Psychological Disorders

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Psychology
Chapter 15
Vocabulary
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1

Psychological Disorder

deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional patterns of thoughts, feelings, or behaviors

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Medical Model

the concept that diseases have physical causes that can be diagnosed, treated, and in most cases, cured

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DSM-IV-TR

the American Psychiatric Association's Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition, with an updated "text revision"; widely used system for classifying psychological disorders

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Anxiety Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety

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Generalized Anxiety Disorder

an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal

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Panic Disorder

an anxiety disorder marked my unpredictable, minutes-long episodes of intense dread in which a person experiences terror and accompanying chest pain, choking, or other frightening sensations

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Phobia

an anxiety disorder marked by a persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object, activity, or situation.

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Obsessive Compulsive Disorder (OCD)

an anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and/or actions

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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

and anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdraw, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience

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Post-Traumatic Growth

positive psychological changes as a result of struggling with extremely challenging circumstances and life crises

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Mood Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by emotional extremes

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Major Depressive Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person experiences, in the absence of drugs or another medical condition, two or more weeks of significantly depressed moods diminished interest or pleasure in most activities, along with at least four other symptoms.

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Mania

a mood disorder marked by a hyperactive, widely optimistic state

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Bipolar Disorder

a mood disorder in which a person alternates between hopelessness and lethargy of depression and the overexcited state of mania

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Schizophrenia

a group of severe disorders characterized by disorganized and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and behaviors

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Psychosis

a psychological disorder in which a person loses contact with reality, experiencing irrational ideas and distorted perceptions

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Delusions

false beliefs, often of persecution or grandeur, that may accompany psychotic disorders

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Dissociation Disorders

disorders in which conscious awareness becomes separated from previous memories, thoughts and feelings

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Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)

a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities

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Personality Disorders

psychological disorders characterized by inflexible and enduring behavior patterns that impair social functioning

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Antisocial Personality Disorder

a personality disorder in which a person exhibits a lack of conscience for wrongdoing, even toward friends and family members.