human anatomy chapter 16

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1

The brain is...
1. consists of...

a complex three-dimensional structure that performs a bewildering array of functions
1. roughly 20 billion neurons

2

Embryology of the brain
1. The CNS begins as
2. The lumen of the tube (__A__) is filled with __B__

1. a neural tube
2. A. neurocoel
B. Fluid

3

Embryology of the brain
In the fourth week of development, the cephalic area of the neural tube enlarges to form: (3)

1. Prosencephalon
2. Mesencephalon
3. Rhombencephalon

4

Embryology of the brain
Prosencephalon eventually develops to form

1. Telencephalon
2. Diencephalon

5

Embryology of the brain
1. Telencephalon forms the...
2. Diencephalon forms the...

1. cerebrum
2. epithalamus, thalamus, and hypothalamus

6

Embryology of the brain
Mesencephalon
1. does not...
2. Becomes...

1. subdivide
2. midbrain

7

Embryology of the brain
Rhombencephalon
1. eventually develops from... (2)

1. Metencephalon
2. Myelencephalon

8

Embryology of the brain
Rhombencephalon
1. Metencephalon forms
2. Myelencephalon forms

1. pons and cerebellum
2. medulla oblongata

9
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1. cerebrum 2. DIENCEPHALON 3. thalamus
4. hypothalamus 5. MESENCEPHALON 6. Pons
7. MEDULLA OBLONGATA 8. Cerebellum

10

Major Regions and Landmarks of the Brain (5)

1. Medulla oblongata
2. Pons
3. Cerebellum
4. Mesencephalon (midbrain)
5. Diencephalon
6. Cerebrum (telencephalon)

11

Medulla oblongata functions (2)

1. Relays information to the thalamus and brain stem
2. Regulates visceral function

12

Pons functions (2)

1. Relays information to the thalamus and cerebellum
2. Regulates subconscious somatic and visceral motor centers

13

Cerebellum functions (2)

1. Coordinates somatic motor function
2. Adjusts output of somatic motor centers resulting in smooth operation

14

Mesencephalon (midbrain) functions (2)

1. Processes visual and auditory data
2. Maintains consciousness and alertness

15

Diencephalon includes

1. epithalamus
2. thalamus
3. hypothalamus

16

Functions of
1. epithalamus
2. thalamus (2)
3. hypothalamus

1. Contains the pineal gland
2. A. Relays information to the cerebrum
B. Processes sensory information
3. Involved in emotions, thirst, some habitual activity

17

Telencephalon (cerebrum)functions (3)

1. Conscious thought processes
2. Memory storage
3. Conscious regulation of skeletal muscle contractions

18

the cerebrum consists of
1. grey matter =
2. white matter =
3. grey matter consists of

1. inner region
2. tracts that surround grey matter
3. cell bodies

19

1. Ventricles
2. filled with
3. Functions

1. Fluid filled cavities
2. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)
3. A. transport of nutrients to and waste from CNS
B. Protection

20

four ventricles
1. ventricle 1 and 2
2. ventricle 3
3. ventricle 4

1. lateral ventricles: in the cerebral hemispheres
2. in the diencephalon
3. between the pons and the cerebellum

21

Septum Pellucidum

what separates the cerebral hemispheres and the lateral ventricles

22

1. ventricles 1 and 2 communicates with..
2. third ventricle communicates with...
3. 4th ventricle communicates with...

1. third ventricle
2. fourth ventricle
3. central canal of the spinal cord

23
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1. lat. vent. 2. anterior horns of lat. vent.
3. post. horns of lat vent. 4. third vent.
5. inf. horns of lat vent. 6. fourth vent.

