh at the synapse with ganglionic neurons (Cholinergic synapses)
2. release of NE at the neuroeffector junction (adrenergic)
3. ACh


Summary of the Sympathetic Division
1. consists of...
2. Preganglionic fibers are...
3. Postganglionic fibers are...
4. sympathetic division shows...
5. all preganglionic neurons release _A_, most postganglionic neurons release _B_

1. parallel chains on either side of the spinal cord
2. short and extend from the spinal cord to the sympathetic chain
3. long and extend from the spinal cord to the body organs
4. considerable divergence
5. A. ACh B. norepinephrine


Parasympathetic Division
1. preganglionic neurons are in...
2. preganglionic neurons do not...
3. Making the parasympathetic...
4. postganglionic neurons are...

1. in the brain stem and sacral segments
2. diverge as much as the sympathetic division
3. is more localized and specific as compared to the sympathetic division
4. near (terminal) the target organ or within (intramural) the target organ


Parasympathetic Division
1. preganglionic fibers leave the brain via (4)
2. Preganglionic fibers leave the sacral region via

1. A. oculamotor CN III (to the intrinsic eye muscles, pupil, and lens)
B. Facial CN VII (to the tear glands and salivary glands)
C. Glossopharyngeal CN IX (to the parotid salivary glands)
D. Vagus CN X (to the visceral organs of the thoracic cavity and abdominal cavity)
2. Pelvic nerves (to the visceral organs in the inferior portion of the abdominopelvic cavity)

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parasympathetic division of ANS

1. Preganglionic Neruons 2. Nuclei in brain stem
3. nuclei in spinal cord segments S2-S4
4. Ganglionic Neurons 5. Ciliary ganglion
6. Pteryopalatine and submandibular ganglia
7. optic ganglion 8. intramural ganglia
9. intramural ganglia 10. target organs
11. intrinsic eye muscles (pupil and lense shape)
12. nasal, tear, + salivaary glands
13. parotid salivary glands
14. visceral organs of neck, thoracic cavity, and most of abdominal cavity
15. Visceral organs in inferior portion of abdominopelvic cavity


Functions of the Parasympathetic Division (8)

1. Pupil constriction
2. Secretion of digestive enzymes from digestive glands
3. Increased smooth muscle activity of the digestive system
4. Stimulation and coordination of defecation
5. Contraction of the urinary bladder
6. Constriction of respiratory passages
7. Reduced heart rate
8. Sexual arousal


Parasympathetic Activation and Neurotransmitter Release
1. All preganglionic and postganglionic fibers release...
2. most stimulations are...

1. ACh at their synapses and neuroeffector junctions
2. short lived due to the immediate breakdown of ACh by acetylcholinesterase


Plasmalemma Receptors and Responses
1. Two types of ACh receptors are found on the postsynaptic plasmalemmae

1. Nicotinic receptors
2. Musicarinic receptors


Plasmalemma Receptors and Responses
1. Nicotinic receptors
A. respond to..
B. Found on...
2. Musicarinic receptors
A. respond to...
B. foun on...

1. A. nicotine
B. surfaces of parasympathetic and sympathetic ganglionic neurons
2. A. muscarine
B. surfaces of parasympathetic cholinergic neuroeffector junctions


Relationships between the Sympathetic and Parasympathetic Divisions
1. sympathetic
2. parasympathetic
3. most vital organs oare innervated by...

1. Widespread effect on visceral organs
2. Modifies the activity of structures innervated by specific cranial nerves and pelvic nerves
3. both the sympathetic and parasympathetic nerves

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1. Sympathetic 2. Parasympathetic
3. CNS 4. PNS
5. sympathetic ganglion 6. circulatory system
7. preganglionic neuron 8. preganglionic fiber
9. ganglionic neurons 10 postganglionic fiber
11. target 12. parasympathetic ganglion


Anatomy of Dual Innervation
1. Thoracic and abdominopelvic regions
2. forms... (6)

1. The parasympathetic and sympathetic fibers mingle together forming plexuses
2. A. Cardiac plexus B. Pulmonary plexus
C. Esophageal plexus D. Celiac plexus
E. Inferior mesenteric plexus F. Hypogastric plexus


Visceral Reflexes
1. provide...
2. all are...
3. reflexes can be (2)

1. autonomic motor responses to modify or facilitate higher centers
2. polysynaptic
3. A. long reflexes B. Short reflexes


Visceral Reflexes
1. Long reflexes
A. Visceral sensory neurons go to...
B. there are ___ within CNS
C. info is...
D. ANS sends...

A. CNS via dorsal roots
B. Interneurons
C. interpreted in spinal cord or brain
D. motor commands to visceral organs


Visceral reflexes
2. Short reflexes
A. sensory nerve impulses go to...
B. motor commands are distributed by...
C. impulses...

A. ganglionic neurons
B. postganglionic fibers
C. bypass the CNS