human anatomy chapter 15

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1

1. Ascending Tracts
2. Descending Tracts

1. Sensory, deliver info to brain
2. Motor, deliver info to periphery

2

Naming Tracts:
1. begins with Spino
2, ends with spinal

1. Sensory tract delivering info from spinal cord to brain
2. motor tract delivering info to spinal cord

3

Major Sensory tracts (3)

1. posterior column tract
2. spinothalamic tract
3. spinocerebellar tract

4

The major sensory tracts involve chains of neurons
1. first-order neuron
2. second-order neuron
3. third-order neuron

1. Delivers sensations to the CNS
2. An interneuron with the cell body in the spinal cord or brain
3. Transmits information from the thalamus to the cerebral cortex

5

Neurons in the sensory tracts are arranged according to 3 anatomical principals

1. sensory modality
2. somatotropic
3. medial-lateral rule

6

1. sensory modality
2. somatotropic
3. medial-lateral rule (2)

1. Fine touch sensations are carried in one sensory tract
2. Ascending tracts are arranged according to the site of origin
3. A. Sensory neurons that enter a low level of the spinal cord are more medial within the spinal cord
B. Sensory neurons that enter at a higher level of the spinal cord are more lateral within the spinal cord

7

Posterior column tract
1. fasciculus gracilis
2. fasciculus cuneatus

1. Transmits information coming from areas inferior to T6
2. Transmits information coming from areas superior to T6

8

1. Spinothalamic tract
2. Spinocerebellar tract

1. Transmits pain and temperature sensations to the thalamus and then to the cerebrum
2. Transmits proprioception sensations to the cerebellum

9

Motor commands are delivered by the (2)

1. Somatic Nervous system (SNS)
2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

10

Motor commands are delivered by the
1. Somatic Nervous system (SNS)
2. Autonomic Nervous System (ANS)

1. directs contraction of skeletal muscles
2. directs the activity of glands, smooth muscles, and cardiac muscle

11

Motor tracts
1. are...
2. there are 2 major ^^

1. Descending tracts
2. A. Corticospinal tract
B. Subconscious tract

12

motor tracts
1. Corticospinal tract
2. Subconscious tract

1. Conscious control of skeletal muscles
2. Subconscious regulation of balance, muscle tone, eye, hand, and upper limb position

13

Cortiospinal tracts
consists of 3 pairs of descending tracts

1. Corticobulbar tracts
2. Lateral corticospinal tracts
3. Anterior corticospinal tracts

14

Cortiospinal tracts
consists of 3 pairs of descending tracts
1. Corticobulbar tracts
2. Lateral corticospinal tracts
3. Anterior corticospinal tracts

1. conscious control over eye, jaw, and face muscles
2. conscious control over skeletal muscles
3. conscious control over skeletal muscles

15

Subconscious Motor Tracts
Consists of 4 tracts involved in monitoring the subconscious motor control

1. Vestibulospinal tracts
2. Tectospinal tracts
3. Reticulospinal tracts
4. Rubrospinal tracts

16

The Subconscious Motor Tracts
1. vestibulospinal tracts
A. send info from
B. _I_ respond by _II_

1. the inner ear to monitor position of the head
2. I. Vestibular nuclei
II. altering muscle tone, neck muscle contraction, and limbs for posture and balance

17

Subconscious Motor Tracts
2. Tectospinal tracts
A. Sends info to
B. The tectum area consists of...(2)

A. head, neck, and upper limbs in response to bright and sudden movements and loud noises
B. I. Superior colliculi
II. Inferior colliculi

18

1. superior colliculi
2. inferior colliculi

1. receives visual information
2. receives auditory information

19

Subconscious Motor Tracts
1. Reticulospinal tracts
2. Rubrospinal tracts

1. Send information to cause eye movements and activate respiratory muscles
2. Send information to the flexor and extensor muscles

20

Summary of somatic motor control
_A_ initiates _B_. Info goes to _C_ and _D_. these structures _E_ and _F_ movements so they are performed in a smooth manner

A. Cerebral cortex B. Voluntary movement
C. Basal nuclei D. Cerebellum
E. modify F. coordinate

21

Summary of somatic motor control
Info goes from _A_ and _B_ to the _C_ to constantly monitor position and muscle tone

A. basal nuclei B. cerebellum
C. Cerebral cortex

22

Summary of somatic motor control
1. Thalamus
2. Hypothalamus
3. Pons

1. Controls reflexes associated with visual and auditory stimuli
2. Responds to hunger, thirst, and sexual activity
3. Regulates the rhythmic breathing patterns

23

Summary of somatic motor control
1. medulla oblongata
2. brain stem
3. spinal cord

1. Alters the breathing patterns
2. Controls simple reflexes
3. Controls simple reflexes