24
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1. lateral ventricles 2. third ventricle
3. inferior horn of lateral ventricles
4. fourth ventricle

25

Protection and support of the brain involves (4)

1. bones of skull
2. cranial meninges
3. cerebrospinal fluid
4. blood-brain barrier

26

Cranial Meninges
two layers

1. Endosteal layer
2. meningeal layer

27

Cranial Meninges layers
1. Endosteal layer
2. Meningeal layer

1. layer felt within the anterior fontanel of a baby
2. space b/t the two layers called the dural sinus

28

meningeal layer forms folds called (4)

1. falx cerebri
2. tentorium cerebelli
3. falx cerebelli
4. diaphragma sellae

29

meningeal layer forms folds
1. falx cerebri
A. _____ portion attaches to the crista gali
B. _____ portion attaches to the internal occipital crest and the tentorium cerebelli

1. meningeal layer that extends into the longitudinal fissure
A. Inferior/ anterior
B. inferior/posterior

30

Meningeal layer forms folds
2. Tentorium Cerebelli
A. extends across the ________ to the falx cerebri

1. separates the cerebellar hemispheres from the cerebral hemispheres.
A. cranium at right angles to the

31

meningeal layer forms folds
3. falx cerebelli

3. Extends from the tentorium cerebelli to separate the cerebellar hemispheres

32

meningeal layer forms folds
4. diaphragma sellae
A. it anchors...
B . it encases...

4. lines the sella turcicia of the sphenoid bone
A. the dura mater to the sphenoid bone
B. the pituitary gland

33
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1. dura mater 2. subdural space
3. arachnoid mater 4. subarachnoid space
5. pia mater 6. cerebral cortex

34
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1. falx cerebri 2. tentorium cerebelli
3. superior saggital sinus 4. transverse sinus
5. falx cerebelli 6. dura mater
7. diaphragma sellae 8. pituitary gland
9. tella turcica of sphenoid

35
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1. dura mater 2. arachnoid mater
3. pia mater 4. superior sagittal sinus
5. subdural space 6. arachnoid granulation
7. falx cerebri 8. subarachnoid space

36

Cranial Meninges: the arachnoid mater
1. arachnoid granulations
2. CSF flows through these to enter
3. these __A__ fibers anchor...

1. projections
2. into blood circulation
3. A. collagenous
B.cerebral blood vessels

37
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1. arachnoid mater 2. arachnoid trabecula
3. cerebral vein 4. pia mater
5. perivascular space

38

Cranial Meninges:Pia Mater
1. attached to
2. follows..
3. helps to anchor...

1. the surface of the brain
2. sulci and gyri of the brain
3. larger blood vessels of the cerebrum

39

Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF)
functions (4)

1. protection of brain and spinal cord
2. support
3. transport of nutrients to and waste away from the CNS

40

Formation of CSF
1. Produced by __A__ of the __B__
2. They actively...
3. they actively...

1. A. ependymal cells
B. choroid plexus
2. transport nutrients, vitamins, and ions into CSF
3.remove waste from the CSF

41
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1. nutrients 2. waste products
3. waste products 4. nutrients
5. choroid plexus 6. capillary
7. ependymal cells

42

Circulation of CSF
CSF from _A_ of the _B_ -> _C_ -> _D_ -> _E_ -> _F_ -> through the _G_ and _H_ and _I_ of the spinal cord -> _J_ -> flows around the brain and Spinal cord eventually enters circulation via _k_

A. Choroid plexus B. lateral ventricles
C. Interventricular foramen D. third ventricle
E. aqueduct of the midbrain F. fourth ventricle
G. lateral aperature H. Median aperature
I. Central canal J. subarachnoid space
K. Arachnoid granulations

43

Blood-Brain Barrier

the lining of the blood vessels consist of endothelial cells that are highly interconnected by tight junctions

44

Medulla oblongata
1. continuous with...
2. Nuclei in medulla oblongata are... (3)

1. the spinal cord to the brain stem
2. A. Relay stations for sensory or motor pathways
B. associated with cranial nerves connected to the medulla oblongata
C. assiciated with autonomic control of visceral organs

45

The Medulla Oblongata
Relay stations (3)

1. nucleus gracilis
2. nucleus cutaneatus
3. olivary nuclei

46

Medulla Oblongata
1. Nucleus gracilis and nucleus cuneatus
2. olivary nuclei

1. pass sensory info to the thalamus
2. pass info to the cerebrum, diencephalon, and brain stem

47

Medulla oblongata
contains sensory and motor nuclei of cranial nerve (5)

1. Vestibulococochlear VIII 2. Glossopharyngeal IX
3. Vagus X 4. Accessory XI
5. Hypoglossal XII

48

medulla oblongata
Autonomic nuclei
major centers include (2)

