an economic system characterised by social ownership of the means of production and co-operative management of the economy
period of Queen Victoria's reign from 20 June 1837 until her death on 22 January 1901. It was a long period of peace, prosperity, refined sensibilities and national self-confidence for Britain
a belief, creed or political ideology that involves a strong identification of a group of individuals with a nation
Culture of Consumption
conflict between the Russian Empire and an alliance of the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire, and the Kingdom of Sardinia. The war was part of a long-running contest between major European powers for influence over territories of the declining Ottoman Empire
Emancipation of Serfs
1861 in Russia, the first and most important of liberal reforms effected during the reign of Alexander II of Russia. The reform, together with a related reform in 1861, amounted to the liquidation of serf dependence previously suffered by peasants of the Russian Empire
an unequal human and territorial relationship, usually in the form of an empire, based on ideas of superiority and practices of dominance, and involving the extension of authority and control of one state or people over another
Venezuelan military and political leader. played a key role in Latin America's successful struggle for independence from the Spanish Empire, and is today considered one of the most influential politicians in the history of the Americas.
period halfway through the 19th century in the history of Mexico that was characterized by liberal reforms designed to modernize Mexico and make it into a nation state. The major goals in this movement were: Land reform—redistribution of land, separation of church and state, and increased educational opportunities for the poor, the majority of the country's population
second and last ruler of the Empire of Brazil,turned into an emerging power in the international arena on account of its political stability, zealously guarded freedom of speech, respect for civil rights, vibrant economic growth and especially for its form of government: a functional, representative parliamentary monarchy.
Law of the Free Womb
passed by the Brazilian Parliament. It was intended to provide freedom to all newborn children of slaves, and slaves of the state or crown. Slaveholders of the children’s parents were to provide care for the children until the age of 21, or turn them over to the state in return for monetary compensation.
an anti-foreign, proto-nationalist movement by the Righteous Harmony Society in China between 1899 and 1901, opposing foreign imperialism and Christianity. The uprising took place against a background of severe drought and economic disruption in response to growth of foreign spheres of influence
First Opium War
known popularly as the First Opium War or simply the Opium War, was fought between the United Kingdom and the Qing Dynasty of China over their conflicting viewpoints on diplomatic relations, trade, and the administration of justice.
massive civil war in southern China from 1850 to 1864, against the ruling Manchu-led Qing Dynasty. It was led by Hong Xiuquan, who announced that he had received visions in which he learned that he was the younger brother of Jesus.
Cixi (Empress Dowager)
of the Manchu Yehenara clan, was a powerful and charismatic woman who unofficially but effectively controlled the Manchu Qing Dynasty in China for 47 years, from 1861 to her death in 1908.
Indian Revolt of 1857
began as a mutiny of sepoys of the East India Company's army on 10 May 1857, in the town of Meerut, and soon escalated into other mutinies and civilian rebellions largely in the upper Gangetic plain and central India, with the major hostilities confined to present-day Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, northern Madhya Pradesh, and the Delhi region
The Russo- Japanese War
1904-1905, grew out of rival imperial ambitions of the Russian Empire and the Empire of Japan over Manchuria and Korea, the Japanese military attained victory over the Russian forces arrayed against them, were unexpected by world observers. the consequences of these battles would transform the balance of power in East Asia, resulting in a reassessment of Japan's recent entry onto the world stage.
Sultan Mahmud II
he 30th Sultan of the Ottoman Empire from 1808 until his death in 1839, notable mostly for the extensive administrative, military and fiscal reforms he instituted
an artificial sea-level waterway in Egypt, connecting the Mediterranean Sea and the Red Sea. Opened in November 1869 after 10 years of construction work, it allows transportation by water between Europe and Asia without navigation around Africa
End of the Atlantic Slave Trade
The United States Congress passed the Slave Trade Act of 1794, which prohibited the building or outfitting of ships in the U.S. for use in the slave trade. In 1807 Congress outlawed the importation of slaves beginning on January 1, 1808, the earliest date permitted by the United States Constitution for such a ban.
The Zulu Kingdom
monarchy in Southern Africa that extended along the coast of the Indian Ocean from the Tugela River in the south to Pongola River in the north. Came into conflict with the British Empire in the 1870s during the Anglo-Zulu War, defeated
the descendants of the Dutch-speaking settlers of the eastern Cape frontier in Southern Africa during the 18th century,