1. cardiovascular centers
2. Respiratory centers

49
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1. olivary nuclei 2. cardiovascular centers
3. solitary nucleus 4. nucleus cuneatus
5. nucleus gracilis 6. pons

50
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1. Olivary nucleus 2. cardiocascular centers
3. solitary nucleus 4. nucleus cuneatus
5. nucleus gracillis 6. pons

51

Pons
consists of... (4)

1. sensory and motor nuclei of 4 cranial nerves
2. nuclei involved with involuntary control for breathing (2)
3. nuclei that relay cerebellar commands (1)
4. ascending, descending, and transverse tracts

52

Pons
consists of
1. Sensory and motor nuclei for cranial nerves (4)

1. trigeminal V 2. Abducens VI
3. Facial VII 4. Vestibulococochlear VIII

53

Pons
consists of
2. nuclei involved with involuntary control of breathing (2)

1. Apneustic Center 2. Pneumotaxic center

54

Pons
consist of
3. nuclei that relay cerebellar commands

1. Cerebellar peduncles

55
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1. ascending tracts 2. transverse fibers
3. pneumotaxic center 4. apneustic center

56

Mesencephalon (midbrain)
consists of: (2)

1. two pairs of nuclei collectively called corpora quadrigemina
2. nuclei of the reticular formination

57

Mesencephalon (midbrain)
corpora quadrigemina
1. responsible for...
2. Inferior colliculus
3. Superior colliculus

1. processing auditory and visual stimuli
2. where auditory processing occurs
3. where visual processing occurs

58

Mesencephalon (midbrain)
consists of: (3)

1. Red nucleus
2. substantia nigra
3. cerebral peduncles

59

Mesencephalon (midbrain)
consists of
1. Red nucleus
2. Substantia nigra
3. Cerebral Peduncles

1. integrates information b/w the cerebrum and cerebellum
2. regulates motor output of the basal nuclei
3. have ascending fibers that synapse in the thalamus and descending fibers of the corticospinal pathway

60
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1. cerebral peduncle 2. substantia nigra
3. red nucleus 4. inferior colliculus
5. pineal gland 6. superior colliculus
7. reticular formation

61

Diencephalon
consists of 3 glands

1. epithalamus
2. thalamus
3. hypothalamus

62

Diencephalon
1. Epithalamus
A. forms
B. contains

A. the roof of the third ventricle
B. pineal gland
1. produces the hormone melatonin
2. regulates our day/night cycles

63

Diencephalon
2. Thalamus
A. Forms..
B. there is a...
C. ___ are egg-shaped

A. walls of the third ventricle
B. right and left thalamus
C. Thalamic nuclei

64

Diencephalon
2. Thalamus
A. each thalamic nucleus is divided into: (5)

I. Anterior group II. medial group
III. ventral group IV. posterior group
V. lateral group

65

Diencephalon
2. thalamus
I. Anterior group
II. medial group
III. ventral group
IV. posterior group
V. lateral

I. part of the limbic system
II. relays info to the frontal lobe
III. relays info to the parietal lobes
IV. relays infor to occipital lobe
V. adjusts activity in the cingulate gyrus

66

Diencephalon
3. hypothalamus
A. forms
B. consists of
C. Consists of an Infundibulum which...
D. consists of the ___ on the posterior wall of the hypothalamus

A. the floor of the third ventricle
B. numerous nuclei
C. connects to the pituitary gland
D, Mamillary body

67
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1. Mamillary body 2. infundibulum
3. tuberal nuclei 4. supraoptic nucleus
5. Autonomic centers 6. preoptic area
7. paraventricular nucleus 7. autonomic centers

68

Cerebellum
consists of (7)

1. two hemispheres 2. folia
3. anterior and posterior lobes
4. vermis 5. flocculonodular lobes
6. arbor vitae 7. cerebellar peduncles

69
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1. anterior lobe 2. arbor vitae
3. cerebellar nucleus 4. cerebellar cortex
5. posterior lobe 6. flocculonodular lobe
7. superior cerebellar peduncle
8. middle cerebellar peduncle
9. inferior cerebellar peduncles

70

The cerebellum
1. Cerebellar cortex
2. arbor vitae
3. superior cerebellar peduncles
4. middle cerebellar peduncles
5. inferior cerebellar peduncles

1. subconscious coordination of movements
2. connects cerebellar cortex with cerebellar peduncles
3. communicate between cerebellum and pons
4. connect cerebellum with mesencephalon, diencephalon, and cerebrum
5. connect cerebellum with the medulla oblongata

71

the cerebrum consists of (7)

1. Two hemispheres 2. Several lobes
Frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
3. Gyri and sulci 4. Longitudinal fissure
5. Corpus callosum 6. Basal nuclei
7. Limbic system

72

Cerebral hemispheres
the cerebral lobe functions
1. frontal
2. occipital
3. parietal
4. temporal

1. perception of visual stimuli
2. conscious control of skeletal muscles
3. conscious perception of touch, pressure, vibration, pain, temperature, and taste
4. conscious perception of auditory and olfactory stimuli

73

the Cerebrum
Precentral gyrus

1. Anterior to the central gyrus
2. Neurons direct voluntary movements by controlling somatic motor neurons in the brain stem and spinal cord

74

the Cerebrum
postcentral gyrus

1. Posterior to the central gyrus
2. Neurons receive somatic sensory information for touch, pressure, pain, taste, and temperature from the dorsal columns and spinothalamic tracts

75

Hemispheric Specialization
1. Left hemisphere
2. Right hemisphere

1. Speech center, writing, language, mathematics
2. Analysis by touch, spatial visualization

76

bundles of the central white matter
1. Association fibers
2. Commissural fibers
3. Projection fibers

1. tracts that interconnect areas of neural cortex within a hemisphere (arcuate fibers and longitudinal fasciculi)
2. tracts that connect the two hemispheres (anterior commissure and corpus callosum)
3. tracts that link the cerebrum with other regions of the brain and spinal cord

77

Cerebrum basal nuclei

These are masses of gray matter embedded in the white matter inferior to the lateral ventricles

78

cerebrum basal nuclei

These are masses of gray matter embedded in the white matter inferior to the lateral ventricles

79

cerebrum basal nuclei consist of (5)

1. Caudate nucleus
2. Amygdaloid body
3. Claustrum
4. Putamen
5. Globus pallidus

80

cerebrum basal nuclei consist of
1. Caudate nucleus
2. Amygdaloid body
3. Claustrum
4. Putamen
5. Globus pallidus

1. Control the cycles of arm and leg movements when walking
2. Plays a role in subconscious processing of visual information
3. Component of the limbic system

81
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1. head of cuadate nucleus 2. claustrum
3. insula 4. putamen
5. Globus pallidus 6. corpus collosum
7. Septum pellucidum 8. Internal capsule
9. Lateral sulcus 10.Anterior commissure
11. Amygdaloid body

82

the cerebrum
The Limbic System

Located between the cerebrum and the diencephalon just superior to the corpus callosum

83

the cerebrum
The Limbic System functions (3)

1. Establishes emotional states
2. Links the conscious functions with the unconscious autonomic functions
3. Facilitates memory storage and retrieval

84
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1. corpus callosum 2. fornix
3. interthalamic adhesion 4. cingulate gyrus
5. pineal gland 6. thalamus
7. hypothalamus 8. temporal lobe
9. parahippocampal gyrus 10. hippocampus
11. mamillary body

85

the cerebrum
The Limbic System consists of (3)

1. Cingulate gyrus
2. Dentate gyrus
3. Parahippocampal gyrus
4. Hippocampus

86
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1. corpus callosum 2. fornix
3. interthalamic adhesion 4. cingulate gyrus
5. pineal gland 6. thalamus
7. hypothalamus 8. temporal lobe
9. parahippocampal gyrus 10. hippocampus
11. mamillary body

87

The Limbic System
The fornix
1. tracts of
2. connects
3. many fornix fibers extend to...
4. mamillary bodies control...

1. white matter
2. hippocampus with the hypothalamus
3. to the mamillary bodies
4. control reflex movements associated with eating

88
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I. olfactory N 2. olfactory tract
3. optic chiasm II. optic N
III. oculomotor N IV. trochlear N
V. trigeminal N VI. Abducens N
VII. facial N VIII. vestibulococochlear N
IX. Glossopharyngeal N X. Vagus N
XI. Hypoglossal N XII. Accessory N

89

cranial Nerve I: olfactory
1. Destination:
2. Foramen:
3. Function:
4. Origin:

1. sensory (smell)
2. olfactory epithelium
3. olfactory foramina
4. olfactory bulbs

90

Cranial Nerve II: Optic
1. Destination:
2. Foramen:
3. Function:
4. Origin:

1. diencephalon, then to occipital lobe
2. optic canal
3. sensory (vision)
4. Retina

91

Cranial nerve III: Oculomotor
1. Function
2. Origin:
3. Foramen:
4. Destination:

1. controls extra-ocular eye muscles
2. mesencephalon
3. superior orbital fissure
4. extra-ocular eye muscles

92

Cranial Nerve IV: Trochlear
1. Function
2. Origin:
3. Foramen:
4. Destination:

1. controls extra-ocular eye muscles
2. mesencephalon
3. superior orbital fissure
4. extra-ocular eye muscles

93

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal
1. Function (3)
2. Origin

1. A. Ophthalmic: sensations from the forehead, eyelids, and nose
B. Maxillary: sensations from lower eyelid, upper lip, and cheek
C. Mandibular: controls mastication
2. ophthalmic, maxillary, and mandibular nerves

94

Cranial Nerve V: Trigeminal
3. Foramen (3)
4. Destination (2)

1. A. Ophthalmic: superior orbital fissure
B. Maxillary: foramen rotundum
C. Mandibular: foramen ovale
2. A. Ophthalmic and maxillary: Pons
B. Mandibular: mandibular muscles

95

cranial nerve VI: Abducens
1. Function:
2. Origin:
3. Foramen:
4. Destination:

1. controls eye movements
2. pons
3. superior orbital fissure
4. innervates the lateral rectus eye muscle

96

Cranial Nerve VII: Facial
1. Function: (2)
2. Origin: (2)
3. Foramen:
4. Destination: (2)

1. A. Sensory: sensations from the face / taste
B. Motor: controls muscles of the face
2. A. Sensory: taste buds
B. Motor: pons
3. internal acoustic meatus
4. A. Sensory: pons
B. Motor: muscles of the face

97

Cranial Nerve VIII: Vestibulocochlear
1. Function:
2. Origin:
3. Foramen:
4. Destination:

1. Sensory: balance and hearing
2. receptors of the vestibule and cochlea
3. internal acoustic meatus
4. pons

98

Cranial Nerves IX: Glossopharyngeal
1. Function:
2. Origin:

1. A. Sensory function: tongue pain
B. Motor function: swallowing
2. A. Sensory: posterior 1/3 of the tongue
B. Motor: salivary gland

99

Cranial Nerves IX: Glossopharyngeal
3. Foramen
4. Destination (3)

3. jugular foramen
4. A. Sensory: pons
B. Visceral motor: parotid salivary gland
C. Somatic motor: pharyngeal muscles for swallowing

100

Cranial Nerves X: Vagus
1. function (2)
2. origin (2)

1. A. Sensory: information from organs
B. Motor: sends information to the organs
2. A. Sensory: from the organs
B. Motor: medulla oblongata

101

Cranial Nerves X: Vagus
3. foramen
4. Destination (3)

3. jugular foramen
4. A. Sensory: autonomic centers of the medulla oblongata
B. Somatic motor: muscles of the palate and pharynx
C. Visceral motor: respiratory, cardiovascular, and digestive organs

102

Cranial Nerves XI: Accessory
1. Function
2. Origin
3. Foramen
4. Destination (2)

1. Motor: controls the sternocleidomastoid, trapezius, palate, pharynx, and larynx muscles
2. spinal cord and medulla oblongata
3. jugular foramen
4. A. Internal branch: muscles of the palate, pharynx, and larynx
B. External branch: sternocleidomastoid and trapezius muscles

103

Cranial Nerve XII: Hypoglossal
1. Function:
2. Origin:
3. Foramen
4. Destination

1. Motor: controls tongue movement
2. medulla oblongata
3. tongue muscles
4. hypoglossal canal